Positive Solutions for Boundary Value Problems of Fourth-Order Nonlinear Singular Differential Equations in Banach Space
In this paper, by constructing a special non-empty closed convex set and utilizing M¨onch fixed point theory, we investigate the existence of solution for a class of fourth-order singular differential equation in Banach space, which improved and generalized the result of related paper.
Properties of a Stochastic Predator-Prey System with Holling II Functional Response
In this paper, a stochastic predator-prey system with Holling II functional response is studied. First, we show that there is a unique positive solution to the system for any given positive initial value. Then, stochastically bounded of the positive solution to the stochastic system is derived. Moreover, sufficient conditions for global asymptotic stability are also established. In the end, some simulation figures are carried out to support the analytical findings.
Some Preconditioners for Block Pentadiagonal Linear Systems Based on New Approximate Factorization Methods
In this paper, getting an high-efficiency parallel algorithm to solve sparse block pentadiagonal linear systems suitable for vectors and parallel processors, stair matrices are used to construct some parallel polynomial approximate inverse preconditioners. These preconditioners are appropriate when the desired target is to maximize parallelism. Moreover, some theoretical results about these preconditioners are presented and how to construct preconditioners effectively for any nonsingular block pentadiagonal H-matrices is also described. In addition, the availability of these preconditioners is illustrated with some numerical experiments arising from two dimensional biharmonic equation.
Analysis of GI/M(n)/1/N Queue with Single Working Vacation and Vacation Interruption
This paper presents a finite buffer renewal input single working vacation and vacation interruption queue with state dependent services and state dependent vacations, which has a wide range of applications in several areas including manufacturing, wireless communication systems. Service times during busy period, vacation period and vacation times are exponentially distributed and are state dependent. As a result of the finite waiting space, state dependent services and state dependent vacation policies, the analysis of these queueing models needs special attention. We provide a recursive method using the supplementary variable technique to compute the stationary queue length distributions at pre-arrival and arbitrary epochs. An efficient computational algorithm of the model is presented which is fast and accurate and easy to implement. Various performance measures have been discussed. Finally, some special cases and numerical results have been depicted in the form of tables and graphs.
Reliability Approximation through the Discretization of Random Variables using Reversed Hazard Rate Function
Sometime it is difficult to determine the exact reliability for complex systems in analytical procedures. Approximate solution of this problem can be provided through discretization of random variables. In this paper we describe the usefulness of discretization of a random variable using the reversed hazard rate function of its continuous version. Discretization of the exponential distribution has been demonstrated. Applications of this approach have also been cited. Numerical calculations indicate that the proposed approach gives very good approximation of reliability of complex systems under stress-strength set-up. The performance of the proposed approach is better than the existing discrete concentration method of discretization. This approach is conceptually simple, handles analytic intractability and reduces computational time. The approach can be applied in manufacturing industries for producing high-reliable items.
UPFC Supplementary Controller Design Using Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm for Damping Low Frequency Oscillations in Power Systems
This paper presents a systematic approach for designing Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) based supplementary damping controllers for damping low frequency oscillations in a single-machine infinite-bus power system. Detailed investigations have been carried out considering the four alternatives UPFC based damping controller namely modulating index of series inverter (mB), modulating index of shunt inverter (mE), phase angle of series inverter (δB ) and phase angle of the shunt inverter (δE ). The design problem of the proposed controllers is formulated as an optimization problem and Real- Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) is employed to optimize damping controller parameters. Simulation results are presented and compared with a conventional method of tuning the damping controller parameters to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed design approach.
Analytical Subthreshold Drain Current Model Incorporating Inversion Layer Effective Mobility Model for Pocket Implanted Nano Scale n-MOSFET
Carrier scatterings in the inversion channel of MOSFET dominates the carrier mobility and hence drain current. This paper presents an analytical model of the subthreshold drain current incorporating the effective electron mobility model of the pocket implanted nano scale n-MOSFET. The model is developed by assuming two linear pocket profiles at the source and drain edges at the surface and by using the conventional drift-diffusion equation. Effective electron mobility model includes three scattering mechanisms, such as, Coulomb, phonon and surface roughness scatterings as well as ballistic phenomena in the pocket implanted n-MOSFET. The model is simulated for various pocket profile and device parameters as well as for various bias conditions. Simulation results show that the subthreshold drain current data matches the experimental data already published in the literature.
A Model for Test Case Selection in the Software-Development Life Cycle
Software maintenance is one of the essential processes of Software-Development Life Cycle. The main philosophies of retaining software concern the improvement of errors, the revision of codes, the inhibition of future errors, and the development in piece and capacity. While the adjustment has been employing, the software structure has to be retested to an upsurge a level of assurance that it will be prepared due to the requirements. According to this state, the test cases must be considered for challenging the revised modules and the whole software. A concept of resolving this problem is ongoing by regression test selection such as the retest-all selections, random/ad-hoc selection and the safe regression test selection. Particularly, the traditional techniques concern a mapping between the test cases in a test suite and the lines of code it executes. However, there are not only the lines of code as one of the requirements that can affect the size of test suite but including the number of functions and faulty versions. Therefore, a model for test case selection is developed to cover those three requirements by the integral technique which can produce the smaller size of the test cases when compared with the traditional regression selection techniques.
CFD Investigation of the Effects of Re-Entrant Combustion Chamber Geometry in a HSDI Diesel Engine
A CFD simulation has applied to explore the effects of combustion chamber geometry on engine performance and pollutant emissions in a HSDI diesel engine. Three ITs (Injection Timing) at 2.65 CA BTDC, 0.65 CA BTDC and 1.35 CA ATDC, all with 30 crank angle pilot separations has firstly considered to identify the optimum IT for achieving the minimum amount of pollutant emissions. In order to investigate the effect of combustion chamber, thirteen different piston bowl configurations have been designed and analyzed. For all the studied cases, compression ratio, squish bowl volume and the amount of injected fuel were kept constant to assure that variation in the engine performance were only caused by geometric parameters. The results showed that by changing the geometric parameters on piston bowl, the amount of emission pollutants can be decreased while the other performance parameters of engine remain constant.
Process Parameters Optimization for Pulsed TIG Welding of 70/30 Cu-Ni Alloy Welds Using Taguchi Technique
Taguchi approach was applied to determine the most influential control factors which will yield better tensile strength of the joints of pulse TIG welded 70/30 Cu-Ni alloy. In order to evaluate the effect of process parameters such as pulse frequency, peak current, base current and welding speed on tensile strength of Pulsed current TIG welded 70/30 Cu-Ni alloy of 5 mm thickness, Taguchi parametric design and optimization approach was used. Through the Taguchi parametric design approach, the optimum levels of process parameters were determined at 95% confidence level. The results indicate that the Pulse frequency, peak current, welding speed and base current are the significant parameters in deciding the tensile strength of the joint. The predicted optimal values of tensile strength of Pulsed current Gas tungsten arc welding (PC GTAW) of 70/30 Cu-Ni alloy welds are 368.8MPa.
Exact Analysis of Resonance Frequencies of Simply Supported Cylindrical Shells
In order to study the free vibration of simply supported circular cylindrical shells; an analytical procedure is developed and discussed in detail. To identify its’ validity, the exact technique was applied to four different shell theories 1) Soedel, 2) Flugge, 3) Morley-Koiter, and 4) Donnell. The exact procedure was compared favorably with experimental results and those obtained using the numerical finite element method. A literature review reveals that beam functions are used extensively as an approximation for simply supported boundary conditions. The effects of this approximate method were also investigated on the natural frequencies by comparing results with those of the exact analysis.
Magnetohydrodynamic Free Convection in a Square Cavity Heated from Below and Cooled from Other Walls
Magnetohydrodynamic free convection fluid flow and heat transfer in a square cavity filled with an electric conductive fluid with Prandtl number of 0.7 has been investigated numerically. The horizontal bottom wall of the cavity was kept at Th while the side and the top walls of the cavity were maintained at a constant temperature Tc with Th>Tc. The governing equations written in terms of the primitive variables were solved numerically using the finite volume method while the SIMPLER algorithm was used to couple the velocity and pressure fields. Using the developed code, a parametric study was performed, and the effects of the Rayleigh number and the Hartman number on the fluid flow and heat transfer inside the cavity were investigated. The obtained results showed that temperature distribution and flow pattern inside the cavity depended on both strength of the magnetic field and Rayleigh number. For all cases two counter rotating eddies were formed inside the cavity. The magnetic field decreased the intensity of free convection and flow velocity. Also it was found that for higher Rayleigh numbers a relatively stronger magnetic field was needed to decrease the heat transfer through free convection.
The Thought of Islamic Literature in Modern Malaysian Literature
This study aims to investigate the emergence of the thought of Islamic literature in the development of modern Malay literature in Malaysia. It examines the views, approaches and theories discussed and argued by literary scholars. Further, this study investigates the influence of the thought of Islamic literature on the development of modern Malay literature in Malaysia by examining the emergence of prominent scholars and bodies that organized competitions for writing Islamic literary works. Findings reveal that in the 70’s, the movement began to be accepted by the literary society. Government bodies played an important role in creating and disseminating the Islamic literary works.
Finite Element Prediction of Multi-Size Particulate Flow through Two-Dimensional Pump Casing
Two-dimensional Eulerian (volume-averaged) continuity and momentum equations governing multi-size slurry flow through pump casings are solved by applying a penalty finite element formulation. The computational strategy validated for multi-phase flow through rectangular channels is adapted to the present study. The flow fields of the carrier, mixture and each solids species, and the concentration field of each species are determined sequentially in an iterative manner. The eddy viscosity field computed using Spalart-Allmaras model for the pure carrier phase is modified for the presence of particles. Streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin formulation is used for all the momentum equations for the carrier, mixture and each solids species and the concentration field for each species. After ensuring mesh-independence of solutions, results of multi-size particulate flow simulation are presented to bring out the effect of bulk flow rate, average inlet concentration, and inlet particle size distribution. Mono-size computations using (1) the concentration-weighted mean diameter of the slurry and (2) the D50 size of the slurry are also presented for comparison with multi-size results.
Surface Roughness Prediction Model for Grinding of Composite Laminate Using Factorial Design
Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminates have been widely used because of their unique mechanical and physical properties such as high specific strength, stiffness and corrosive resistance. Accordingly, the demand for precise grinding of composites has been increasing enormously. Grinding is the one of the obligatory methods for fabricating products with composite materials and it is usually the final operation in the assembly of structural laminates. In this experimental study, an attempt has been made to develop an empirical model to predict the surface roughness of ground GFRP composite laminate with respect to the influencing grinding parameters by factorial design approach of design of experiments (DOE). The significance of grinding parameters and their three factor interaction effects on grinding of GFRP composite have been analyzed in detail. An empirical equation has been developed to attain minimum surface roughness in GFRP laminate grinding.
Precipitation Hardening Behavior of Directly Cold Rolled Al-6Mg Alloy Containing Ternary Sc and Quaternary Zi/Ti
Ageing of 75% cold rolled Al-6Mg alloy with ternary 0.4 wt% scandium and quaternary zirconium and titanium has been carried out. Alloy samples are naturally, isochronally and isothermally aged for different time and temperatures. Hardness values of the differently processed alloys have been measured to understand the ageing behavior of Al-6Mg alloy with scandium and quaternary zirconium and titanium addition. Resistivity changes with annealing time and temperature were measured to understand the precipitation behavior and recovery of strain of the alloy. Attempts were also made to understand the grain refining effect of scandium in Al-6Mg alloy. It is observed that significant hardening takes place in the aged alloys due to the precipitation of scandium aluminides and the dendrites of the Al-6Mg alloy have been refined significantly due to addition of scandium.
Optimization of Propulsion in Flapping Micro Air Vehicles Using Genetic Algorithm Method
In this paper the kinematic parameters of a regular Flapping Micro Air Vehicle (FMAV) is investigated. The optimization is done using multi-objective Genetic algorithm method. It is shown that the maximum propulsive efficiency is occurred on the Strouhal number of 0.2-0.3 and foil-pitch amplitude of 15°-30°. Furthermore, increasing pitch amplitude with respect to power optimization increases the thrust slightly until pitch amplitude around 30°, and then the trust is increased notably with increasing of pitch amplitude. Additionally, the maximum mean thrust coefficient is computed of 2.67 and propulsive efficiency for this value is 42%. Based on the thrust optimization, the maximum propulsive efficiency is acquired 54% while the mean thrust coefficient is 2.18 at the same propulsive efficiency. Consequently, the maximum propulsive efficiency is obtained 77% and the appropriate Strouhal number, pitch amplitude and phase difference between heaving and pitching are calculated of 0.27, 31° and 77°, respectively.
Modeling and Simulation of Delaminations in FML Using Step Pulsed Active Thermography
The study focuses to investigate the thermal response of delaminations and develop mathematical models using numerical results to obtain the optimum heat requirement and time to identify delaminations in GLARE type of Fibre Metal Laminates (FML) in both reflection mode and through-transmission (TT) mode of step pulsed active thermography (SPAT) method in the type of nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDTE) technique. The influence of applied heat flux and time on various sizes and depth of delaminations in FML is analyzed to investigate the thermal response through numerical simulations. A finite element method (FEM) is applied to simulate SPAT through ANSYS software based on 3D transient heat transfer principle with the assumption of reflection mode and TT mode of observation individually.
The results conclude that the numerical approach based on SPAT in reflection mode is more suitable for analysing smaller size of near-surface delaminations located at the thermal stimulator side and TT mode is more suitable for analysing smaller size of deeper delaminations located far from thermal stimulator side or near thermal detector/Infrared camera side. The mathematical models provide the optimum q and T at the required MRTD to identify unidentified delamination 7 with 25015.0022W/m2 at 2.531sec and delamination 8 with 16663.3356 W/m2 at 1.37857sec in reflection mode. In TT mode, the delamination 1 with 34954W/m2 at 13.0399sec, delamination 2 with 20002.67W/m2 at 1.998sec and delamination 7 with 20010.87 W/m2 at 0.6171sec could be identified.
Modal Analysis of Machine Tool Column Using Finite Element Method
The performance of a machine tool is eventually assessed by its ability to produce a component of the required geometry in minimum time and at small operating cost. It is customary to base the structural design of any machine tool primarily upon the requirements of static rigidity and minimum natural frequency of vibration. The operating properties of machines like cutting speed, feed and depth of cut as well as the size of the work piece also have to be kept in mind by a machine tool structural designer. This paper presents a novel approach to the design of machine tool column for static and dynamic rigidity requirement. Model evaluation is done effectively through use of General Finite Element Analysis software ANSYS. Studies on machine tool column are used to illustrate finite element based concept evaluation technique. This paper also presents results obtained from the computations of thin walled box type columns that are subjected to torsional and bending loads in case of static analysis and also results from modal analysis. The columns analyzed are square and rectangle based tapered open column, column with cover plate, horizontal partitions and with apertures. For the analysis purpose a total of 70 columns were analyzed for bending, torsional and modal analysis. In this study it is observed that the orientation and aspect ratio of apertures have no significant effect on the static and dynamic rigidity of the machine tool structure.
Kinematic Analysis and Software Development of a Seven Degree of Freedom Inspection Robot
Robots are booming as an essential substituent in the field of inspection. In hazardous environments like nuclear waste disposal, robots are really a necessitate one. In a view to meet such demands, this paper presents the seven degree of freedom articulated inspection robot. To design such a robot the kinematic analysis of seven Degree of freedom robot which can inspect the hazardous nuclear waste storage tanks is done. The effective utilization of universal joints for arms and screw jack mechanisms at the base gives the higher order of degree of freedom to the newly designed robot. The analytical method of deriving the manipulator forward as well as inverse kinematics is explained elaborately using the Denavit-Hartenberg Approach for the purpose of calculating the robot joints, links and end-effector parameters. The comparison of the geometric and the analytical approach is stated. The self-developed kinematic model gives the accurate positions of the end effector. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed in Visual Basic language for the manipulation of kinematic results easily. This software gives the expected position of the end-effector accurately at short time compared to manual manipulations.
Parametric Study on Grindability of GFRP Laminates Using Different Abrasives
A study on grindability of chopped strand mat glass fiber reinforced polymer laminates (CSM GFRP) have been carried out to evaluate the significant parameters on wheel performance. Performance of Aluminum oxide and c-BN wheels during grinding of CSM GFRP laminate was evaluated in terms of grinding force and surface roughness during grinding. The cubic Boron Nitride wheel experiences higher tangential grinding forces components and lower normal force component than Aluminum oxide grinding wheels. In case of surface finish, Aluminum oxide grinding wheels outdo the cubic Boron Nitride grinding wheels.
Modeling and Optimization of Part Type Selection and Loading Problem in Flexible Manufacturing System Using Real Coded Genetic Algorithms
This paper deals with modeling and optimization of two NP-hard problems in production planning of flexible manufacturing system (FMS), part type selection problem and loading problem. The part type selection problem and the loading problem are strongly related and heavily influence the system’s efficiency and productivity. These problems have been modeled and solved simultaneously by using real coded genetic algorithms (RCGA) which uses an array of real numbers as chromosome representation. The novel proposed chromosome representation produces only feasible solutions which minimize a computational time needed by GA to push its population toward feasible search space or repair infeasible chromosomes. The proposed RCGA improves the FMS performance by considering two objectives, maximizing system throughput and maintaining the balance of the system (minimizing system unbalance). The resulted objective values are compared to the optimum values produced by branch-and-bound method. The experiments show that the proposed RCGA could reach near optimum solutions in a reasonable amount of time.
The Enthronement of Turkic-Mongol Rulers and Kagan Functions
There are many demonstrations of political interrelation of Turk kaganate and Mongol empire. The article deals with one of the points of Turk-Mongol interrelation as the ceremony of ascending the khan to the throne. It is historically proved that the ascending to the throne ceremony takes origin from Turk kaganate period by comparing the materials, concerning the facts of the history of both states. The function of Turk-Mongol kaganates remained unchangeable for ages.
Reliability Evaluation of Composite Electric Power System Based On Latin Hypercube Sampling
This paper investigates the suitability of Latin Hypercube sampling (LHS) for composite electric power system reliability analysis. Each sample generated in LHS is mapped into an equivalent system state and used for evaluating the annualized system and load point indices. DC loadflow based state evaluation model is solved for each sampled contingency state. The indices evaluated are loss of load probability, loss of load expectation, expected demand not served and expected energy not supplied. The application of the LHS is illustrated through case studies carried out using RBTS and IEEE-RTS test systems. Results obtained are compared with non-sequential Monte Carlo simulation and state enumeration analytical approaches. An error analysis is also carried out to check the LHS method’s ability to capture the distributions of the reliability indices. It is found that LHS approach estimates indices nearer to actual value and gives tighter bounds of indices than non-sequential Monte Carlo simulation.
Design of Low Power and High Speed Digital IIR Filter in 45nm with Optimized CSA for Digital Signal Processing Applications
In this paper, a design methodology to implement low-power and high-speed 2nd order recursive digital Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter has been proposed. Since IIR filters suffer from a large number of constant multiplications, the proposed method replaces the constant multiplications by using addition/subtraction and shift operations. The proposed new 6T adder cell is used as the Carry-Save Adder (CSA) to implement addition/subtraction operations in the design of recursive section IIR filter to reduce the propagation delay. Furthermore, high-level algorithms designed for the optimization of the number of CSA blocks are used to reduce the complexity of the IIR filter. The DSCH3 tool is used to generate the schematic of the proposed 6T CSA based shift-adds architecture design and it is analyzed by using Microwind CAD tool to synthesize low-complexity and high-speed IIR filters. The proposed design outperforms in terms of power, propagation delay, area and throughput when compared with MUX-12T, MCIT-7T based CSA adder filter design. It is observed from the experimental results that the proposed 6T based design method can find better IIR filter designs in terms of power and delay than those obtained by using efficient general multipliers.
Leakage Reduction ONOFIC Approach for Deep Submicron VLSI Circuits Design
Minimizations of power dissipation, chip area with higher circuit performance are the necessary and key parameters in deep submicron regime. The leakage current increases sharply in deep submicron regime and directly affected the power dissipation of the logic circuits. In deep submicron region the power dissipation as well as high performance is the crucial concern since increasing importance of portable systems. Number of leakage reduction techniques employed to reduce the leakage current in deep submicron region but they have some trade-off to control the leakage current. ONOFIC approach gives an excellent agreement between power dissipation and propagation delay for designing the efficient CMOS logic circuits. In this article ONOFIC approach is compared with LECTOR technique and output results show that ONOFIC approach significantly reduces the power dissipation and enhance the speed of the logic circuits. The lower power delay product is the big outcome of this approach and makes it an influential leakage reduction technique.
An Evaluation of Software Connection Methods for Heterogeneous Sensor Networks
The transfer rate of messages in distributed sensor network applications is a critical factor in a system's performance. The Sensor Abstraction Layer (SAL) is one such system. SAL is a middleware integration platform for abstracting sensor specific technology in order to integrate heterogeneous types of sensors in a network. SAL uses Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) as its connection method, which has unsatisfying transfer rates, especially for streaming data. This paper analyses different connection methods to optimize data transmission in SAL by replacing RMI. Our results show that the most promising Java-based connections were frameworks for Java New Input/Output (NIO) including Apache MINA, JBoss Netty, and xSocket. A test environment was implemented to evaluate each respective framework based on transfer rate, resource usage, and scalability. Test results showed the most suitable connection method to improve data transmission in SAL JBoss Netty as it provides a performance enhancement of 68%.
‘The Right to Information’: A Malaysian Political Blog Readers’ Perspective
Political blogs are one of the pivotal alternative communication channels for political news in Malaysia. Many have argued that the mushrooming of political blogs nurtures the effective realization of human rights in the country. The paper studies the ‘Malaysian political blog readers–human rights’ relationship by exploring these questions: Has traditional mainstream media become obsolete with the rise of political blogosphere? Why do blog readers visit political blogs? A survey was conducted and the findings revealed that traditional mainstream media is still a pertinent source for political news in the country. Apart from acquiring the latest political updates quickly and at anytime, blog readers compare the news published in political blogs with the ones reported in traditional mainstream media. This suggests that freedom of information is deemed as one of the prime motives for Malaysian blog readers clinging to political blogosphere.
Corporate Governance, Shareholder Monitoring and Cost of Debt in Malaysia
This paper attempts to investigate the effect of corporate governance and shareholder monitoring mechanisms on cost of debt of Malaysian listed firms. We assess the quality of corporate governance using comprehensive corporate governance index, which consists of 139 items in six broad categories. We classify shareholder monitoring mechanisms into concentrated ownership, family, insider and government ownerships. Using panel sample from 2003 to 2007, regression results show that high corporate governance quality and concentrated ownership lower firm cost of debt. Debt issuers consider board structure and procedures, board compensation practices, accountability and audit, transparency and social and environmental activities as integral components of a good corporate governance framework.
Reliability and Validity of the Masculine Subordination to Women Stress Scale in a Rural Bangladesh Sample
The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Masculine Subordination-to-women Stress Scale (MSS) in the rural Bangladeshi population. The scale was validated using a sample of 342 Bangladeshi married men from 5 northwest villages of the country. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a single-factorial structure of the scale: masculine subordination-to-women stress. The MSS also showed adequate reliability and concurrent validity. It appears that the MSS is a reliable and valid instrument to measure masculine subordination-to-women stress for Bangladeshi men. However, further study of the scale is imperative.
Opinion Mining Framework in the Education Domain
The internet is growing larger and becoming the most popular platform for the people to share their opinion in different interests. We choose the education domain specifically comparing some Malaysian universities against each other. This comparison produces benchmark based on different criteria shared by the online users in various online resources including Twitter, Facebook and web pages. The comparison is accomplished using opinion mining framework to extract, process the unstructured text and classify the result to positive, negative or neutral (polarity). Hence, we divide our framework to three main stages; opinion collection (extraction), unstructured text processing and polarity classification. The extraction stage includes web crawling, HTML parsing, Sentence segmentation for punctuation classification, Part of Speech (POS) tagging, the second stage processes the unstructured text with stemming and stop words removal and finally prepare the raw text for classification using Named Entity Recognition (NER). Last phase is to classify the polarity and present overall result for the comparison among the Malaysian universities. The final result is useful for those who are interested to study in Malaysia, in which our final output declares clear winners based on the public opinions all over the web.
A Concept of Successful Collaborative Design towards Sustainability of Project Development
Development in construction industry is leading to involve complexities in engineering systems; whereas it also required to its sustainability towards social, environmental, and economical aspects. Experts with requisite background and expertise are involved in order to integrate knowledge in achieving whole criteria through design process. Collaborative design is needed in order to attain optimum design through shared solution and goal from experts. This study is conducted to explore issues and approaches development of collaborative design research in construction and its influence to sustainability of the development. Literature review method is used in order to conceptually figure future research direction of collaborative design research. This research is a part of beginning process in doctoral research program, and will be used to support dissertation’s conceptual definition.
Tourism Planning in Developing Countries: Review of Concepts and Sustainability Issues
Globally, issues of sustainable development have become the fulcrum around which current international discourse revolves. Many governments in both the developed and the developing countries are focusing on strategies to achieve sustainable growth. Tourism has been identified as a major sector in safeguarding a sustainable future. However, research has shown that tourism if not properly managed can be detrimental. This paper posits tourism in the sustainable development discourse, exploring how the historical evolution of tourism and issues of sustainability have informed the state of tourism activities in the developing countries. Using secondary data analysis, the paper reveals that current conceptual explanations of tourism are linked to sustainable development. However, tourism activities in developing countries are usually driven by profit without adequate consideration for environmental and social factors. The paper raises two questions and further recommends that tourism activities should be informed by sustainable development principles.
The Effect of Pyramid Structure on Firm Value
Corporate ownership structure is an important factor influencing firm performance. This study aims to answer the question whether pyramid structure has negative effect on firm value. This study is important because the ownership of public listed companies in Malaysia is highly concentrated. The concentrated ownership such as Malaysia, agency conflict is prevalent between controlling shareholders and minority shareholders. Accordingly, the dominant role of shareholders in firms allows the controlling shareholders (including managers) to expropriate the interest of the minority shareholders for their own private advantage. This research is conducted on pyramidal firms in Malaysia. Applying the Attig Model as the underlying statistical test, it is found that firm value is negatively related to pyramid ownership of Malaysian public listed firms due to the mismatch between cash flow rights and control rights. Future research needs to focus on identifying the heterogeneous factors that improve the generalizability of research.
Gas Flow into Rotary Valve Intake and Exhaust Mechanism in Internal Combustion Engine
Simple design of a rotary valve system is capable of controlling intake and exhaust gases, which will eliminate the need of known complex mechanisms. The cost of material and production, maintenance, and noise level of the system can be further reduced. The new mechanism enables the elimination of the overlapping of valves work that reduces gas leakage. This paper examines theoretically the gas flow through the holes of a rotary valve design in a small engine. Preliminary results show that the new gas flow has many positive differences than a conventional poppet-valve system. New dependencies on the gas speed enable the finding of better solutions for the geometry of a rotary valve system that will result in a higher efficiency of an internal-combustion engine of the automotive industry.
Correlation between Heat Treatment, Microstructure and Properties of Trip-Assisted Steels
In the present study, two TRIP-assisted steels were designated as A (having no Cr and Cu content) and B (having higher Ni, Cr and Cu content) heat treated under different conditions, and the correlation between its heat treatment, microstructure and properties were investigated. Micro structural examination was carried out by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope after electrolytic etching. Non-destructive electrochemical and ultrasonic testing on two TRIP-assisted steels was used to find out corrosion and mechanical properties of different alter microstructure phase’s steels. Furthermore, micro structural studies accompanied by the evaluation of mechanical properties revealed that steels having martensite phases with higher corrosive and hardness value were less sound velocity and also steel’s microstructure having finer grains that was more grain boundary was less corrosion resistance. Steel containing more Cu, Ni and Cr was less corrosive compared to other steels having same processing or microstructure.
Localization of Anatomical Landmarks in Head CT Images for Image to Patient Registration
The use of anatomical landmarks as a basis for image to patient registration is appealing because the registration may be performed retrospectively. We have previously proposed the use of two anatomical soft tissue landmarks of the head, the canthus (corner of the eye) and the tragus (a small, pointed, cartilaginous flap of the ear), as a registration basis for an automated CT image to patient registration system, and described their localization in patient space using close range photogrammetry. In this paper, the automatic localization of these landmarks in CT images, based on their curvature saliency and using a rule based system that incorporates prior knowledge of their characteristics, is described. Existing approaches to landmark localization in CT images are predominantly semi-automatic and primarily for localizing internal landmarks. To validate our approach, the positions of the landmarks localized automatically and manually in near isotropic CT images of 102 patients were compared. The average difference was 1.2mm (std = 0.9mm, max = 4.5mm) for the medial canthus and 0.8mm (std = 0.6mm, max = 2.6mm) for the tragus. The medial canthus and tragus can be automatically localized in CT images, with performance comparable to manual localization, based on the approach presented.
Effect of Alkali Treatment on Impact Behavior of Areca Fibers Reinforced Polymer Composites
Natural fibers are considered to have potential use as reinforcing agents in polymer composite materials because of their principal benefits: moderate strength and stiffness, low cost, and being an environmental friendly, degradable, and renewable material. A study has been carried out to evaluate impact properties of composites made by areca fibers reinforced urea formaldehyde, melamine urea formaldehyde and epoxy resins. The extracted areca fibers from the areca husk were alkali treated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) to obtain better interfacial bonding between fiber and matrix. Then composites were produced by means of compression molding technique with varying process parameters, such as fiber condition (untreated and alkali treated), and fiber loading percentages (50% and 60% by weight). The developed areca fiber reinforced composites were then characterized by impact test. The results show that, impact strength increase with increase in the loading percentage. It is observed that, treated areca fiber reinforcement increases impact strength when compared to untreated areca fiber reinforcement.
Design of PI and Fuzzy Controller for High-Efficiency and Tightly Regulated Full Bridge DC-DC Converter
The controller is used to improve the dynamic performance of DC-DC converter by achieving a robust output voltage against load disturbances. This paper presents the performance of PI and Fuzzy controller for a phase- shifted zero-voltage switched full-bridge PWM (ZVS FB- PWM) converters with a closed loop control. The proposed converter is regulated with minimum overshoot and good stability. In this paper phase-shift control method is used as an effective tool to reduce switching losses and duty cycle losses. A 1kW/100KHz dc/dc converter is simulated and analyzed using MATLAB. The circuit is simulated for static and dynamic load (DC motor). It has been observed that performance of converter with fuzzy controller is better than that of PI controller. An efficiency comparison of the converter with a reported topology has also been carried out.
Simultaneous Clustering and Feature Selection Method for Gene Expression Data
Microarrays are made it possible to simultaneously monitor the expression profiles of thousands of genes under various experimental conditions. It is used to identify the co-expressed genes in specific cells or tissues that are actively used to make proteins. This method is used to analysis the gene expression, an important task in bioinformatics research. Cluster analysis of gene expression data has proved to be a useful tool for identifying co-expressed genes, biologically relevant groupings of genes and samples. In this work K-Means algorithms has been applied for clustering of Gene Expression Data. Further, rough set based Quick reduct algorithm has been applied for each cluster in order to select the most similar genes having high correlation. Then the ACV measure is used to evaluate the refined clusters and classification is used to evaluate the proposed method. They could identify compact clusters with feature selection method used to genes are selected.
An Examination and Validation of the Theoretical Resistivity-Temperature Relationship for Conductors
Electrical resistivity is a fundamental parameter of metals or electrical conductors. Since resistivity is a function of temperature, in order to completely understand the behavior of metals, a temperature dependent theoretical model is needed. A model based on physics principles has recently been developed to obtain an equation that relates electrical resistivity to temperature. This equation is dependent upon a parameter associated with the electron travel time before being scattered, and a parameter that relates the energy of the atoms and their separation distance. Analysis of the energy parameter reveals that the equation is optimized if the proportionality term in the equation is not constant but varies over the temperature range. Additional analysis reveals that the theoretical equation can be used to determine the mean free path of conduction electrons, the number of defects in the atomic lattice, and the ‘equivalent’ charge associated with the metallic bonding of the atoms. All of this analysis provides validation for the theoretical model and provides insight into the behavior of metals where performance is affected by temperatures (e.g., integrated circuits and temperature sensors).
Empirical Evaluation of Performance Optimization Techniques Used in Mobile Applications
Mobile application development is different from regular application development due to the hardware resource limitations existed in the mobile platforms. In the mobile environment, the application needs to be optimized by the developer to produce optimal software with least overhead. This study discussed about performance optimization techniques that are employed in general application development, and how such techniques are performing on mobile platforms through some empirical evaluations on a mobile emulator, Nokia X3-02 and Nokia C5-03devices. The scope of the work is only confined to mobile platform based on Java Mobile edition architecture. The empirical results showed that techniques such as loop unrolling, dependency chain, and linearized getter and setter performed better by a factor of 3 to 7. Whereas declaration and initialization on the same line or separate line did not improve the performance.
Analysis of Mathematical Models and Their Application to Extreme Events
This paper discusses the application of extreme events distribution taking the Limpopo River Basin at Xai-Xai station, in Mozambique, as a case analysis. We analyze the extreme value concepts, namely Gumbel, Fréchet, Weibull and Generalized Extreme Value Distributions and then extrapolate the original data to 1000, 5000 and 10000 figures for further simulations and we compare their outcomes based on these three main distributions.
Construction Methods for Sign Patterns Allowing Nilpotence of Index k
In this paper, the smallest such integer k is called by the index (of nilpotence) of B such that Bk = 0. In this paper, we study sign patterns allowing nilpotence of index k and obtain four methods to construct sign patterns allowing nilpotence of index at
most k, which generalizes some recent results.
Cross-Border Shopping Motivation, Behaviours and Ethnocentrism of Malaysian in Hatyai, Thailand
There have been few studies of cross-border shopping. However, many have focused on macroeconomic effects rather than on discovering the motivation and behaviour of cross-border shoppers who purchase abroad. Hatyai, Thailand is located about 30 km from the Malaysian border. The statistics reports that each year more than 400,000 Malaysian visitors visited Hatyai. The aims of this study are fourfold: (1) to investigate factors motivating cross-border shoppers to shop in Hatyai, Thailand; (2) to examine the relationship between ethnicity and shopper ethnocentrism; (3) to discover the impact of shopper ethnocentrism on foreign product judgment; and (4) to explore the impact of shopper ethnocentrism on the willingness to buy foreign products. The results reveal that the three most popular consumption items were food and beverages, clothing, and grocery products. Factor analysis shows that the three key reasons for choosing Hatyai as the cross-border shopping destination included product and store, close distance, and low exchange rate. Moreover, there were significant differences in ethnocentrism by three ethnic groups. Shopper ethnocentrism had a significant negative correlation with foreign product judgment, while shopper ethnocentrism was not significantly correlated with willingness to buy foreign products.
Query Reformulation Guided by External Resource for Information Retrieval
Reformulating the user query is a technique that aims to improve the performance of an Information Retrieval System (IRS) in terms of precision and recall. This paper tries to evaluate the technique of query reformulation guided by an external resource for Arabic texts. To do this, various precision and recall measures were conducted and two corpora with different external resources like Arabic WordNet (AWN) and the Arabic Dictionary (thesaurus) of Meaning (ADM) were used. Examination of the obtained results will allow us to measure the real contribution of this reformulation technique in improving the IRS performance.
Numerical Solution of Hammerstein Integral Equations by Using Quasi-Interpolation
In this paper first, a numerical method based on quasiinterpolation for solving nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the Hammerstein-type is presented. Then, we approximate the solution of Hammerstein integral equations by Nystrom’s method. Also, we compare the methods with some numerical examples.
Tuberculosis Modelling Using Bio-PEPA Approach
Modelling is a widely used tool to facilitate the evaluation of disease management. The interest of epidemiological models lies in their ability to explore hypothetical scenarios and provide decision makers with evidence to anticipate the consequences of disease incursion and impact of intervention strategies.
All models are, by nature, simplification of more complex systems. Models that involve diseases can be classified into different categories depending on how they treat the variability, time, space, and structure of the population. Approaches may be different from simple deterministic mathematical models, to complex stochastic simulations spatially explicit.
Thus, epidemiological modelling is now a necessity for epidemiological investigations, surveillance, testing hypotheses and generating follow-up activities necessary to perform complete and appropriate analysis.
The state of the art presented in the following, allows us to position itself to the most appropriate approaches in the epidemiological study.
An Approximation Method for Three Quark Systems in the Hyper-Spherical Approach
The bound state energy of three quark systems is studied in the framework of a non- relativistic spin independent phenomenological model. The hyper- spherical coordinates are considered for the solution this system. According to Jacobi coordinate, we determined the bound state energy for (uud) and (ddu) quark systems, as quarks are flavorless mass, and it is restrict that choice potential at low and high range in nucleon bag for a bound state.
Viscous Potential Flow Analysis of Electrohydrodynamic Capillary Instability through Porous Media
The effect of porous medium on the capillary instability of a cylindrical interface in the presence of axial electric field has been investigated using viscous potential flow theory. In viscous potential flow, the viscous term in Navier-Stokes equation vanishes as
vorticity is zero but viscosity is not zero. Viscosity enters through normal stress balance in the viscous potential flow theory and tangential stresses are not considered. A dispersion relation that accounts for the growth of axisymmetric waves is derived and stability is discussed theoretically as well as numerically. Stability criterion is given by critical value of applied electric field as well as critical wave number. Various graphs have been drawn to show the effect of various physical parameters such as electric field, viscosity ratio, permittivity ratio on the stability of the system. It has been observed that the axial electric field and porous medium both have stabilizing effect on the stability of the system.
Dense Chaos in Coupled Map Lattices
This paper is mainly concerned with a kind of coupled map lattices (CMLs). New definitions of dense δ-chaos and dense chaos (which is a special case of dense δ-chaos with δ = 0) in discrete spatiotemporal systems are given and sufficient conditions for these systems to be densely chaotic or densely δ-chaotic are derived.
On the Steady-State Performance Characteristics of Finite Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing under Micro-Polar Lubrication with Turbulent Effect
The objective of the present paper is to theoretically investigate the steady-state performance characteristics of journal bearing of finite width, operating with micropolar lubricant in a turbulent regime. In this analysis, the turbulent shear stress coefficients are used based on the Constantinescu’s turbulent model suggested by Taylor and Dowson with the assumption of parallel and inertia-less flow. The numerical solution of the modified Reynolds equation has yielded the distribution of film pressure which determines the static performance characteristics in terms of load capacity, attitude angle, end flow rate and frictional parameter at various values of eccentricity ratio, non-dimensional characteristics length, coupling number and Reynolds number.
A Fully Implicit Finite-Difference Solution to One Dimensional Coupled Nonlinear Burgers’ Equations
A fully implicit finite-difference method has been proposed for the numerical solutions of one dimensional coupled nonlinear Burgers’ equations on the uniform mesh points. The method forms a system of nonlinear difference equations which is to be solved at each iteration. Newton’s iterative method has been implemented to solve this nonlinear assembled system of equations. The linear system has been solved by Gauss elimination method with partial pivoting algorithm at each iteration of Newton’s method. Three test examples have been carried out to illustrate the accuracy of the method. Computed solutions obtained by proposed scheme have been compared with analytical solutions and those already available in the literature by finding L2 and L∞ errors.
Inexact Alternating Direction Method for Variational Inequality Problems with Linear Equality Constraints
In this article, a new inexact alternating direction method(ADM) is proposed for solving a class of variational inequality problems. At each iteration, the new method firstly solves the resulting subproblems of ADM approximately to generate an temporal point ˜xk, and then the multiplier yk is updated to get the new iterate yk+1. In order to get xk+1, we adopt a new descent direction which is simple compared with the existing prediction-correction type ADMs. For the inexact ADM, the resulting proximal subproblem has closedform solution when the proximal parameter and inexact term are chosen appropriately. We show the efficiency of the inexact ADM numerically by some preliminary numerical experiments.
Hall Effect on MHD Mixed Convection Flow of Viscous-Elastic Incompressible Fluid Past of an Infinite Porous Medium
An unsteady mixed free convection MHD flow of elastic-viscous incompressible fluid past an infinite vertical porous flat plate is investigated when the presence of heat Source/sink, temperature and concentration are assumed to be oscillating with time and hall effect. The governing equations are solved by complex variable technique. The expressions for the velocity field, temperature field and species concentration are demonstrated in graphs. The effects of the Prandtl number, the Grashof number, modified Grashof number, the Schimidt number, the Hall parameter, Elastic parameter & Magnetic parameter are discussed.
A Family of Entropies on Interval-valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Their Applications in Multiple Attribute Decision Making
The entropy of intuitionistic fuzzy sets is used to indicate the degree of fuzziness of an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set(IvIFS). In this paper, we deal with the entropies of IvIFS. Firstly, we propose a family of entropies on IvIFS with a parameter λ ∈ [0, 1], which generalize two entropy measures defined independently by Zhang and Wei, for IvIFS, and then we prove that the
new entropy is an increasing function with respect to the parameter λ. Furthermore, a new multiple attribute decision making (MADM) method using entropy-based attribute weights is proposed to deal with the decision making situations where the alternatives on attributes are expressed by IvIFS and the attribute weights information is unknown. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the applications of the proposed method.
Complex Dynamic Behaviors in an Ivlev-type Stage-structured Predator-prey System Concerning Impulsive Control Strategy
An Ivlev-type predator-prey system and stage-structured for predator concerning impulsive control strategy is considered. The conditions for the locally asymptotically stable prey-eradication periodic solution is obtained, by using Floquet theorem and small amplitude perturbation skills——when the impulsive period is less than the critical value. Otherwise, the system is permanence. Numerical examples show that the system considered has more complicated dynamics, including high-order quasi-periodic and periodic oscillating, period-doubling and period-halving bifurcation, chaos and attractor crisis, etc. Finally, the biological implications of the results and the impulsive control strategy are discussed.
Grid–SVC: An Improvement in SVC Algorithm, Based On Grid Based Clustering
Support vector clustering (SVC) is an important kernelbased clustering algorithm in multi applications. It has got two main bottle necks, the high computation price and labeling piece. In this paper, we presented a modified SVC method, named Grid–SVC, to improve the original algorithm computationally. First we normalized and then we parted the interval, where the SVC is processing, using a novel Grid–based clustering algorithm. The algorithm parts the intervals, based on the density function of the data set and then applying the cartesian multiply makes multi-dimensional grids. Eliminating many outliers and noise in the preprocess, we apply an improved SVC method to each parted grid in a parallel way. The experimental results show both improvement in time complexity order and the accuracy.
Unscented Transformation for Estimating the Lyapunov Exponents of Chaotic Time Series Corrupted by Random Noise
Many systems in the natural world exhibit chaos or non-linear behavior, the complexity of which is so great that they appear to be random. Identification of chaos in experimental data is essential for characterizing the system and for analyzing the predictability of the data under analysis. The Lyapunov exponents provide a quantitative measure of the sensitivity to initial conditions and are the most useful dynamical diagnostic for chaotic systems. However, it is difficult to accurately estimate the Lyapunov exponents of chaotic signals which are corrupted by a random noise. In this work, a method for estimation of Lyapunov exponents from noisy time series using unscented transformation is proposed. The proposed methodology was validated using time series obtained from known chaotic maps. In this paper, the objective of the work, the proposed methodology and validation results are discussed in detail.
Packing and Covering Radii of Linear Error-Block Codes
Linear error-block codes are a natural generalization of linear error correcting codes. The purpose of this paper is to generalize some results on the packing and the covering radii to the error-block case. We study their properties when a code undergoes some specific modifications and combinations with another code. We give a few bounds on the packing and the covering radii of these codes.
Thermo-Elastic Properties of Artificial Limestone Bricks with Wood Sawdust
In this study, artificial limestone brick samples are produced by using wood sawdust wastes (WSW) having different grades of sizes and limestone powder waste (LPW). The thermo-elastic properties of produced brick samples in various WSW amounts are investigated. At 30% WSW replacement with LPW in the brick sample the thermal conductivity value is effectively reduced and the reduction in the thermal conductivity value of brick sample at 30% WSW replacement with LPW is about 38.9% as compared with control sample. The energy conservation in buildings by using LPW and WSW in masonry brick material production having low thermal conductivity reduces energy requirements. A strong relationship is also found among the thermal conductivity, unit weight and ultrasonic pulse velocity values of brick samples produced. It shows a potential to be used for walls, wooden board substitute, alternative to the concrete blocks, ceiling panels, sound barrier panels, absorption materials etc.
A New Seed Projection Method for Solving Shifted Systems with Multiple Right-Hand Sides
In this paper, we propose a new seed projection method for solving shifted systems with multiple right-hand sides. This seed projection method uses a seed selection strategy. Numerical experiments are presented to show the efficiency of the newly method.
Mathematical Model of Depletion of Forestry Resource: Effect of Synthetic Based Industries
A mathematical model is proposed considering the forest biomass density B(t), density of wood based industries W(t) and density of synthetic industries S(t). It is assumed that the forest biomass grows logistically in the absence of wood based industries, but depletion of forestry biomass is due to presence of wood based industries. The growth of wood based industries depends on B(t), while S(t) grows at a constant rate, independent of B(t). Further there is a competition between W(t) and S(t) according to market demand. The proposed model has four ecologically feasible steady states, namely, E1: forest biomass free and wood industries free equilibrium; E2: wood industries free equilibrium and two coexisting equilibria E∗1 , E∗2 . Behavior of the system near all feasible equilibria is analyzed using the stability theory of differential equations. In the proposed model, the natural depletion rate h1 is a crucial parameter and system exhibits Hopf-bifurcation about the non-trivial equilibrium with respect to h1. The analytical results are verified using numerical simulation.
Existence of Iterative Cauchy Fractional Differential Equation
Our main aim in this paper is to use the technique of non expansive operators to more general iterative and non iterative fractional differential equations (Cauchy type ). The non integer case is taken in sense of Riemann-Liouville fractional operators. Applications are illustrated.
A Family of Improved Secant-Like Method with Super-Linear Convergence
A family of improved secant-like method is proposed in this paper. Further, the analysis of the convergence shows that this method has super-linear convergence. Efficiency are demonstrated by numerical experiments when the choice of α is correct.
Exact Pfaffian and N-Soliton Solutions to a (3+1)-Dimensional Generalized Integrable Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations
The objective of this paper is to use the Pfaffian
technique to construct different classes of exact Pfaffian solutions and
N-soliton solutions to some of the generalized integrable nonlinear
partial differential equations in (3+1) dimensions. In this paper, I will
show that the Pfaffian solutions to the nonlinear PDEs are nothing but
Pfaffian identities. Solitons are among the most beneficial solutions
for science and technology, from ocean waves to transmission of
information through optical fibers or energy transport along protein
molecules. The existence of multi-solitons, especially three-soliton
solutions, is essential for information technology: it makes possible
undisturbed simultaneous propagation of many pulses in both directions.
MIMO-OFDM Coded for Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting Systems
This paper proposes and analyses the wireless
telecommunication system with multiple antennas to the emission
and reception MIMO (multiple input multiple output) with space
diversity in a OFDM context. In particular it analyses the
performance of a DTT (Digital Terrestrial Television) broadcasting
system that includes MIMO-OFDM techniques. Different
propagation channel models and configurations are considered for
each diversity scheme. This study has been carried out in the context
of development of the next generation DVB-T/H and WRAN.
Analysis of Relation between Unlabeled and Labeled Data to Self-Taught Learning Performance
Obtaining labeled data in supervised learning is often
difficult and expensive, and thus the trained learning algorithm tends
to be overfitting due to small number of training data. As a result,
some researchers have focused on using unlabeled data which may
not necessary to follow the same generative distribution as the labeled
data to construct a high-level feature for improving performance on
supervised learning tasks. In this paper, we investigate the impact of
the relationship between unlabeled and labeled data for classification
performance. Specifically, we will apply difference unlabeled data
which have different degrees of relation to the labeled data for
handwritten digit classification task based on MNIST dataset. Our
experimental results show that the higher the degree of relation
between unlabeled and labeled data, the better the classification
performance. Although the unlabeled data that is completely from
different generative distribution to the labeled data provides the lowest
classification performance, we still achieve high classification performance.
This leads to expanding the applicability of the supervised
learning algorithms using unsupervised learning.
Determinants of Investment in Fixed Assets in Electric Power Industry - An Econometric Analysis
This paper focuses attention on specific aspects of
entrepreneurial decisions relating to investment, both in the total
fixed investments and plant & machinery (separately). Demand and
financial factors, internal and external, are considered in the
investment analysis. Finally the influence of determinants of fixed
investment and investment plans are examined in Electric Power
industry in India.
Effect of Crystallographic Orientation on the Pitting Corrosion Resistance of Laser Surface Melted AISI 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel
The localized corrosion behavior of laser surface
melted 304L austenitic stainless steel was studied by
potentiodynamic polarization test. The extent of improvement in
corrosion resistance was governed by the preferred orientation and
the percentage of delta ferrite present on the surface of the laser
melted sample. It was established by orientation imaging microscopy
that the highest pitting potential value was obtained when grains were
oriented in the most close- packed  direction compared to the
random distribution of the base metal and other laser surface melted
samples oriented in  direction. The sample with lower
percentage of ferrite had good pitting resistance.
Genetic Algorithm Application in a Dynamic PCB Assembly with Carryover Sequence- Dependent Setups
We consider a typical problem in the assembly of
printed circuit boards (PCBs) in a two-machine flow shop system to
simultaneously minimize the weighted sum of weighted tardiness and
weighted flow time. The investigated problem is a group scheduling
problem in which PCBs are assembled in groups and the interest is to
find the best sequence of groups as well as the boards within each
group to minimize the objective function value. The type of setup
operation between any two board groups is characterized as carryover
sequence-dependent setup time, which exactly matches with the real
application of this problem. As a technical constraint, all of the
boards must be kitted before the assembly operation starts (kitting
operation) and by kitting staff. The main idea developed in this paper
is to completely eliminate the role of kitting staff by assigning the
task of kitting to the machine operator during the time he is idle
which is referred to as integration of internal (machine) and external
(kitting) setup times. Performing the kitting operation, which is a
preparation process of the next set of boards while the other boards
are currently being assembled, results in the boards to continuously
enter the system or have dynamic arrival times. Consequently, a
dynamic PCB assembly system is introduced for the first time in the
assembly of PCBs, which also has characteristics similar to that of
just-in-time manufacturing. The problem investigated is
computationally very complex, meaning that finding the optimal
solutions especially when the problem size gets larger is impossible.
Thus, a heuristic based on Genetic Algorithm (GA) is employed. An
example problem on the application of the GA developed is
demonstrated and also numerical results of applying the GA on
solving several instances are provided.
Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Materials: An Overview
Friction Stir Welding is a solid state welding technique which can be used to produce sound welds between similar and dissimilar materials. Dissimilar welds which include welds between the different series of aluminium alloys, aluminium to magnesium, steel and titanium has been successfully produced by many researchers. This review covers the work conducted in the above mentioned materials and further concludes by showing the need to fully understand the FSW process in order to expand the latter industrially.
Robust Design and Optimization of Production Wastes: An Application for Industries
This paper focuses on robust design and optimization
of industrial production wastes. Past literatures were reviewed to case
study Clamason Industries Limited (CIL) - a leading ladder-tops
manufacturer. A painstaking study of the firm-s practices at the shop
floor revealed that Over-production, Waiting time, Excess inventory,
and Defects are the major wastes that are impeding their progress and
profitability. Design expert8 software was used to apply Taguchi
robust design and response surface methodology in order to model,
analyse and optimise the wastes cost in CIL. Waiting time and overproduction
rank first and second in contributing to the costs of wastes
in CIL. For minimal wastes cost the control factors of overproduction,
waiting-time, defects and excess-inventory must be set at
0.30, 390.70, 4 and 55.70 respectively for CIL. The optimal value of
cost of wastes for the months studied was 22.3679. Finally, a
recommendation was made that for the company to enhance their
profitability and customer satisfaction, they must adopt the Shingeo
Shingo-s Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED), which will
immediately tackle the waste of waiting by drastically reducing their
The Oxidative Stress and the Antioxidant Defense of the Lower Vegetables towards an Environmental Pollution
The use of bioindicators plants (lichens, bryophytes
and Sphagnum....) in monitoring pollution by heavy metals has been
the subject of several works. However, few studies have addressed
the impact of specific type-s pollutants (fertilizers, pesticides.) on
We propose in this work to make the highlighting effect of NPKs
(NPK: nitrogen-phosphate-potassium-sulfate (NP2O5K2O) (15,15,15),
at concentrations of 10, 20, 30 , 40 and 50mM/L) on the activity of
detoxification enzymes (GSH/GST, CAT, APX and MDA) of plant
bioindicators (mosses and lichens) after treatment for 3 and 7 days.
This study shows the important role of the defense system in the
accumulation and tolerance to chemical pollutants through the
activation of enzymatic (GST (glutathione-S-transferase, APX
(ascorbat peroxidase), CAT (catalase)) and nonenzymatic biomarkers
(GSH (glutathione), MDA (malondialdehyde)) against oxidative
stress generated by the NPKs.
The Effects of Rain and Overland Flow Powers on Agricultural Soil Erodibility
The purpose of this investigation is to relate the rain
power and the overland flow power to soil erodibility to assess the
effects of both parameters on soil erosion using variable rainfall
intensity on remoulded agricultural soil. Six rainfall intensities were
used to simulate the natural rainfall and are as follows: 12.4mm/h,
20.3mm/h, 28.6mm/h, 52mm/h, 73.5mm/h and 103mm/h. The results
have shown that the relationship between overland flow power and
rain power is best represented by a linear function (R2=0.99). As
regards the relationships between soil erodibility factor and rain and
overland flow powers, the evolution of both parameters with the
erodibility factor follow a polynomial function with high coefficient
of determination. From their coefficients of determination (R2=0.95)
for rain power and (R2=0.96) for overland flow power, we can
conclude that the flow has more power to detach particles than rain.
This could be explained by the fact that the presence of particles,
already detached by rain and transported by the flow, give the flow
more weight and then contribute to the detachment of particles by
Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Basalt Fibre Reinforced Concrete
In this study, the thermal and mechanical properties of
basalt fibre reinforced concrete were investigated. The volume
fractions of basalt fibre of (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5% by total mix
volume) were used. Properties such as heat transfer, compressive and
splitting tensile strengths were examined. Results indicated that the
strength increases with increase the fibre content till 0.3% then there
is a slight reduction when 0.5% fibre used. Lower amount of heat
conducted through the thickness of concrete specimens than the
conventional concrete was also recorded.
Capacity of Anchors in Structural Connections
When dealing with safety in structures, the connections between structural components play an important role. Robustness of a structure as a whole depends both on the load- bearing capacity of the structural component and on the structures capacity to resist total failure, even though a local failure occurs in a component or a connection between components. To avoid progressive collapse it is necessary to be able to carry out a design for connections. A connection may be executed with anchors to withstand local failure of the connection in structures built with prefabricated components. For the design of these anchors, a model is developed for connections in structures performed in prefabricated autoclaved aerated concrete components. The design model takes into account the effect of anchors placed close to the edge, which may result in splitting failure. Further the model is developed to consider the effect of reinforcement diameter and anchor depth. The model is analytical and theoretically derived assuming a static equilibrium stress distribution along the anchor. The theory is compared to laboratory test, including the relevant parameters and the model is refined and theoretically argued analyzing the observed test results. The method presented can be used to improve safety in structures or even optimize the design of the connections
Sustainable Design Development for Thai Village-Based Manufacturing Products
Rural villagers in Thailand have unique skill for producing craft using local materials. However, the appearance and function of their products are not suited to the demand of international market. The Thai government policy on sustainable economy emphasises the necessity to incorporate a design strategy that will draw out the unique qualities and add value to the products, while raising the satisfaction of international consumer. As an industrial designer, the author sees opportunities that design can enhance sustainability of Thai local products through the potentials that available in village-based enterprises. This research attempts to address, how best use design to practically solve the problems in the development of Thais product in. The privilege solution is expressed through the design of design strategy that supports sustain economic development of microenterprise in Thailand in the way that aligns with product design development. This consideration integrates together with global business outlook in the development of products from rural communities.
Sustainability Policies and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): Ergonomics Contribution Regarding Work in Companies
The growing importance of sustainability in corporate
policies represents a great opportunity for workers to gain more
consideration, with great benefits to their well being. Sustainable
work is believed to be one which improves the organization-s
performance and fosters professional development as well as
workers- health. In a multiple case study based on document
research, information was sought about work activities and their
sustainability or corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies, as
disseminated by corporations. All the companies devoted attention to
work activities and delivered a good amount of information about
them. Nevertheless, the information presented was generic; all the
actions developed were top-down and there was no information about
the impact of changes aimed at sustainability on the workers-
activities. It was found that the companies seemed to be at an early
stage. In the future, they need to show more commitment through
concrete goals: they must be aware that workers contribute directly to
the corporations- sustainability. This would allow room for
Ergonomics and Work Psychodynamics to be incorporated and to be
useful for both companies and society, so as to promote and ensure
Enhanced Conference Organization Based On Correlation of Web Information and Ontology Based Expertise Search
From the importance of the conference and its
constructive role in the studies discussion, there must be a strong
organization that allows the exploitation of the discussions in opening
new horizons. The vast amount of information scattered across the
web, make it difficult to find experts, who can play a prominent role
in organizing conferences. In this paper we proposed a new approach
of extracting researchers- information from various Web resources
and correlating them in order to confirm their correctness. As a
validator of this approach, we propose a service that will be useful to
set up a conference. Its main objective is to find appropriate experts,
as well as the social events for a conference. For this application we
us Semantic Web technologies like RDF and ontology to represent
the confirmed information, which are linked to another ontology
(skills ontology) that are used to present and compute the expertise.
Inferences on Compound Rayleigh Parameters with Progressively Type-II Censored Samples
This paper considers inference under progressive type II censoring with a compound Rayleigh failure time distribution. The maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayes methods are used for estimating the unknown parameters as well as some lifetime parameters, namely reliability and hazard functions. We obtained Bayes estimators using the conjugate priors for two shape and scale parameters. When the two parameters are unknown, the closed-form expressions of the Bayes estimators cannot be obtained. We use Lindley.s approximation to compute the Bayes estimates. Another Bayes estimator has been obtained based on continuous-discrete joint prior for the unknown parameters. An example with the real data is discussed to illustrate the proposed method. Finally, we made comparisons between these estimators and the maximum likelihood estimators using a Monte Carlo simulation study.
Growing Zeolite Y on FeCrAlloy Metal
Structured catalysts formed from the growth of
zeolites on substrates is an area of increasing interest due to the
increased efficiency of the catalytic process, and the ability to
provide superior heat transfer and thermal conductivity for both
exothermic and endothermic processes.
However, the generation of structured catalysts represents a
significant challenge when balancing the relationship variables
between materials properties and catalytic performance, with the
Na2O, H2O and Al2O3 gel composition paying a significant role in
this dynamic, thereby affecting the both the type and range of
The structured catalyst films generated as part of this
investigation have been characterised using a range of techniques,
including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron microscopy (SEM),
Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Thermogravimetric
Analysis (TGA), with the transition from oxide-on-alloy wires to
hydrothermally synthesised uniformly zeolite coated surfaces being
demonstrated using both SEM and XRD. The robustness of the
coatings has been ascertained by subjecting these to thermal cycling
(ambient to 550oC), with the results indicating that the synthesis time
and gel compositions have a crucial effect on the quality of zeolite
growth on the FeCrAlloy wires.
Finally, the activity of the structured catalyst was verified by a
series of comparison experiments with standard zeolite Y catalysts in
powdered pelleted forms.
The Effect of Maximum Strain on Fatigue Life Prediction for Natural Rubber Material
Fatigue life prediction and evaluation are the key
technologies to assure the safety and reliability of automotive rubber
components. The objective of this study is to develop the fatigue
analysis process for vulcanized rubber components, which is
applicable to predict fatigue life at initial product design step. Fatigue
life prediction methodology of vulcanized natural rubber was
proposed by incorporating the finite element analysis and fatigue
damage parameter of maximum strain appearing at the critical location
determined from fatigue test. In order to develop an appropriate
fatigue damage parameter of the rubber material, a series of
displacement controlled fatigue test was conducted using threedimensional
dumbbell specimen with different levels of mean
displacement. It was shown that the maximum strain was a proper
damage parameter, taking the mean displacement effects into account.
Nonlinear finite element analyses of three-dimensional dumbbell
specimens were performed based on a hyper-elastic material model
determined from the uni-axial tension, equi-biaxial tension and planar
test. Fatigue analysis procedure employed in this study could be used
approximately for the fatigue design.
Miniaturization of a Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna Loaded with Metamaterial
In this paper a novel structure of metamaterial is
proposed in order to miniaturize a rectangular microstrip patch
antenna. The metamaterial is composed of two nested split octagons
which are located on a 10 mm
Mucus Secretion Responses to Various Sublethal Copper (II) Concentrations in the Mussel Perna perna
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of
mucus production as a biomarker. This was done by exposing the
mussel Perna perna to various sublethal concentrations of Cu.
Mussels are effective as a bioindicator species as they accumulate Cu
in their tissues. Differences in mucus production rates were evaluated
at different Cu concentrations. The findings of this study indicate that
increasing Cu concentrations had a significant effect on the mucus
production rates over a 24 hour exposure. There were also significant
differences between the mucus production rates at different Cu
concentrations (p < 0.05). Thus, mucus is an essential detoxification
High Level Synthesis of Digital Filters Based On Sub-Token Forwarding
High level synthesis (HLS) is a process which
generates register-transfer level design for digital systems from
behavioral description. There are many HLS algorithms and
commercial tools. However, most of these algorithms consider a
behavioral description for the system when a single token is
presented to the system. This approach does not exploit extra
hardware efficiently, especially in the design of digital filters where
common operations may exist between successive tokens. In this
paper, we modify the behavioral description to process multiple
tokens in parallel. However, this approach is unlike the full
processing that requires full hardware replication. It exploits the
presence of common operations between successive tokens. The
performance of the proposed approach is better than sequential
processing and approaches that of full parallel processing as the
hardware resources are increased.
The Active Imagination Technique for Bruxism Treatment
The research purpose was to evaluate the effect of
Active Imagination Technique (AIT) for bruxism treatment. This
project was approved by the Ethics Committee on Human Research
(CAAE: 05619512.9.0000.0109). Twenty-one volunteers using
interocclusal splint completed the study. Initially they filled in a
questionnaire about their condition, composed of objective questions
on signs and symptoms. Following they were underwent asingle
session of AIT. After 15 days, the volunteers met again the same
initial questionnaire. The results were compared and showed that the
vast majority had pain symptoms, difficulty opening the mouth, pain
when chewing, reduced, some of the participants abandoned the
interocclusal splint during the evaluate period. It is concluded that the
technique can be used in bruxism treatment. Results seem to be
promising and demonstrates the need of highlighting Active
Imagination Technique since it points a possibility of bruxism cure
and that is unprecedented.
Development of a Complex Meteorological Support System for UAVs
The sensitivity of UAVs to the atmospheric effects are
apparent. All the same the meteorological support for the UAVs
missions is often non-adequate or partly missing.
In our paper we show a new complex meteorological support
system for different types of UAVs pilots, specialists and decision
makers, too. The mentioned system has two important parts with
different forecasts approach such as the statistical and dynamical
The statistical prediction approach is based on a large
climatological data base and the special analog method which is able
to select similar weather situations from the mentioned data base to
apply them during the forecasting procedure.
The applied dynamic approach uses the specific WRF model runs
twice a day and produces 96 hours, high resolution weather forecast
for the UAV users over the Hungary. An easy to use web-based
system can give important weather information over the Carpathian
basin in Central-Europe. The mentioned products can be reached via
Exploring Structure of Mobile Ecosystem: Inter-Industry Network Analysis Approach
As increasing importance of symbiosis and cooperation among mobile communication industries, the mobile ecosystem has been especially highlighted in academia and practice. The structure of mobile ecosystem is quite complex and the ecological role of actors is important to understand that structure. In this respect, this study aims to explore structure of mobile ecosystem in the case of Korea using inter-industry network analysis. Then, the ecological roles in mobile ecosystem are identified using centrality measures as a result of network analysis: degree of centrality, closeness, and betweenness. The result shows that the manufacturing and service industries are separate. Also, the ecological roles of some actors are identified based on the characteristics of ecological terms: keystone, niche, and dominator. Based on the result of this paper, we expect that the policy makers can formulate the future of mobile industry and healthier mobile ecosystem can be constructed.
A Strategy for Scaling-Up Vitamin A Supplementation in a Remote Rural Setting
Vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem in
Zimbabwe. Addressing vitamin A deficiency has the potential of
enhancing resistance to disease and reducing mortality especially in
children less than 5 years. We implemented and adapted vitamin A
outreach supplementation strategy within the National Immunization
Days and Extended Programme of Immunization in a rural district in
Zimbabwe. Despite usual operational challenges faced this approach
enabled the district to increase delivery of supplementation coverage.
This paper describes the outreach strategy that was implemented in
the remote rural district. The strategy covered 63 outreach sites with
2 sites being covered per day and visited once per month for the
whole year. Coverage reached 71% in an area of previous coverage
rates of around less than 50%. We recommend further exploration of
this strategy by others working in similar circumstances. This
strategy can be a potential way for use by Scaling-Up-Nutrition
Design of an Experimental Setup to Study the Drives of Battery Electric Vehicles
This paper describes the design considerations of an
experimental setup for research and exploring the drives of batteryfed
electric vehicles. Effective setup composition and its components
are discussed. With experimental setup described in this paper,
durability and functional tests can be procured to the customers.
Multiple experiments are performed in the form of steady-state
system exploring, acceleration programs, multi-step tests (speed
control, torque control), load collectives or close-to-reality driving
tests (driving simulation). Main focus of the functional testing is on
the measurements of power and energy efficiency and investigations
in driving simulation mode, which are used for application purposes.
In order to enable the examination of the drive trains beyond
standard modes of operation, different other parameters can be
A Comparison of Conventional and Biodegradable Chelating Agent in Different Type of Surfactant Solutions for Soap Scum Removal
One of the most challenges for hard surface cleaning product is to get rid of soap scum, a filmy sticky layer in the bathroom. The deposits of soap scum can be removed by using a proper surfactant solution with chelating agent. Unfortunately, the conventional chelating agent, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), has low biodegradability, which can be tolerance in water resources and harmful to aquatic animal and microorganism. In this study, two biodegradable chelating agents, ethylenediamine disuccinic acid (EDDS) and glutamic acid diacetic acid (GLDA) were introduced as a replacement of EDTA. The result shows that using GLDA with amphoteric surfactant gave the highest equilibrium solubility of soap scum.
Food Security in India: A Case Study of Kandi Region of Punjab
Banishing hunger from the face of earth has been
frequently expressed in various international, national and regional
level conferences since 1974. Providing food security has become
important issue across the world particularly in developing countries.
In a developing country like India, where growth rate of population is
more than that of the food grains production, food security is a
question of great concern. According to the International Food Policy
Research Institute's Global Hunger Index, 2011, India ranks 67 of the
81 countries of the world with the worst food security status. After
Green Revolution, India became a food surplus country. Its
production has increased from 74.23 million tonnes in 1966-67 to
257.44 million tonnes in 2011-12. But after achieving selfsufficiency
in food during last three decades, the country is now
facing new challenges due to increasing population, climate change,
stagnation in farm productivity. Therefore, the main objective of the
present paper is to examine the food security situation at national
level in the country and further to explain the paradox of food
insecurity in a food surplus state of India i.e in Punjab at micro level.
In order to achieve the said objectives, secondary data collected from
the Ministry of Agriculture and the Agriculture department of Punjab
State was analyzed. The result of the study showed that despite
having surplus food production the country is still facing food
insecurity problem at micro level. Within the Kandi belt of Punjab
state, the area adjacent to plains is food secure while the area along
the hills falls in food insecure zone.
The present paper is divided into following three sections (i)
Introduction, (ii) Analysis of food security situation at national level
as well as micro level (Kandi belt of Punjab State) (iii) Concluding
Evaluation of a PSO Approach for Optimum Design of a First-Order Controllers for TCP/AQM Systems
This paper presents a Particle Swarm Optimization
(PSO) method for determining the optimal parameters of a first-order
controller for TCP/AQM system. The model TCP/AQM is described
by a second-order system with time delay. First, the analytical
approach, based on the D-decomposition method and Lemma of
Kharitonov, is used to determine the stabilizing regions of a firstorder
controller. Second, the optimal parameters of the controller are
obtained by the PSO algorithm. Finally, the proposed method is
implemented in the Network Simulator NS-2 and compared with the
Delay-Distribution-Dependent Stability Criteria for BAM Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays
This paper is concerned with the delay-distributiondependent
stability criteria for bidirectional associative memory
(BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays. Based on the
Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and stochastic analysis approach,
a delay-probability-distribution-dependent sufficient condition is derived
to achieve the globally asymptotically mean square stable of
the considered BAM neural networks. The criteria are formulated in
terms of a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be
checked efficiently by use of some standard numerical packages. Finally,
a numerical example and its simulation is given to demonstrate
the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed results.
Role of Director's Philosophical Approach in Cinematographic Expression
The original idea for a feature film may come from a
writer, director or a producer. Director is the person responsible for
the creative aspects, both interpretive and technical, of a motion
picture production in a film. Director may be shot discussing his
project with his or her cowriters, members of production staff, and
producer, and director may be shown selecting locales or
constructing sets. All these activities provide, of course, ways of
externalizing director-s ideas about the film. A director sometimes
pushes both the film image and techniques of narration to new artistic
limits, but main responsibility of director is take the spectator to an
original opinion in his philosophical approach. Director tries to find
an artistic angle in every scene and change screenplay into an
effective story and sets his film on a spiritual and philosophical base.
Periodic Control of a Wastewater Treatment Process to Improve Productivity
In this paper, periodic force operation of a wastewater treatment process has been studied for the improved process performance. A previously developed dynamic model for the process is used to conduct the performance analysis. The static version of the model was utilized first to determine the optimal productivity conditions for the process. Then, feed flow rate in terms of dilution rate i.e. (D) is transformed into sinusoidal function. Nonlinear model predictive control algorithm is utilized to regulate the amplitude and period of the sinusoidal function. The parameters of the feed cyclic functions are determined which resulted in improved productivity than the optimal productivity under steady state conditions. The improvement in productivity is found to be marginal and is satisfactory in substrate conversion compared to that of the optimal condition and to the steady state condition, which corresponds to the average value of the periodic function. Successful results were also obtained in the presence of modeling errors and external disturbances.
Widening Students Perspective: Empowering Them with Systems Methodologies
Benefits to the organisation are just as important as technical ability when it comes to software success. The challenge is to provide industry with professionals who understand this. In other words: How to teach computer engineering students to look beyond technology, and at the benefits of software to organizations? This paper reports on the conceptual design of a section of the computer networks module aimed to sensitize the students to the organisational context.
Checkland focuses on different worldviews represented by various role players in the organisation. He developed the Soft Systems Methodology that guides purposeful action in organisations, while incorporating different worldviews in the modeling process. If we can sensitize students to these methods, they are likely to appreciate the wider context of application of system software. This paper will provide literature on these concepts as well as detail on how the students will be guided to adopt these concepts.
Understanding Work Integrated Learning in ICT: A Systems Perspective
Information and communication technology (ICT) is
essential to the operation of business, and create many employment
opportunities. High volumes of students graduate in ICT however
students struggle to find job placement. A discrepancy exists between
graduate skills and industry skill requirements. To address the need
for ICT skills required, universities must create programs to meet the
demands of a changing ICT industry. This requires a partnership
between industry, universities and other stakeholders. This situation
may be viewed as a critical systems thinking problem situation as
there are various role players each with their own needs and
requirements. Jackson states a typical critical systems methods has a
pluralistic nature. This paper explores the applicability and suitability
of Maslow and Dooyeweerd to guide understanding and make
recommendations for change in ICT WIL, to foster an all-inclusive
understanding of the situation by stakeholders. The above methods
provide tools for understanding softer issues beyond the skills
required. The study findings suggest that besides skills requirements,
a deeper understanding and empowering students from being a
student to a professional need to be understood and addressed.
Managing Meat Safety at South African Abattoirs
The importance of ensuring safe meat handling and
processing practices has been demonstrated in global reports on food
safety scares and related illness and deaths. This necessitated stricter
meat safety control strategies. Today, many countries have regulated
towards preventative and systematic control over safe meat
processing at abattoirs utilizing the Hazard Analysis Critical Control
Point (HACCP) principles. HACCP systems have been reported as
effective in managing food safety risks, if correctly implemented.
South Africa has regulated the Hygiene Management System (HMS)
based on HACCP principles applicable to abattoirs. Regulators utilise
the Hygiene Assessment System (HAS) to audit compliance at
abattoirs. These systems were benchmarked from the United
Kingdom (UK). Little research has been done them since inception as
of 2004. This paper presents a review of the two systems, its
implementation and comparison with HACCP. Recommendations are
made for future research to demonstrate the utility of the HMS and
HAS in assuring safe meat to consumers.
High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for Determination of Colistin Sulfate and its Application in Medicated Premixand Animal Feed
The aim of the present study was to develop and
validate an inexpensive and simple high performance liquid
chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of colistin
sulfate. Separation of colistin sulfate was achieved on a ZORBAX
Eclipse XDB-C18 column using UV detection at λ=215 nm. The
mobile phase was 30 mM sulfate buffer (pH 2.5):acetonitrile(76:24).
An excellent linearity (r2=0.998) was found in the concentration
range of 25 - 400 μg/mL. Intra- day and inter-day precisions of
method (%RSD, n=3) were less than 7.9%.The developed and
validated method was applied to determination of the content of
colistin sulfate in medicated premix and animal feed sample.The
recovery of colistin from animal feed was satisfactorily ranged from
90.92 to 93.77%. The results demonstrated that the HPLC method
developed in this work is appropriate for direct determination of
colistin sulfate in commercial medicated premixes and animal feed.
Effect of Catalyst Preparation on the Performance of CaO-ZnO Catalysts for Transesterification
In this research, CaO-ZnO catalysts (with various
Ca:Zn atomic ratios of 1:5, 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1) prepared by incipientwetness
impregnation (IWI) and co-precipitation (CP) methods were
used as a catalyst in the transesterification of palm oil with methanol
for biodiesel production. The catalysts were characterized by several
techniques, including BET method, CO2-TPD, and Hemmett
Indicator. The effects of precursor concentration, and calcination
temperature on the catalytic performance were studied under reaction
conditions of a 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 6 wt% catalyst,
reaction temperature of 60°C, and reaction time of 8 h. At Ca:Zn
atomic ratio of 1:3 gave the highest FAME value owing to a basic
properties and surface area of the prepared catalyst.
Designing a Multilingual Auction Website for Selling Agricultural Products
The study aimed to identify the logical structure of
data and particularities of developing and testing a website designed
for selling farm products through online auctions.
The research is based on a short literature review in the field and
exploratory trials of some successful models from other industries, in
order to identify the advantages of using such tool, as well as the
optimal structure and functionality of an auction portal. In the last
part, the study focuses on the results of testing the website by the
Conclusions of the study underlines that the particularities of some
agricultural products could raise difficulties in the process of selling
them through online auctions, but the use of such system it is
perceived to bring significant improvements in the supply chain.
The results of scientific investigations require a more detailed
study regarding the importance of using quality standards for
agricultural products sold via online auction, the impact that
implementation of an online payment system could have on trade
with agricultural products and problems which could arise in using
the website in different countries.
Orthogonal Array Application and Response Surface Method Approach for Optimal Product Values: An Application for Oil Blending Process
This paper presents a methodical approach for designing and optimizing process parameters in oil blending industries. Twenty seven replicated experiments were conducted for production of A-Z crown super oil (SAE20W/50) employing L9 orthogonal array to establish process response parameters. Power law model was fitted to experimental data and the obtained model was optimized applying the central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM). Quadratic model was found to be significant for production of A-Z crown supper oil. The study recognized and specified four new lubricant formulations that conform to ISO oil standard in the course of analyzing the batch productions of A-Z crown supper oil as: L1: KV = 21.8293Cst, BS200 = 9430.00Litres, Ad102=11024.00Litres, PVI = 2520 Litres, L2: KV = 22.513Cst, BS200 = 12430.00 Litres, Ad102 = 11024.00 Litres, PVI = 2520 Litres, L3: KV = 22.1671Cst, BS200 = 9430.00 Litres, Ad102 = 10481.00 Litres, PVI= 2520 Litres, L4: KV = 22.8605Cst, BS200 = 12430.00 Litres, Ad102 = 10481.00 Litres, PVI = 2520 Litres. The analysis of variance showed that quadratic model is significant for kinematic viscosity production while the R-sq value statistic of 0.99936 showed that the variation of kinematic viscosity is due to its relationship with the control factors. This study therefore resulted to appropriate blending proportions of lubricants base oil and additives and recommends the optimal kinematic viscosity of A-Z crown super oil (SAE20W/50) to be 22.86Cst.
Autonomous Robots- Visual Perception in Underground Terrains Using Statistical Region Merging
Robots- visual perception is a field that is gaining
increasing attention from researchers. This is partly due to emerging
trends in the commercial availability of 3D scanning systems or
devices that produce a high information accuracy level for a variety of
applications. In the history of mining, the mortality rate of mine workers
has been alarming and robots exhibit a great deal of potentials to
tackle safety issues in mines. However, an effective vision system
is crucial to safe autonomous navigation in underground terrains.
This work investigates robots- perception in underground terrains
(mines and tunnels) using statistical region merging (SRM) model.
SRM reconstructs the main structural components of an imagery
by a simple but effective statistical analysis. An investigation is
conducted on different regions of the mine, such as the shaft, stope
and gallery, using publicly available mine frames, with a stream of
locally captured mine images. An investigation is also conducted on a
stream of underground tunnel image frames, using the XBOX Kinect
3D sensors. The Kinect sensors produce streams of red, green and
blue (RGB) and depth images of 640 x 480 resolution at 30 frames per
second. Integrating the depth information to drivability gives a strong
cue to the analysis, which detects 3D results augmenting drivable and
non-drivable regions in 2D. The results of the 2D and 3D experiment
with different terrains, mines and tunnels, together with the qualitative
and quantitative evaluation, reveal that a good drivable region can be
detected in dynamic underground terrains.
Effect of Process Parameters on the Proximate Composition, Functional and Sensory Properties
Flour from Mucuna beans (Mucuna pruriens) were
used in producing texturized meat analogue using a single screw
extruder to monitor modifications on the proximate composition and
the functional properties at high moisture level. Response surface
methodology based on Box Behnken design at three levels of barrel
temperature (110, 120, 130°C), screw speed (100,120,140rpm) and
feed moisture (44, 47, 50%) were used in 17 runs. Regression models
describing the effect of variables on the product responses were
obtained. Descriptive profile analyses and consumer acceptability
test were carried out on optimized flavoured extruded meat analogue.
Responses were mostly affected by barrel temperature and moisture
level and to a lesser extent by screw speed. Optimization results
based on desirability concept indicated that a barrel temperature of
120.15°C, feed moisture of 47% and screw speed of 119.19 rpm
would produce meat analogue of preferable proximate composition,
functional and sensory properties which reveals consumers` likeness
for the product.
Food Safety Culture Paramount Than Traditional Food Safety System and Food Safety Culture in South African Food Industries
The fact that traditional food safety system in the
absence of food safety culture is inadequate has recently become a
cause of concern for food safety professionals and other stakeholders.
Focusing on implementation of traditional food safety system i.e
HACCP prerequisite program and HACCP without the presence of
food safety culture in the food industry has led to the processing,
marketing and distribution of contaminated foods. The results of this
are regular out breaks of food borne illnesses and recalls of foods
from retail outlets with serious consequences to the consumers and
manufacturers alike. This article will consider the importance of food
safety culture, the cases of outbreaks and recalls that occurred when
companies did not make food safety culture a priority. Most
importantly, the food safety cultures of some food industries in South
Africa were assessed from responses to questionnaires from food
safety/food industry professionals in Durban South Africa. The
article was concluded by recommending that both food
industry employees and employers alike take food safety culture
Cross-Industry Innovations – Systematic Identification and Adaption
Due to today-s fierce competition, companies have to
be proactive creators of the future by effectively developing
innovations. Especially radical innovations allow high profit margins
– but they also entail high risks. One possibility to realize radical
innovations and reduce the risk of failure is cross-industry innovation
(CII). CII brings together problems and solution ideas from different
industries. However, there is a lack of systematic ways towards CII.
Bridging this gap, the present paper provides a systematic approach
towards planned CII. Starting with the analysis of potentials, the
definition of promising search strategies is crucial. Subsequently,
identified solution ideas need to be assessed. For the most promising
ones, the adaption process has to be systematically planned –
regarding the risk affinity of a company. The introduced method is
explained on a project from the furniture industry.
Wear Regimes of Al-Cu-Mg Matrix Composites
Tribological behavior and wear regimes of ascast
and heattreted Al-Cu-Mg matrix composites containing SiC
particles were studied using a pin-on-disc wear testing apparatus
against an EN32 steel counterface giving emphasis on wear rate as
a function of applied pressures (0.2, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.4 MPa) at
different sliding distances (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000
meters) and at a fixed sliding speed of 3.35m/s. The results showed
that the composite exhibited lower wear rate than that of the matrix
alloy and the wear rate of the composites is noted to be invariant to
the sliding distance and is reducing by heat treatment. Wear
regimes such as low, mild and severe wear were observed as per the
Archard-s wear calculations. It is very interesting to note that the
mild wear is almost constant in all the wear regimes.
Determinants and Perspectives of an Accounting Career. Empirical Evidence on Students' Perceptions
This study realizes an empirical investigation of main factors to develop an accounting career, stereotypes on accountants and accounting and perceptions on future career path for a sample of master students in accounting. The research provides some insight into what master students consider when choosing their future career paths. The most important two reasons chosen by students were “career opportunities" and “future earnings. They see accounting as structured, governed by conformity, requiring skills in working with numbers, monotonous, accurate, more efficient than effective but also absorbing, interesting and involving a certain degree of novelty. Although these students plan to start their careers in a multinational or accounting/audit firm, most of those plan to leave after five years. It resulted that women value more flexibility and time requiring special attention in retention policies practiced by firms.
Accounting for SMEs – How Important is Size in Choosing between Global and Local Standards?
There is limited evidence from various countries
about the possible impact of various criteria to be used to determine
the scope of the IFRS for SMEs issued in 2009 and, research is
needed in this area. We provide evidence from Romania, an
emerging economy member of the European Union. The aim of this
paper is to analyze in a local setting if size is a relevant factor for
deciding between local and global standards for SMEs. Our results
indicate that size is a moderate indicator of the existence of possible
users interested in financial statements and that there is a difference
between the scopes of the standard determined on various criteria..
Also, we suggest that the international exposure is quite reduced in
the case of SMEs, but is sufficient to suggest that at least some SMEs
would benefit from international comparability of financial
Easy-Interactive Ordering of the Pareto Optimal Set with Imprecise Weights
In the multi objective optimization, in the case when generated set of Pareto optimal solutions is large, occurs the problem to select of the best solution from this set. In this paper, is suggested a method to order of Pareto set. Ordering the Pareto optimal set carried out in conformity with the introduced distance function between each solution and selected reference point, where the reference point may be adjusted to represent the preferences of a decision making agent. Preference information about objective weights from a decision maker may be expressed imprecisely. The developed elicitation procedure provides an opportunity to obtain surrogate numerical weights for the objectives, and thus, to manage impreciseness of preference. The proposed method is a scalable to many objectives and can be used independently or as complementary to the various visualization techniques in the multidimensional case.
Thermal Distribution in Axial-Flow Fixed Bed with Flowing Gas
This paper reported an experimental research of
steady-state heat transfer behaviour of a gas flowing through a fixed
bed under the different operating conditions. Studies had been carried
out in a fixed-bed packed methanol synthesis catalyst percolated by air
at appropriate flow rate. Both radial and axial direction temperature
distribution had been investigated under the different operating
conditions. The effects of operating conditions including the reactor
inlet air temperature, the heating pipe temperature and the air flow rate
on temperature distribution was investigated and the experimental
results showed that a higher inlet air temperature was conducive to
uniform temperature distribution in the fixed bed. A large temperature
drop existed at the radial direction, and the temperature drop increased
with the heating pipe temperature increasing under the experimental
conditions; the temperature profile of the vicinity of the heating pipe
was strongly affected by the heating pipe temperature. A higher air
flow rate can improve the heat transfer in the fixed bed. Based on the
thermal distribution, heat transfer models of the fixed bed could be
established, and the characteristics of the temperature distribution in
the fixed bed could be finely described, that had an important practical
Product Yields and Chemical Compounds of Cogongrass by Pyrolysis in Twin Screw Feeder
Continuous pyrolysis of Cogongrass by control
temperature in the novel pyrolysis reactor were conducted at three
difference temperatures 400, 450 and 500°C. Preliminary calculate of
the product yields founded the liquid yield of Cogongrass was
highest of 41.45 %, at 500 oC. Indicated that the liquid yield from
Cogongrass had good received yields because it gave over 40 % and
its produced more liquid than that solid and gas. The compounds
detected in bio-oil from Cogongrass showed the functional group,
especially; Phenol, Phenol, 2,5-dimethyl, Phenol, 3-methyl, 2-
methyl-1,3-oxathiofane, Benzene,1-ethyl-4-methoxy, 2-Cyclopenten-
1-one,2,3-dimethyl, 2- Cyclopenten-1- one, 3-Methyl.
Hydrogenation of Acetic Acid on Alumina-Supported Pt-Sn Catalysts
Three alumina-supported Pt-Sn catalysts have been
prepared by means of co-impregnation and characterized by XRD and
N2 adsorption. The influence of catalyst composition and reaction
conditions on the conversion and selectivity were investigated in the
hydrogenation of acetic acid in an isothermal integral fixed bed
reactor. The experiments were performed on the temperature interval
468-548 K, liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) of 0.3-0.7h-1,
pressures between 1.0 and 5.0Mpa. A good compromise of
0.75%Pt-1.5%Sn can act as an optimized acetic acid hydrogenation
catalyst, and the conversion and selectivity can be tuned through the
variation of reaction conditions.
Precision Control of Single-Phase PWM Inverter Using M68HC11E Microcontroller
Induction motors are being used in greater numbers
throughout a wide variety of industrial and commercial applications
because it provides many benefits and reliable device to convert the
electrical energy into mechanical motion. In some application it-s
desired to control the speed of the induction motor. Because of the
physics of the induction motor the preferred method of controlling its
speed is to vary the frequency of the AC voltage driving the motor. In
recent years, with the microcontroller incorporated into an appliance
it becomes possible to use it to generate the variable frequency AC
voltage to control the speed of the induction motor.
This study investigates the microcontroller based variable
frequency power inverter. the microcontroller is provide the variable
frequency pulse width modulation (PWM) signal that control the
applied voltage on the gate drive, which is provides the required
PWM frequency with less harmonics at the output of the power
The fully controlled bridge voltage source inverter has been
implemented with semiconductors power devices isolated gate
bipolar transistor (IGBT), and the PWM technique has been
employed in this inverter to supply the motor with AC voltage.
The proposed drive system for three & single phase power inverter
is simulated using Matlab/Simulink. The Matlab Simulation Results
for the proposed system were achieved with different SPWM. From
the result a stable variable frequency inverter over wide range has
been obtained and a good agreement has been found between the
simulation and hardware of a microcontroller based single phase
A Comparison of Dilute Sulfuric and Phosphoric Acid Pretreatments in Biofuel Production from Corncobs
Biofuels, like biobutanol, have been recognized for
being renewable and sustainable fuels which can be produced from
lignocellulosic biomass. To convert lignocellulosic biomass to
biofuel, pretreatment process is an important step to remove
hemicelluloses and lignin to improve enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute
acid pretreatment has been successful developed for pretreatment of
corncobs and the optimum conditions of dilute sulfuric and
phosphoric acid pretreatment were obtained at 120 °C for 5 min with
15:1 liquid to solid ratio and 140 °C for 10 min with 10:1 liquid to
solid ratio, respectively. The result shows that both of acid
pretreatments gave the content of total sugar approximately 34–35
g/l. In case of inhibitor content (furfural), phosphoric acid
pretreatment gives higher than sulfuric acid pretreatment.
Characterizations of corncobs after pretreatment indicate that both of
acid pretreatments can improve enzymatic accessibility and the better
results present in corncobs pretreated with sulfuric acid in term of
surface area, crystallinity, and composition analysis.
Optimization of Two-Stage Pretreatment Combined with Microwave Radiation Using Response Surface Methodology
Pretreatment is an essential step in the conversion of
lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugar that used for biobutanol
production. Among pretreatment processes, microwave is considered
to improve pretreatment efficiency due to its high heating efficiency,
easy operation, and easily to combine with chemical reaction. The
main objectives of this work are to investigate the feasibility of
microwave pretreatment to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis of
corncobs and to determine the optimal conditions using response
surface methodology. Corncobs were pretreated via two-stage
pretreatment in dilute sodium hydroxide (2 %) followed by dilute
sulfuric acid 1 %. Pretreated corncobs were subjected to enzymatic
hydrolysis to produce reducing sugar. Statistical experimental design
was used to optimize pretreatment parameters including temperature,
residence time and solid-to-liquid ratio to achieve the highest amount
of glucose. The results revealed that solid-to-liquid ratio and
temperature had a significant effect on the amount of glucose.
Research on Hybrid Neural Network in Intrusion Detection System
This paper presents an intrusion detection system of hybrid neural network model based on RBF and Elman. It is used for anomaly detection and misuse detection. This model has the memory function .It can detect discrete and related aggressive behavior effectively. RBF network is a real-time pattern classifier, and Elman network achieves the memory ability for former event. Based on the hybrid model intrusion detection system uses DARPA data set to do test evaluation. It uses ROC curve to display the test result intuitively. After the experiment it proves this hybrid model intrusion detection system can effectively improve the detection rate, and reduce the rate of false alarm and fail.
Contamination in Industrial Areas and Environmental Management in Latvia
Environmental contamination is a common problem in ex-industrial and industrial sites. This article gives a brief description of general applied environmental investigation methodologies and possible remediation applications in Latvia. Most of contaminated areas are situated in former and active industrial, military areas and ports. Industrial and logistic activities very often have been with great impact for more than hundred years thus the contamination level with heavy metals, hydrocarbons, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants is high and is threatening health and environment in general. 242 territories now are numbered as contaminated and fixed in the National Register of contaminated territories in Latvia. Research and remediation of contamination in densely populated areas are of important environmental policy domain. Four different investigation case studies of contaminated areas are given describing the history of use, environmental quality assessment as well as planned environmental management actions. All four case study locations are situated in Riga - the capital of the Republic of Latvia. The aim of this paper is to analyze the situation and problems with management of contaminated areas in Latvia, give description of field research methods and recommendations for remediation industry based on scientific data and innovations.
Courses Pre-Required Visualization Using Force Directed Placement Technique
Visualizing “Courses – Pre – Required -
Architecture" on the screen has proven to be useful and helpful for
university actors and specially for students. In fact, these students
can easily identify courses and their pre required, perceive the
courses to follow in the future, and then can choose rapidly the
appropriate course to register in. Given a set of courses and their prerequired,
we present an algorithm for visualization a graph entitled
“Courses-Pre-Required-Graph" that present courses and their prerequired
in order to help students to recognize, lonely, what courses
to take in the future and perceive the contain of all courses that they
will study. Our algorithm using “Force Directed Placement"
technique visualizes the “Courses-Pre-Required-Graph" in such way
that courses are easily identifiable. The time complexity of our
drawing algorithm is O (n2), where n is the number of courses in the
Night-Time Traffic Light Detection Based On SVM with Geometric Moment Features
This paper presents an effective traffic lights detection
method at the night-time. First, candidate blobs of traffic lights are
extracted from RGB color image. Input image is represented on the
dominant color domain by using color transform proposed by Ruta,
then red and green color dominant regions are selected as candidates.
After candidate blob selection, we carry out shape filter for noise
reduction using information of blobs such as length, area, area of
boundary box, etc. A multi-class classifier based on SVM (Support
Vector Machine) applies into the candidates. Three kinds of features
are used. We use basic features such as blob width, height, center
coordinate, area, area of blob. Bright based stochastic features are also
used. In particular, geometric based moment-s values between
candidate region and adjacent region are proposed and used to improve
the detection performance. The proposed system is implemented on
Intel Core CPU with 2.80 GHz and 4 GB RAM and tested with the
urban and rural road videos. Through the test, we show that the
proposed method using PF, BMF, and GMF reaches up to 93 % of
detection rate with computation time of in average 15 ms/frame.
The Effect of Alternative Fuel Combustion in the Cement Kiln Main Burner on Production Capacity and Improvement with Oxygen Enrichment
A mathematical model based on a mass and energy
balance for the combustion in a cement rotary kiln was developed.
The model was used to investigate the impact of replacing about
45 % of the primary coal energy by different alternative fuels.
Refuse derived fuel, waste wood, solid hazardous waste and liquid
hazardous waste were used in the modeling. The results showed that
in order to keep the kiln temperature unchanged, and thereby
maintain the required clinker quality, the production capacity had to
be reduced by 1-15 %, depending on the fuel type. The reason for the
reduction is increased exhaust gas flow rates caused by the fuel
characteristics. The model, which has been successfully validated in a
full-scale experiment, was also used to show that the negative impact
on the production capacity can be avoided if a relatively small part of
the combustion air is replaced by pure oxygen.
Water Reallocation Policies – The Importance of Rural and Urban Differences in Alberta, Canada
There is currently intensive debate in Alberta,
Canada, regarding rural to urban water reallocation. This paper
explores the demographic and attitudinal influences that are
associated with the acceptance of water reallocation policies and
whether such acceptance differs between urban and rural residents.
We investigate three policy orientations in regards to water policies:
i) government intervention; ii) environmental protection; and iii)
protecting irrigators- water rights. We find that urban dwellers are
more likely to favour government intervention while rural dwellers
are more likely to support policies that aim at protecting irrigators-
water rights. While urban dwellers are also more likely to favour
environmental protection, the difference is not statistically
significant. We also find that other factors have a significant impact
on policy choice irrespective of residence such as demographic and
socioeconomic factors as well as the values people hold toward water
and the environment.
Cooperative Energy Efficient Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks in Smart Grid Communications
Smart Grids employ wireless sensor networks for
their control and monitoring. Sensors are characterized by limitations
in the processing power, energy supply and memory spaces, which
require a particular attention on the design of routing and data
Since most routing algorithms for sensor networks, focus on
finding energy efficient paths to prolong the lifetime of sensor
networks, the power of sensors on efficient paths depletes quickly,
and consequently sensor networks become incapable of monitoring
events from some parts of their target areas. In consequence, the
design of routing protocols should consider not only energy
efficiency paths, but also energy efficient algorithms in general.
In this paper we propose an energy efficient routing protocol for
wireless sensor networks without the support of any location
information system. The reliability and the efficiency of this protocol
have been demonstrated by simulation studies where we compare
them to the legacy protocols. Our simulation results show that these
algorithms scale well with network size and density.
Dynamic Models versus Frailty Models for Recurrent Event Data
Recurrent event data is a special type of multivariate
survival data. Dynamic and frailty models are one of the approaches
that dealt with this kind of data. A comparison between these two
models is studied using the empirical standard deviation of the
standardized martingale residual processes as a way of assessing the
fit of the two models based on the Aalen additive regression model.
Here we found both approaches took heterogeneity into account and
produce residual standard deviations close to each other both in the
simulation study and in the real data set.
Histogenesis of Rabbit Vallate Papillae
The gustatory system allows animals to distinguish
varieties of food and affects greatly the consumption of food, hence
the health and growth of animals. In the current study, we
investigated the histogenesis of vallate papillae (VLP) in the rabbit
tongue using light and scanning electron microscopy. Samples were
obtained from rabbit embryos at the embryonic days 16-30 (E16-30),
and from newborns until maturity; 6 months. At E16, the first
primordia of vallate papillae were observed as small pits on the
surface epithelium of the tongue-s root. At E18, the caudal part was
prominent with loose mesenchymal tissue core; meanwhile the rostral
part of the papilla was remained as a thick mass of epithelial cells. At
E20-24, the side epithelium formed the primitive annular groove. At
E26, the primitive taste buds appeared only at the papillary surface
and reached their maturity by E28. The annular groove started to
appear at E26 became more defined at E28. The definitive vallate
papillae with substantial number of apparently mature taste buds
were observed by the end of the second week. We conclude that the
vallate papillae develop early and mature during the early postnatal
Mucosal- Submucosal Changes in Rabbit Duodenum during Development
The sequential morphologic changes of rabbit duodenal mucosa-submucosa were studied from primodial stage to birth in 15 fetuses and during the early days of life in 21 rabbit newborns till maturity using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Fetal rabbit duodenum develops from a simple tube of stratified epithelium to a tube containing villus and intervillus regions of simple columnar epithelium. By day 21 of gestation, the first rudimentary villi were appeared and by day 24 the first true villi were appeared. The Crypts of Lieberkuhn did not appear until birth. By the first day of postnatal life the duodenal glands appeared. The histological maturity of the rabbit small intestine occurred one month after birth. In conclusion, at all stages, the sequential morphologic changes of the rabbit small intestine developed to meet the structural and physiological demands during the fetal stage to be prepared to extra uterine life.
Characterising Effects of Applied Loads on the Mechanical Properties of Formed Steel Sheets
The purpose of this research study is to investigate the manner in which various loads affect the mechanical properties of the formed mild steel plates. The investigation focuses on examining the cross-sectional area of the metal plate at the centre of the formed mild steel plate. Six mild steel plates were deformed with different loads. The loads applied on the plates had a magnitude of 5 kg, 10 kg, 15 kg, 20 kg, 25 kg and 30 kg. The radius of the punching die was 120 mm and the loads were applied at room temperature. The investigations established that the applied load causes the Vickers microhardness at the cross-sectional area of the plate to increase due to strain hardening. Hence, the percentage increase of the hardness due to the load was found to be directly proportional to the increase in the load. Furthermore, the tensile test results for the parent material showed that the average Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) for the three samples was 308 MPa while the average Yield Strength and Percentage Elongation were 227 MPa and 38 % respectively. Similarly, the UTS of the formed components increased after the deformation of the plate, as such it can be concluded that the forming loads alter the mechanical properties of the materials by improving and strengthening the material properties.
Semantic Markup for Web Applications
In this paper we would like to introduce some of the
best practices of using semantic markup and its significance in the
success of web applications. Search engines are one of the best ways
to reach potential customers and are some of the main indicators of
web sites' fruitfulness. We will introduce the most important
semantic vocabularies which are used by Google and Yahoo.
Afterwards, we will explain the process of semantic markup
implementation and its significance for search engines and other
semantic markup consumers. We will describe techniques for slow
conceiving RDFa markup to our web application for collecting Call
for papers (CFP) announcements.
A Review on Technology Forecasting Methods and Their Application Area
Technology changes have been acknowledged as a
critical factor in determining competitiveness of organization. Under
such environment, the right anticipation of technology change has
been of huge importance in strategic planning. To monitor technology
change, technology forecasting (TF) is frequently utilized. In
academic perspective, TF has received great attention for a long time.
However, few researches have been conducted to provide overview of
the TF literature. Even though some studies deals with review of TF
research, they generally focused on type and characteristics of various
TF, so hardly provides information about patterns of TF research and
which TF method is used in certain technology industry. Accordingly,
this study profile developments in and patterns of scholarly research in
TF over time. Also, this study investigates which technology
industries have used certain TF method and identifies their
relationships. This study will help in understanding TF research trend
and their application area.
Traces of Birdhouse Tradition in Anatolia
The birdhouses and dovecotes, which are the indicator
of naturalness and human-animal relationship, are one of the
traditional cultural values of Turkey. With their structures compatible
with nature and respectful to humans the bird houses and dovecotes,
which have an important position in local urbanization models as a
representative of the civil architecture with their unique form and
function are important subjects that should be evaluated in a wide
frame comprising from architecture to urbanism, from ecologic
agriculture to globalization. The traditional bird houses and
dovecotes are disregarded due to the insensitivity affecting the city
life and the change in the public sense of art. In this study, the
characteristic properties of traditional dovecotes and birdhouses,
started in 13th century and ended in 19th century in Anatolia, are
tried to be defined for the sustainability of the tradition and for giving
a new direction to the designers.
Sustainable and Ecological Designs of the Built Environment
This paper reviews designs of the built environment
from a sustainability perspective, emphasizing their importance in
achieving ecological and sustainable economic objectives. The built
environment has traditionally resulted in loss of biodiversity,
extinction of some species, climate change, excessive water use, land
degradation, space depletion, waste accumulation, energy
consumption and environmental pollution. Materials used like
plastics, metals, bricks, concrete, cement, natural aggregates, glass
and plaster have wreaked havoc on the earth´s resources, since they
have high levels of embodied energy hence not sustainable.
Additional resources are consumed during use and disposal phases.
Proposed designs for sustainability solutions include: ecological
sanitation and eco-efficiency systems that ensure social, economic,
environmental and technical sustainability. Renewable materials and
energy systems, passive cooling and heating systems and material
and energy reduction, reuse and recycling can improve the sector.
These ideas are intended to inform the field of ecological design of
the built environment.
Optimal Design of Airfoil Platform Shapes with High Aspect Ratio Using Genetic Algorithm
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) performing their
operations for a long time have been attracting much attention in
military and civil aviation industries for the past decade. The
applicable field of UAV is changing from the military purpose only to
the civil one. Because of their low operation cost, high reliability and
the necessity of various application areas, numerous development
programs have been initiated around the world. To obtain the optimal
solutions of the design variable (i.e., sectional airfoil profile, wing
taper ratio and sweep) for high performance of UAVs, both the lift and
lift-to-drag ratio are maximized whereas the pitching moment should
be minimized, simultaneously. It is found that the lift force and
lift-to-drag ratio are linearly dependent and a unique and dominant
solution are existed. However, a trade-off phenomenon is observed
between the lift-to-drag ratio and pitching moment. As the result of
optimization, sixty-five (65) non-dominated Pareto individuals at the
cutting edge of design spaces that are decided by airfoil shapes can be
Development of a Water-Jet Assisted Underwater Laser Cutting Process
We present the development of a new underwater laser
cutting process in which a water-jet has been used along with the
laser beam to remove the molten material through kerf. The
conventional underwater laser cutting usually utilizes a high pressure
gas jet along with laser beam to create a dry condition in the cutting
zone and also to eject out the molten material. This causes a lot of gas
bubbles and turbulence in water, and produces aerosols and waste
gas. This may cause contamination in the surrounding atmosphere
while cutting radioactive components like burnt nuclear fuel. The
water-jet assisted underwater laser cutting process produces much
less turbulence and aerosols in the atmosphere. Some amount of
water vapor bubbles is formed at the laser-metal-water interface;
however, they tend to condense as they rise up through the
surrounding water. We present the design and development of a
water-jet assisted underwater laser cutting head and the parametric
study of the cutting of AISI 304 stainless steel sheets with a 2 kW
CW fiber laser. The cutting performance is similar to that of the gas
assist laser cutting; however, the process efficiency is reduced due to
heat convection by water-jet and laser beam scattering by vapor. This
process may be attractive for underwater cutting of nuclear reactor
Entropy Generation for Natural Convection in a Darcy – Brinkman Porous Cavity
The paper provides a numerical investigation of the
entropy generation analysis due to natural convection in an inclined
square porous cavity. The coupled equations of mass, momentum,
energy and species conservation are solved using the Control Volume
Finite-Element Method. Effect of medium permeability and
inclination angle on entropy generation is analysed. It was found that
according to the Darcy number and the porous thermal Raleigh
number values, the entropy generation could be mainly due to heat
transfer or to fluid friction irreversibility and that entropy generation
reaches extremum values for specific inclination angles.
Conversion of Methanol to Propylene over a High Silica B-HZSM-5 Catalyst
Hydrothermally synthesized high silica borosilicates
with the MFI structure was subjected to several characterization
techniques. The effect of boron on the structure and acidity of
HZSM-5 catalyst were studied by XRD, SEM, N2 adsorption, solid
state NMR, NH3-TPD. It was confirmed that boron had entered the
framework in the boron samples. The results also revealed that strong
acidity was weakened and weak acidity was strengthened by the
boron added zeolite framework compared with parent catalyst. The
catalytic performance was carried out in a fixed bed at 460°C for
methanol to propylene (MTP) reaction. The results of MTP reaction
showed a great increment of the propylene selectivity and excellent
stability for the B-HZSM-5. The catalyst exhibited about 81%
selectivity to C2
= - C4
= olefins with 40% selectivity of propylene as
major component at near 100% methanol conversion, and the stable
performance in the studied period was 100h.
Thermal Analysis of Toroidal Transformers Using Finite Element Method
In this paper a three dimensional thermal model of a
power toroidal transformer is proposed for both steady-state or
transient conditions. The influence of electric current and ambient
temperature on the temperature distribution, has been investigated.
To validate the three dimensional thermal model, some experimental
tests have been done. There is a good correlation between
experimental and simulation results.
Thermal Analysis of a Sliding Electric Contact System Using Finite Element Method
In this paper a three dimensional thermal model of a
sliding contact system is proposed for both steady-state or transient
conditions. The influence of contact force, electric current and
ambient temperature on the temperature distribution, has been
investigated. A thermal analysis of the different type of the graphite
material of fixed electric contact and its influence on contact system
temperature rise, has been performed. To validate the three
dimensional thermal model, some experimental tests have been done.
There is a good correlation between experimental and simulation
CFD Study of Turbine Submergence Effects on Aeration of a Stirred Tank
For many chemical and biological processes, the understanding of the mixing phenomenon and flow behavior in a stirred tank is of major importance. A three-dimensional numerical study was performed using the software Fluent, to study the flow field in a stirred tank with a Rushton turbine. In this work, we first studied the flow generated in the tank with a Rushton turbine. Then, we studied the effect of the variation of turbine’s submergence on the thermodynamic quantities defining the flow field. For that, four submergences were considered, while maintaining the same rotational speed (N =250rpm). This work intends to optimize the aeration performances of a Rushton turbine in a stirred tank.
Supportability Analysis in LCI Environment
Starting from the basic pillars of the supportability
analysis this paper queries its characteristics in LCI (Life Cycle
Integration) environment. The research methodology contents a
review of modern logistics engineering literature with the objective to
collect and synthesize the knowledge relating to standards of
supportability design in e-logistics environment. The results show
that LCI framework has properties which are in fully compatibility
with the requirement of simultaneous logistics support and productservice
bundle design. The proposed approach is a contribution to the
more comprehensive and efficient supportability design process.
Also, contributions are reflected through a greater consistency of
collected data, automated creation of reports suitable for different
analysis, as well as the possibility of their customization according
with customer needs. In addition to this, convenience of this approach
is its practical use in real time. In a broader sense, LCI allows
integration of enterprises on a worldwide basis facilitating electronic
An Accurate Computation of Block Hybrid Method for Solving Stiff Ordinary Differential Equations
In this paper, self-starting block hybrid method of
order (5,5,5,5)T is proposed for the solution of the special second
order ordinary differential equations with associated initial or
boundary conditions. The continuous hybrid formulations enable us
to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to
obtain four discrete schemes, which were used in block form for
parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. The computational
burden and computer time wastage involved in the usual reduction of
second order problem into system of first order equations are avoided
by this approach. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of
the block method are tested on stiff ordinary differential equations,
and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.
An Experimentally Validated Thermo- Mechanical Finite Element Model for Friction Stir Welding in Carbon Steels
Solidification cracking and hydrogen cracking are some defects generated in the fusion welding of ultrahigh carbon steels. However, friction stir welding (FSW) of such steels, being a solid-state technique, has been demonstrated to alleviate such problems encountered in traditional welding. FSW include different process parameters that must be carefully defined prior processing. These parameters included but not restricted to: tool feed, tool RPM, tool geometry, tool tilt angle. These parameters form a key factor behind avoiding warm holes and voids behind the tool and in achieving a defect-free weld. More importantly, these parameters directly affect the microstructure of the weld and hence the final mechanical properties of weld. For that, 3D finite element (FE) thermo-mechanical model was developed using DEFORM 3D to simulate FSW of carbon steel. At points of interest in the joint, tracking is done for history of critical state variables such as temperature, stresses, and strain rates. Typical results found include the ability to simulate different weld zones. Simulations predictions were successfully compared to experimental FSW tests. It is believed that such a numerical model can be used to optimize FSW processing parameters to favor desirable defect free weld with better mechanical properties.
Application of Novel Conserving Immersed Boundary Method to Moving Boundary Problem
A new conserving approach in the context of Immersed Boundary Method (IBM) is presented to simulate one dimensional, incompressible flow in a moving boundary problem. The method employs control volume scheme to simulate the flow field. The concept of ghost node is used at the boundaries to conserve the mass and momentum equations. The Present method implements the conservation laws in all cells including boundary control volumes. Application of the method is studied in a test case with moving boundary. Comparison between the results of this new method and a sharp interface (Image Point Method) IBM algorithm shows a well distinguished improvement in both pressure and velocity fields of the present method. Fluctuations in pressure field are fully resolved in this proposed method. This approach expands the IBM capability to simulate flow field for variety of problems by implementing conservation laws in a fully Cartesian grid compared to other conserving methods.
Renewal of The Swedish Million Dwelling Program, the Public Housing Company and the Local Community, Hindrances and Mutual Aid
Public housing is a vital factor in community
development. Successful city, housing and eco system regeneration
design is essential in providing positive community development.
This concerns work places, nice dwellings, providing premises for
child care, care of the elderly, providing qualitative premises for
different kinds of commercial service, providing a nice built
environment and housing areas and not the least activating tenants.
The public housing companies give value to society by stimulating
people, renovating socially and economically sustainable as well as
being partners to local business and authorities. By their activities the
housing companies contribute to sustainable local and regional
growth and the identity and reputation of cities. A Social, Economic
and Ecological Reputation Effect (SEERE) model for actions to
promote housing and community reputation is presented. The model
emphasizes regenerative actions to restore natural eco systems as part
of housing renewal strategies and to strengthen municipality
Solar Panel Installations on Existing Structures
The rising price of fossil fuels, government incentives
and growing public aware-ness for the need to implement sustainable
energy supplies has resulted in a large in-crease in solar panel
installations across the country. For many sites the most eco-nomical
solar panel installation uses existing, southerly facing rooftops.
Adding solar panels to an existing roof typically means increased
loads that must be borne by the building-s structural elements. The
structural design professional is responsible for ensuring a new solar
panel installation is properly supported by an existing structure and
configured to maximize energy generation.
Expanding Affordable Housing through Inclusionary Zoning in the City of Toronto
Reasonably priced and well-constructed housing must
be an integral and element supporting a healthy society. The absence
of housing everyone in society can afford negatively affects the
people's health, education, ability to get jobs, develop their
community. Without access to decent housing, economic
development, integration of immigrants and inclusiveness, the society
is negatively impacted. Canada has a sterling record in creating
housing compared to many other nations around the globe. Canadian
housing gets support from a mature and responsive mortgage network
and a top-quality construction industry as well as safe and excellent
quality building materials that are readily available. Yet 1.7 million
Canadian households occupy substandard abodes. During the past
hundred years, Canada's government has made a wide variety of
attempts to provide decent residential facilities every Canadian can
afford. Despite these laudable efforts, today Canada is left with
housing that is inadequate for many Canadians. People who own their
housing are given all kinds of privileges and perks, while people with
relatively low incomes who rent their apartments or houses are
To help solve these problems, zoning that is based on an
"inclusionary" philosophy is tool developed to help provide people
the affordable residences that they need. No, thirty years after its
introduction, this type of zoning has been shown effective in helping
build and provide Canadians with a houses or apartments they can
afford to pay for. Using this form of zoning can have different results
+depending on where and how it is used. After examining Canadian
affordable housing and four American cases where this type of
zoning was enforced in the USA, this makes various
recommendations for expanding Canadians' access to housing they
A Sustainable Design that Enhance the Quality of Life and Human Behavior's
Public parks are placed high on the research agenda, with many studies addressing their social, economic and environment influences in different countries around the world. They have been recognized as contributors to the physical quality of urban environments. Recently, a broader view of public parks has emerged. This view goes well beyond the traditional value of parks as places for more recreation and visual delight, to depict them as valuable contributors to broader strategic objectives, such as property values, place attractiveness, job opportunities, social belonging, public health, tourist development, and improving the overall quality of life. This research examines the role of public parks in enhancing the quality of human life in Egyptian environment. It measures 'quality of life' in terms of 'human needs' and 'well-being'. This should open ways for policymakers, practitioners, researchers and the public to realize the potentials of public parks towards improving the quality of life.
Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effect of Lateral Wind on the Feeder Airship
Feeder is one of the airships of the Multibody Advanced Airship for Transport (MAAT) system, under development within the EU FP7 project. MAAT is based on a modular concept composed of two different parts that have the possibility to join; respectively they are the so-called Cruiser and Feeder, designed on the lighter than air principle. Feeder, also named ATEN (Airship Transport Elevator Network), is the smaller one which joins the bigger one, Cruiser, also named PTAH (Photovoltaic modular Transport Airship for High altitude),envisaged to happen at 15km altitude. During the MAAT design phase, the aerodynamic studies of the both airships and their interactions are analyzed. The objective of these studies is to understand the aerodynamic behavior of all the preselected configurations, as an important element in the overall MAAT system design. The most of these configurations are only simulated by CFD, while the most feasible one is experimentally analyzed in order to validate and thrust the CFD predictions. This paper presents the numerical and experimental investigation of the Feeder “conical like" shape configuration. The experiments are focused on the aerodynamic force coefficients and the pressure distribution over the Feeder outer surface, while the numerical simulation cover also the analysis of the velocity and pressure distribution. Finally, the wind tunnel experiment is compared with its CFD model in order to validate such specific simulations with respective experiments and to better understand the difference between the wind tunnel and in-flight circumstances.
Preliminary Study on Fixture Layout Optimization Using Element Strain Energy
The objective of positioning the fixture elements in
the fixture is to make the workpiece stiff, so that geometric errors in
the manufacturing process can be reduced. Most of the work for
optimal fixture layout used the minimization of the sum of the nodal
deflection normal to the surface as objective function. All deflections
in other direction have been neglected. We propose a new method for
fixture layout optimization in this paper, which uses the element
strain energy. The deformations in all the directions have been
considered in this way. The objective function in this method is to
minimize the sum of square of element strain energy. Strain energy
and stiffness are inversely proportional to each other. The
optimization problem is solved by the sequential quadratic
programming method. Three different kinds of case studies are
presented, and results are compared with the method using nodal
deflections as objective function to verify the propose method.
Instability of Ties in Compression
Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from the temperature gradient between the outer and the inner wall, which results in critical increase of the bending moments in the ties. Since the ties are loaded by combined compression and moment forces, the loadbearing capacity is derived from instability equilibrium equations. Most of them are iterative, since exact instability solutions are complex to derive, not to mention the extra complexity introducing dimensional instability from the temperature gradients. Using an inverse variable substitution and comparing an exact theory with an analytical instability solution a method to design tie-connectors in cavity walls was developed. The method takes into account constraint conditions limiting the free length of the wall tie, and the instability in case of pure compression which gives an optimal load bearing capacity. The model is illustrated with examples from praxis.
An Evaluation of Digital Elevation Models to Short-Term Monitoring of a High Energy Barrier Island, Northeast Brazil
The morphological short-term evolution of Ponta do Tubarão Island (PTI) was investigated through high accurate surveys based on post-processed kinematic (PPK) relative positioning on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). PTI is part of a barrier island system on a high energy northeast Brazilian coastal environment and also an area of high environmental sensitivity. Surveys were carried out quarterly over a two years period from May 2010 to May 2012. This paper assesses statically the performance of digital elevation models (DEM) derived from different interpolation methods to represent morphologic features and to quantify volumetric changes and TIN models shown the best results to that purposes. The MDE allowed quantifying surfaces and volumes in detail as well as identifying the most vulnerable segments of the PTI to erosion and/or accumulation of sediments and relate the alterations to climate conditions. The coastal setting and geometry of PTI protects a significant mangrove ecosystem and some oil and gas facilities installed in the vicinities from damaging effects of strong oceanwaves and currents. Thus, the maintenance of PTI is extremely required but the prediction of its longevity is uncertain because results indicate an irregularity of sedimentary balance and a substantial decline in sediment supply to this coastal area.
Fabrication of Al/Cu Clad Sheet by Shear Extrusion
Aluminum/Copper clad sheet has been fabricated using
asymmetric extrusion method, which caused severe shear deformation
between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Interfacial
microstructure and mechanical properties of Al/Cu clad were studied
by scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive
X-ray detector, micro-hardness, and tension tests. The asymmetric
extrusion bonding was very effective to provide a good interface for
atoms diffusion during subsequent annealing. The strength of bonding
was higher with the increasing extrusion ratio.
Evaluation Process for the Hardware Safety Integrity Level
Safety instrumented systems (SISs) are becoming
increasingly complex and the proportion of programmable electronic
parts is growing. The IEC 61508 global standard was established to
ensure the functional safety of SISs, but it was expressed in highly
macroscopic terms. This study introduces an evaluation process for
hardware safety integrity levels through failure modes, effects, and
diagnostic analysis (FMEDA).FMEDA is widely used to evaluate
safety levels, and it provides the information on failure rates and
failure mode distributions necessary to calculate a diagnostic coverage
factor for a given component. In our evaluation process, the
components of the SIS subsystem are first defined in terms of failure
modes and effects. Then, the failure rate and failure mechanism
distribution are assigned to each component. The safety mode and
detectability of each failure mode are determined for each component.
Finally, the hardware safety integrity level is evaluated based on the
Improvement over DV-Hop Localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks
In this paper, we propose improved versions of DVHop
algorithm as QDV-Hop algorithm and UDV-Hop algorithm for
better localization without the need for additional range measurement
hardware. The proposed algorithm focuses on third step of DV-Hop,
first error terms from estimated distances between unknown node and
anchor nodes is separated and then minimized. In the QDV-Hop
algorithm, quadratic programming is used to minimize the error to
obtain better localization. However, quadratic programming requires
a special optimization tool box that increases computational
complexity. On the other hand, UDV-Hop algorithm achieves
localization accuracy similar to that of QDV-Hop by solving
unconstrained optimization problem that results in solving a system
of linear equations without much increase in computational
complexity. Simulation results show that the performance of our
proposed schemes (QDV-Hop and UDV-Hop) is superior to DV-Hop
and DV-Hop based algorithms in all considered scenarios.
Making Data Structures and Algorithms more Understandable by Programming Sudoku the Human Way
Data Structures and Algorithms is a module in most
Computer Science or Information Technology curricula. It is one of
the modules most students identify as being difficult. This paper
demonstrates how programming a solution for Sudoku can make
abstract concepts more concrete. The paper relates concepts of a
typical Data Structures and Algorithms module to a step by step
solution for Sudoku in a human type as opposed to a computer
Retail Inventory Management for Perishable Products with Two Bins Strategy
Perishable goods constitute a large portion of retailer inventory and lose value with time due to deterioration and/or obsolescence. Retailers dealing with such goods required considering the factors of short shelf life and the dependency of sales on inventory displayed in determining optimal procurement policy. Many retailers follow the practice of using two bins - primary bin sales fresh items at a list price and secondary bin sales unsold items at a discount price transferred from primary bin on attaining certain age. In this paper, mathematical models are developed for primary bin and for secondary bin that maximizes profit with decision variables of order quantities, optimal review period and optimal selling price at secondary bin. The demand rates in two bins are assumed to be deterministic and dependent on displayed inventory level, price and age but independent of each other. The validity of the model is shown by solving an example and the sensitivity analysis of the model is also reported.
Design Management Applications to Improve Work Environment for Female Academics in Saudi Arabia
This research study examines cases of Saudi Arabian
universities and female academics for work environment issues
within the context of design management applications. The study
proposes use of design research, ergonomics and systems design
thinking to develop the university design which facilitates removal of
physical and cognitive barriers for female academics. Review of
literature demonstrates that macro and micro ergonomic combined
with design management and system design strategies can
significantly improve the workplace design for female academics.
The university design model would be prepared based on the analyses
of primary data obtained from archived documents, participants'
observation logs, photo audits, focus groups and semi-structured
interviews of currently employed female academics in the selected
Dynamic Performance Indicators for Aged-Care Construction Projects
Key performance indicators (KPIs) are used for post
result evaluation in the construction industry, and they normally do
not have provisions for changes. This paper proposes a set of
dynamic key performance indicators (d-KPIs) which predicts the
future performance of the activity being measured and presents the
opportunity to change practice accordingly. Critical to the
predictability of a construction project is the ability to achieve
automated data collection. This paper proposes an effective way to
collect the process and engineering management data from an
integrated construction management system. The d-KPI matrix,
consisting of various indicators under seven categories, developed
from this study can be applied to close monitoring of the
development projects of aged-care facilities. The d-KPI matrix also
enables performance measurement and comparison at both project
and organization levels.
Motivation and Expectation of Developers on Green Construction: A Conceptual View
Social cognitive theory explains the power to inaugurate change is determined by the mutual influence of personal proclivity and social factors which will shape ones- motivations and expectations. In construction industry, green concept offers an opportunity to leave a lighter footprint on the environment. This opportunity, however, has not been fully grasped by many countries. As such, venturing into green construction for many practitioners would be their maiden experience. Decision to venture into new practice such as green construction will be influenced by certain drivers. This paper explores these drivers which is further expanded into motivational factors and later becomes the platform upon which expectation for green construction stands. This theoretical concept of motivation and expectations, which is adapted from social cognitive theory, focus on developers- view because of their crucial role in green application. This conceptual framework, which serves as the basis for further research, will benefit the industry as it elucidate cognitive angles to attract more new entrants to green business.
Teaching English under the LMD Reform: The Algerian Experience
Since its independence in 1962, Algeria has struggled
to establish an educational system tailored to the needs of the
population it may address. Considering the historical connection with
France, Algeria has always looked at the French language as a
cultural imperative until late in the seventies. After the Arabization
policy of 1971 and the socioeconomic changes taking place
worldwide, the use of English as a communicating vehicle started to
gain more space within globalized Algeria. Consequently, disparities
in the use of French started to fade away at the cross-roads leaving
more space to the teaching of English as a second foreign language.
Moreover, the introduction of the Bologna Process and the
European Credit Transfer System in Higher Education has
necessitated some innovations in the design and development of new
curricula adapted to the socioeconomic market. In this paper, I will
try to highlight the important historical dimensions Algeria has taken
towards the implementation of an English language methodology and
to the status it acquired from second foreign language, to first foreign
language to “the language of knowledge and sciences". I will also
propose new pedagogical perspectives for a better treatment of the
English language in order to encourage independent and autonomous
Production of WGHs and AFPHs using Protease Combinations at High and Ambient Pressure
Wheat gluten hydrolyzates (WGHs) and anchovy fine
powder hydrolyzates (AFPHs) were produced at 300 MPa using
combinations of Flavourzyme 500MG (F), Alcalase 2.4L (A),
Marugoto E (M) and Protamex (P), and then were compared to those
produced at ambient pressure concerning the contents of soluble solid
(SS), soluble nitrogen and electrophoretic profiles. The contents of SS
in the WGHs and AFPHs increased up to 87.2% according to the
increase in enzyme number both at high and ambient pressure. Based
on SS content, the optimum enzyme combinations for one-, two-,
three- and four-enzyme hydrolysis were determined as F, FA, FAM
and FAMP, respectively. Similar trends were found for the contents of
total soluble nitrogen (TSN) and TCA-soluble nitrogen (TCASN). The
contents of SS, TSN and TCASN in the hydrolyzates together with
electrophoretic mobility maps indicates that the high-pressure
treatment of this study accelerated protein hydrolysis compared to
Structural Cost of Optimized Reinforced Concrete Isolated Footing
This paper presents an analytical model to estimate
the cost of an optimized design of reinforced concrete isolated
footing base on structural safety. Flexural and optimized formulas for
square and rectangular footingare derived base on ACI building code
of design, material cost and optimization. The optimization
constraints consist of upper and lower limits of depth and area of
steel. Footing depth and area of reinforcing steel are to be minimized
to yield the optimal footing dimensions. Optimized footing materials
cost of concrete, reinforcing steel and formwork of the designed
sections are computed. Total cost factor TCF and other cost factors
are developed to generalize and simplify the calculations of footing
material cost. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the
model capability of estimating the material cost of the footing for a
desired axial load.
An Adaptive ARQ – HARQ Method with Two RS Codes
In this paper we proposed multistage adaptive
ARQ/HARQ/HARQ scheme. This method combines pure ARQ
(Automatic Repeat reQuest) mode in low channel bit error rate and
hybrid ARQ method using two different Reed-Solomon codes in
middle and high error rate conditions. It follows, that our scheme has
three stages. The main goal is to increase number of states in adaptive
HARQ methods and be able to achieve maximum throughput for
every channel bit error rate. We will prove the proposal by
calculation and then with simulations in land mobile satellite channel
environment. Optimization of scheme system parameters is described
in order to maximize the throughput in the whole defined Signal-to-
Noise Ratio (SNR) range in selected channel environment.
A Generator from Cascade Markov Model for Packet Loss and Subsequent Bit Error Description
In this paper we present a novel error model for
packet loss and subsequent error description. The proposed model
simulates the error performance of wireless communication link. The
model is designed as two independent Markov chains, where the first
one is used for packet generation and the second one generates
correctly and incorrectly transmitted bits for received packets from
the first chain. The statistical analyses of real communication on the
wireless link are used for determination of model-s parameters. Using
the obtained parameters and the implementation of the generator, we
collected generated traffic. The obtained results generated by
proposed model are compared with the real data collection.
Role of Personnel Planning in Business Continuity Management
Business continuity management (BCM) identifies
potential external and internal threats to an organization and their
impacts to business operations. The goal of the article is to identify,
based on the analysis of employee turnover in organizations in the
Czech Republic, the role of personnel planning in BCM. The article
is organized as follows. The first part of the article concentrates on
the theoretical background of the topic. The second part of the article
is dedicated to the evaluation of the outcomes of the survey
conducted (questionnaire survey), focusing on the analysis of
employee turnover in organizations in the Czech Republic. The final
part of the article underlines the role of personnel planning in BCM,
since poor planning of staff needs in an organization can represent
a future threat for business continuity ensuring.
Technology Diffusion and Inclusive Development in Africa: A System Dynamics Perspective
Technology or lack of it will play an important role in Africa-s effort to achieve inclusive development. Although a key determinant of competitiveness, new technology can exacerbate exclusion of the majority from the mainstream economic activities. To minimise potential technology exclusion while leveraging its critical role in African-s development, requires insight into technology diffusion process. Using system dynamics approach, a technology diffusion model is presented. The frequency of interaction of people exposed to and those not exposed to technology, and the technology adoption rate - the fraction of people who embrace new technologies once they are exposed, are identified as the broad factors critical to technology diffusion to wider society enabling more people to be part of the economic growth process. Based on simulation results, it is recommends that these two broad factors should form part of national policy aimed at achieving inclusive and sustainable development in Africa.
Parametric Optimization of Hospital Design
Present paper presents a parametric performancebased
design model for optimizing hospital design. The design model
operates with geometric input parameters defining the functional
requirements of the hospital and input parameters in terms of
performance objectives defining the design requirements and
preferences of the hospital with respect to performances. The design
model takes point of departure in the hospital functionalities as a set
of defined parameters and rules describing the design requirements
GSM-Based Approach for Indoor Localization
Ability of accurate and reliable location estimation in
indoor environment is the key issue in developing great number of
context aware applications and Location Based Services (LBS).
Today, the most viable solution for localization is the Received
Signal Strength (RSS) fingerprinting based approach using wireless
local area network (WLAN). This paper presents two RSS
fingerprinting based approaches – first we employ widely used
WLAN based positioning as a reference system and then investigate
the possibility of using GSM signals for positioning. To compare
them, we developed a positioning system in real world environment,
where realistic RSS measurements were collected. Multi-Layer
Perceptron (MLP) neural network was used as the approximation
function that maps RSS fingerprints and locations. Experimental
results indicate advantage of WLAN based approach in the sense of
lower localization error compared to GSM based approach, but GSM
signal coverage by far outreaches WLAN coverage and for some
LBS services requiring less precise accuracy our results indicate that
GSM positioning can also be a viable solution.
Fault Detection and Isolation using RBF Networks for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell
This paper presents a new method of fault detection and isolation (FDI) for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) dynamic systems under an open-loop scheme. This method uses a radial basis function (RBF) neural network to perform fault identification, classification and isolation. The novelty is that the RBF model of independent mode is used to predict the future outputs of the FC stack. One actuator fault, one component fault and three sensor faults have been introduced to the PEMFC systems experience faults between -7% to +10% of fault size in real-time operation. To validate the results, a benchmark model developed by Michigan University is used in the simulation to investigate the effect of these five faults. The developed independent RBF model is tested on MATLAB R2009a/Simulink environment. The simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method for FDI under an open-loop condition. By using this method, the RBF networks able to detect and isolate all five faults accordingly and accurately.
Solar Cell Parameters Estimation Using Simulated Annealing Algorithm
This paper presents Simulated Annealing based
approach to estimate solar cell model parameters. Single diode solar
cell model is used in this study to validate the proposed approach
outcomes. The developed technique is used to estimate different
model parameters such as generated photocurrent, saturation current,
series resistance, shunt resistance, and ideality factor that govern the
current-voltage relationship of a solar cell. A practical case study is
used to test and verify the consistency of accurately estimating
various parameters of single diode solar cell model. Comparative
study among different parameter estimation techniques is presented
to show the effectiveness of the developed approach.
Exploiting Global Self Similarity for Head-Shoulder Detection
People detection from images has a variety of applications such as video surveillance and driver assistance system, but is still a challenging task and more difficult in crowded environments such as shopping malls in which occlusion of lower parts of human body often occurs. Lack of the full-body information requires more effective features than common features such as HOG. In this paper, new features are introduced that exploits global self-symmetry (GSS) characteristic in head-shoulder patterns. The features encode the similarity or difference of color histograms and oriented gradient histograms between two vertically symmetric blocks. The domain-specific features are rapid to compute from the integral images in Viola-Jones cascade-of-rejecters framework. The proposed features are evaluated with our own head-shoulder dataset that, in part, consists of a well-known INRIA pedestrian dataset. Experimental results show that the GSS features are effective in reduction of false alarmsmarginally and the gradient GSS features are preferred more often than the color GSS ones in the feature selection.
Blast Induced Ground Shock Effects on Pile Foundations
Due to increased number of terrorist attacks in recent years, loads induced by explosions need to be incorporated in building designs. For safer performance of a structure, its foundation should have sufficient strength and stability. Therefore, prior to any reconstruction or rehabilitation of a building subjected to blast, it is important to examine adverse effects on the foundation caused by blast induced ground shocks. This paper evaluates the effects of a buried explosion on a pile foundation. It treats the dynamic response of the pile in saturated sand, using explicit dynamic nonlinear finite element software LS-DYNA. The blast induced wave propagation in the soil and the horizontal deformation of pile are presented and the results are discussed. Further, a parametric study is carried out to evaluate the effect of varying the explosive shape on the pile response. This information can be used to evaluate the vulnerability of piled foundations to credible blast events as well as develop guidance for their design.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Business Continuity Management
In current global economics the application of Business Continuity Management is the prerequisite for sustainable competitive advantage in an organization. Business Continuity Management is a managerial which identifies the potential impact of losses in an organization. The aim of this paper is to identify and critically evaluate the relative advantages and disadvantages of deploying Business Continuity Management in an organization on the basis of seven criteria. The strongest advantage of Business Continuity Management is in its capacity to identify a crisis situation and help the organization to flexibly and also to keep the critical knowledge within the organization. By contrast the main disadvantage is that establishing Business Continuity Management in an organization is time-consuming and its implementation as an integral part of the organizational culture present significant difficulties.
Metaphor in Terminology: Visualization as a Way to Term Perception
Metaphor has recently gained extensive interest most probably due to developments in cognitive sciences and the study of language as the reflection of humans- world perception. Metaphor is no longer reckoned as solely literary expressive means. Nowadays it is studied in a whole number of discourses, such as politics, law, medicine, sports, etc. with the purpose of the analysis and determining its role. The scientific language is not an exception. It might seem that metaphor cannot suit it; we would dare to draw a hypothesis that metaphor has indeed found its stable place in terminology. In comprehension of metaphorically represented terms the stage of visualization plays a significant role. We proceeded on the assumption that this stage is the main in provision of better term comprehension and would try to exemplify it with metaphoricallyoriented terms.
What is the Key Element for the Territory's State of Development?
The result of process of territory-s development is the territory-s state of development (TSoD), which is pointed towards the provision and improvement of people-s life conditions. The authors offer to measure the TSoD according to their own developed model. Using the available statistical data regarding the values of model-s elements, the authors empirically show which element mainly determines the TSoD. The findings of the research showed that the key elements of the TSoD are the “Material welfare of people" and “People-s health". Performing a deeper statistical analysis of correlation between these elements, it turned out that it is not so necessary for a country to be bent on trying to increase the material growth of a territory, because a relatively high index of life expectancy at birth could be ensured also by much more modest material resources. On the other hand, the economical feedback of longer lifespan within countries with lower material performance is also relatively low.
A Discrete Choice Modeling Approach to Modular Systems Design
The paper proposes an approach for design of modular
systems based on original technique for modeling and formulation of
combinatorial optimization problems. The proposed approach is
described on the example of personal computer configuration design.
It takes into account the existing compatibility restrictions between
the modules and can be extended and modified to reflect different
functional and users- requirements. The developed design modeling
technique is used to formulate single objective nonlinear mixedinteger
optimization tasks. The practical applicability of the
developed approach is numerically tested on the basis of real modules
data. Solutions of the formulated optimization tasks define the
optimal configuration of the system that satisfies all compatibility
restrictions and user requirements.
Analysis of Program PRIME at Brazil
Policies that support entrepreneurship are keys to the
generation of new business. In Brazil, seed capital, installation of
technology parks, programs and zero interest financing, economic
subsidy as Program First Innovative Company (PRIME) are
examples of incentive policies. For the implementation of PRIME, in
particular the Brazilian Innovation Agency (FINEP) decentralized
operationalization so that business incubators could select innovative
projects. This paper analyzes the program PRIME Business Incubator
Center of the State of Sergipe (CISE) after calculating the mean and
standard deviation of the grades obtained by companies in the factors
of innovation, market potential, financial return economic, market
strategy and staff and application of the Mann-Whitney test.
Enhancing the Error-Correcting Performance of LDPC Codes through an Efficient Use of Decoding Iterations
The decoding of Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes is operated over a redundant structure known as the bipartite graph, meaning that the full set of bit nodes is not absolutely necessary for decoder convergence. In 2008, Soyjaudah and Catherine designed a recovery algorithm for LDPC codes based on this assumption and showed that the error-correcting performance of their codes outperformed conventional LDPC Codes. In this work, the use of the recovery algorithm is further explored to test the performance of LDPC codes while the number of iterations is progressively increased. For experiments conducted with small blocklengths of up to 800 bits and number of iterations of up to 2000, the results interestingly demonstrate that contrary to conventional wisdom, the error-correcting performance keeps increasing with increasing number of iterations.
Energy Consumption and Surface Finish Analysis of Machining Ti6Al4V
Greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions impose major
threat to global warming potential (GWP). Unfortunately
manufacturing sector is one of the major sources that contribute
towards the rapid increase in greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. In
manufacturing sector electric power consumption is the major driver
that influences CO2 emission. Titanium alloys are widely utilized in
aerospace, automotive and petrochemical sectors because of their
high strength to weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Titanium
alloys are termed as difficult to cut materials because of their poor
machinability rating. The present study analyzes energy consumption
during cutting with reference to material removal rate (MRR).
Surface roughness was also measured in order to optimize energy
Structural Analysis of Lignins from Different Sources
Five lignin samples were fractionated with
Acetone/Water mixtures and the obtained fractions were subjected to
extensive structural characterization, including Fourier Transform
Infrared (FT-IR), Gel permeation Chromatography (GPC) and
Phosphorus-31 NMR spectroscopy (31P-NMR). The results showed
that for all studied lignins the solubility increases with the increment
of the acetone concentration. Wheat straw lignin has the highest
solubility in 90/10 (v/v) Acetone/Water mixture, 400 mg lignin being
dissolved in 1 mL mixture. The weight average molecular weight of
the obtained fractions increased with the increment of acetone
concentration and thus with solubility. 31P-NMR analysis based on
lignin modification by reactive phospholane into phosphitylated
compounds was used to differentiate and quantify the different types
of OH groups (aromatic, aliphatic, and carboxylic) found in the
fractions obtained with 70/30 (v/v) Acetone/Water mixture.
Research of Ring MEMS Rate Integrating Gyroscopes
This paper To get the angle value with a MEMS rate
gyroscope in some specific field, the usual method is to make an
integral operation to the rate output, which will lead the error
cumulating effect. So the rate gyro is not suitable. MEMS rate
integrating gyroscope (MRIG) will solve this problem. A DSP system
has been developed to implement the control arithmetic. The system
can measure the angle of rotation directly by the control loops that
make the sensor work in whole-angle mode. Modeling the system with
MATLAB, desirable results of angle outputs are got, which prove the
feasibility of the control arithmetic.
Development of a New CFD Multi-Coupling Tool Based on Immersed Boundary Method: toward SRM Analysis
The ongoing effort to develop an in-house
compressible solver with multi-disciplinary physics is presented in
this paper. Basic compressible solver combined with IBM technique
provides us an effective numerical tool able to tackle the physics
phenomena and especially physic phenomena involved in Solid
Rocket Motors (SRMs). Main principles are introduced step by step
describing its implementation. This paper sheds light on the whole
potentiality of our proposed numerical model and we strongly believe
a way to introduce multi-physics mechanisms strongly coupled is
opened to ablation in nozzle, fluid/structure interaction and burning
propellant surface with time.
Numerical Simulation of Progressive Collapse for a Reinforced Concrete Building
Though nonlinear dynamic analysis using a specialized
hydro-code such as AUTODYN is accurate and useful tool for
progressive collapse assessment of a multi-story building subjected to
blast load, it takes too much time to be applied to a practical simulation
of progressive collapse of a tall building. In this paper, blast analysis of
a RC frame structure using a simplified model with Reinforcement
Contact technique provided in Ansys Workbench was introduced and
investigated on its accuracy. Even though the simplified model has a
fraction of elements of the detailed model, the simplified model with
this modeling technique shows similar structural behavior under the
blast load to the detailed model. The proposed modeling method can
be effectively applied to blast loading progressive collapse analysis of
a RC frame structure.
Knowledge Continuity as a Part of Business Continuity Management
Today the intangible assets are the capital of knowledge and are the most important and the most valuable resource for organizations. All employees have knowledge independently of the kind of jobs they do. Knowledge is thus an asset, which influences business operations. The objective of this article is to identify knowledge continuity as an objective of business continuity management. The article has been prepared based on the analysis of secondary sources and the evaluation of primary sources of data by means of a quantitative survey conducted in the Czech Republic. The conclusion of the article is that organizations that apply business continuity management do not focus on the preservation of the knowledge of key employees. Organizations ensure knowledge continuity only intuitively, on a random basis, non-systematically and discontinuously. The non-ensuring of knowledge continuity represents a threat of loss of key knowledge for organizations and can also negatively affect business continuity.
Environmental Analysis of Springs in Urban Areas–A Methodological Proposal
The springs located in urban areas are the outpouring
of surface water, which can serve as water supply, effluent receptors
and important local macro-drainage elements. With unplanned
occupation, non-compliance with environmental legislation and the
importance of these water bodies, it is vital to analyze the springs
within urban areas, considering the Brazilian forest code. This paper
submits an analysis and discussion methodology proposal of
environmental compliance functions of urban springs, by means of
G.I.S. - Geographic Information System analysis - and in situ
analysis. The case study included two springs which exhibit a history
of occupation along its length, with different degrees of impact. The
proposed method is effective and easy to apply, representing a
powerful tool for analyzing the environmental conditions of springs
in urban areas.
Research on the Methodologies of the Opportune Innovation - A Case Study of BYD
The main purpose of this paper is to research on the
methodologies of BYD to implement the opportune innovation. BYD
is a Chinese company which has the IT component manufacture, the
rechargeable battery and the automobile businesses. The paper deals
with the innovation methodology as the same as the IPR management
BYD implements in order to obtain the rapid growth of technology
development with the reasonable cost of money and time.
Learning Paradigms for Educating a New Generation of Computer Science Students
In this paper challenges associated with a new
generation of Computer Science students are examined. The mode of
education in tertiary institutes has progressed slowly while the needs
of students have changed rapidly in an increasingly technological
world. The major learning paradigms and learning theories within
these paradigms are studied to find a suitable strategy for educating
modern students. These paradigms include Behaviourism,
Constructivism, Humanism and Cogntivism. Social Learning theory
and Elaboration theory are two theories that are further examined and
a survey is done to determine how these strategies will be received by
students. The results and findings are evaluated and indicate that
students are fairly receptive to a method that incorporates both Social
Learning theory and Elaboration theory, but that some aspects of all
paradigms need to be implemented to create a balanced and effective
strategy with technology as foundation.
Culture of Oleaginous Yeasts in Dairy Industry Wastewaters to Obtain Lipids Suitable for the Production of II-Generation Biodiesel
The oleaginous yeasts Lipomyces starkey were grown
in the presence of dairy industry wastewaters (DIW). The yeasts were
able to degrade the organic components of DIW and to produce a
significant fraction of their biomass as triglycerides.
When using DIW from the Ricotta cheese production or residual
whey as growth medium, the L. starkey could be cultured without
dilution nor external organic supplement. On the contrary, the yeasts
could only partially degrade the DIW from the Mozzarella cheese
production, due to the accumulation of a metabolic product beyond
the threshold of toxicity. In this case, a dilution of the DIW was
required to obtain a more efficient degradation of the carbon
compounds and an higher yield in oleaginous biomass.
The fatty acid distribution of the microbial oils obtained showed a
prevalence of oleic acid, and is compatible with the production of a II
generation biodiesel offering a good resistance to oxidation as well as
an excellent cold-performance.
Low Leakage MUX/XOR Functions Using Symmetric and Asymmetric FinFETs
In this paper, FinFET devices are analyzed with
emphasis on sub-threshold leakage current control. This is achieved
through proper biasing of the back gate, and through the use of
asymmetric work functions for the four terminal FinFET devices. We
are also examining different configurations of multiplexers and XOR
gates using transistors of symmetric and asymmetric work functions.
Based on extensive characterization data for MUX circuits, our
proposed configuration using symmetric devices lead to leakage
current and delay improvements of 65% and 47% respectively
compared to results in the literature. For XOR gates, a 90%
improvement in the average leakage current is achieved by using
asymmetric devices. All simulations are based on a 25nm FinFET
technology using the University of Florida UFDG model.
An Algorithm for an Optimal Staffing Problem in Open Shop Environment
The paper addresses a problem of optimal staffing in
open shop environment. The problem is to determine the optimal
number of operators serving a given number of machines to fulfill the
number of independent operations while minimizing staff idle. Using
a Gantt chart presentation of the problem it is modeled as twodimensional
cutting stock problem. A mixed-integer programming
model is used to get minimal job processing time (makespan) for
fixed number of machines' operators. An algorithm for optimal openshop
staffing is developed based on iterative solving of the
formulated optimization task. The execution of the developed
algorithm provides optimal number of machines' operators in the
sense of minimum staff idle and optimal makespan for that number of
operators. The proposed algorithm is tested numerically for a real life
staffing problem. The testing results show the practical applicability
for similar open shop staffing problems.
Colorectal Cancer Screening by a CEACAM-6 Immunosensor
The biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC) is CEACAM-6 antigen (C6AG). Therefore, this study aims to develop a novel, simple and low-cost CEACAM-6 antigen immumosensor (C6AG-IMS), based on electrical impedance measurement, for precise determination of C6AG. A low-cost screen-printed graphite electrode was constructed and used as the sensor, with CEACAM-6 antibody (C6AB) immobilized on it. The procedures of sensor fabrication and antibody immobilization are simple and low-cost. Measurement of the electrical impedance at a definite frequency ranges (0.43 – 1.26 MHz) showed that the C6AG-IMS has an excellent linear (r2>0.9) response range (8.125 – 65 pg/mL), covering the normal physiological and pathological ranges of blood C6AG levels. Also, the C6AG-IMS has excellent reliability and validity, with the intraclass correlation coefficient being 0.97. In conclusion, a novel, simple, low-cost and reliable C6AG-IMS was designed and developed, being able to accurately determine blood C6AG levels in the range of pathological and normal physiological regions. The C6AG-IMS can provide a point-of-care and immediate screening results to the user at home.
Metal-Dielectric Antireflection Coating on Metallic Substrate for Solar Selective Absorbers of Concentrating Solar Power Systems
We design and discuss metal-dielectric antireflection coating on metallic substrates for Solar Selective Absorbers of Concentrating Solar Power Systems. The average reflectance is 8.5% at 400-3000nm and 84.4% at 3000nm-10000nm of the metal-dielectric structure.
Dominant Flow Features of Two Inclined Impinging Jets Confined in Large Enclosure
The present study was provided to examine the
vortical structures generated by two inclined impinging jets with
experimental and numerical investigations. The jets are issuing with a
pitch angle α=40° into a confined quiescent fluid. The experimental
investigation on flow patterns was visualized by using olive particles
injected into the jets illuminated by Nd:Yag laser light to reveal the
finer details of the confined jets interaction. It was observed that two
counter-rotating vortex pairs (CVPs) were generated in the near
region. A numerical investigation was also performed. First, the
numerical results were validates against the experimental results and
then the numerical model was used to study the effect of section ratio
on the evolution of the CVPs. Our results show promising agreement
with experimental data, and indicate that our model has the potential
to produce useful and accurate data regarding the evolution of CVPs.
Re-telling Goa's History: The Margin Narrative
This paper presents the first reflexions about Margaret Mascarenhas-s novel, “Skin", based on post-colonial critic perception of History and its agents. By doing so, this study will put light on a literary corpus of Indian Literatures: the Goan Literature whose cultural basis creates an unique historiographic metafiction conducted by different characters that one by one plays the narrator role.
Stereotype Student Model for an Adaptive e-Learning System
This paper describes a concept of stereotype student
model in adaptive knowledge acquisition e-learning system. Defined
knowledge stereotypes are based on student's proficiency level and
on Bloom's knowledge taxonomy. The teacher module is responsible
for the whole adaptivity process: the automatic generation of
courseware elements, their dynamic selection and sorting, as well as
their adaptive presentation using templates for statements and
questions. The adaptation of courseware is realized according to
student-s knowledge stereotype.
Achieving Performance in an Organization through Marketing Innovation
Innovation is becoming more and more important in
modern society. There are a lot of researches on different kinds of
innovation but marketing innovation is one kind of innovation that
has not been studied frequently before. Marketing innovation is
defined as a new way in which companies can market themselves to
potential or existing customers.
The study shows some key elements for marketing innovation that
are worth paying attention to when implementing marketing
innovation projects. Examples of such key elements are: paying
attention to the neglected market, suitable market segmentatio
reliable market information, public relationship, increased customer
value, combination of market factors, explore different marketing
channels and the use of technology in combination with what? Beside
the key elements for marketing innovation, we also present some
risks that may occur, such as cost, market uncertainty, information
leakage, imitation and overdependence on experience.
By proposing a set of indicators to measure marketing innovation,
the article offers solutions for marketing innovation implementation
so that any organization can achieve optimal results.
Market and Innovation Orientation: A Typology of Public Housing Companies in Sweden
The purpose of this paper is to develop a typology
based on market orientation (MO) and innovation orientation (IO),
and to illustrate to what extent housing companies in Sweden fit
within this framework. A qualitative study on 11 public housing
companies in the central part of Sweden has been conducted by the
help of open and semi-structured questions for data collection. Four
public housing company types- i.e. reactive prospector, proactive
prospector, reactive defender and proactive defender have been
identified by the combination of MO-IO dimensions. Future research
can include other dimensions like entrepreneurship and network to
observe how it particularly affects MO. An empirical study can
compare public and private housing companies on the basis of MO
and IO dimensions. One major contribution of the paper is the
proposition of typology which can be used to describe public housing
companies and deciding their future course of actions.
Improving Carbon Sequestration in Concrete: A Literature Review
Due to urbanization, trees and plants which covered a great land mass of the earth and are an excellent carbon dioxide (CO2) absorber through photosynthesis are being replaced by several concrete based structures. It is therefore important to have these cement based structures absorb the large volume of carbon dioxide which the trees would have removed from the atmosphere during their useful lifespan. Hence the need for these cement based structures to be designed to serve other useful purposes in addition to shelter. This paper reviews the properties of Sodium carbonate and sugar as admixtures in concrete with respect to improving carbon sequestration in concrete.