Analysis of Electric Field and Potential Distributions along Surface of Silicone Rubber Insulators under Various Contamination Conditions Using Finite Element Method
This paper presents the simulation results of electric field and potential distributions along surface of silicone rubber polymer insulators under clean and various contamination conditions with/without water droplets. Straight sheds insulator having leakage distance 290 mm was used in this study. Two type of contaminants, playwood dust and cement dust, have been studied the effect of contamination on the insulator surface. The objective of this work is to comparison the effect of contamination on potential and electric field distributions along the insulator surface when water droplets exist on the insulator surface. Finite element method (FEM) is adopted for this work. The simulation results show that contaminations have no effect on potential distribution along the insulator surface while electric field distributions are obviously depended on contamination conditions.
A Fast Adaptive Tomlinson-Harashima Precoder for Indoor Wireless Communications
A fast adaptive Tomlinson Harashima (T-H) precoder structure is presented for indoor wireless communications, where the channel may vary due to rotation and small movement of the mobile terminal. A frequency-selective slow fading channel which is time-invariant over a frame is assumed. In this adaptive T-H precoder, feedback coefficients are updated at the end of every uplink frame by using system identification technique for channel estimation in contrary with the conventional T-H precoding concept where the channel is estimated during the starting of the uplink frame via Wiener solution. In conventional T-H precoder it is assumed the channel is time-invariant in both uplink and downlink frames. However assuming the channel is time-invariant over only one frame instead of two, the proposed adaptive T-H precoder yields better performance than conventional T-H precoder if the channel is varied in uplink after receiving the training sequence.
Ambient Intelligence in the Production and Retail Sector: Emerging Opportunities and Potential Pitfalls
This paper provides an introduction into the
evolution of information and communication technology and illustrates its usage in the work domain. The paper is sub-divided into two parts. The first part gives an overview over the different
phases of information processing in the work domain. It starts by
charting the past and present usage of computers in work
environments and shows current technological trends, which are likely to influence future business applications. The second part
starts by briefly describing, how the usage of computers changed business processes in the past, and presents first Ambient
Intelligence applications based on identification and localization
information, which are already used in the production and retail sector. Based on current systems and prototype applications, the
paper gives an outlook of how Ambient Intelligence technologies could change business processes in the future.
Vortex Shedding on Combined Bodies at Incidence to a Uniform Air Stream
Vortex-shedding phenomenon of the flow
around combined two bodies having various geometries and sizes has been investigated experimentally in the Reynolds
number range between 4.1x103 and 1.75x104. To see the effect
of the rotation of the bodies on the vortex shedding, the
combined bodies were rotated from 0° to 180°. The combined models have a cross section composing of a main circular cylinder and an attached circular or square cylinder. Results
have shown that Strouhal numbers for two cases were
changed considerably with the angle of incidence, while it was found to be largely independent of Reynolds number at 150. Characteristics of the vortex formation region and
location of flow attachments, reattachments, and separations
were observed by means of the flow visualizations.
Depending on the inclination angle the effects of flow
attachment, separation and reattachment on vortex-shedding phenomenon have been discussed.
Density, Strength, Thermal Conductivity and Leachate Characteristics of Light-Weight Fired Clay Bricks Incorporating Cigarette Butts
Several trillion cigarettes produced worldwide annually lead to many thousands of kilograms of toxic waste. Cigarette butts (CBs) accumulate in the environment due to the poor biodegradability of the cellulose acetate filters. This paper presents some of the results from a continuing study on recycling CBs into fired clay bricks. Physico-mechanical properties of fired clay bricks manufactured with different percentages of CBs are reported and discussed. The results show that the density of fired bricks was reduced by up to 30 %, depending on the percentage of CBs incorporated into the raw materials. Similarly, the compressive strength of bricks tested decreased according to the percentage of CBs included in the mix. The thermal conductivity performance of bricks was improved by 51 and 58 % for 5 and 10 % CBs content respectively. Leaching tests were carried out to investigate the levels of possible leachates of heavy metals from the manufactured clay-CB bricks. The results revealed trace amounts of heavy metals.
The Design of the HL7 RIM-based Sharing Components for Clinical Information Systems
The American Health Level Seven (HL7) Reference Information Model (RIM) consists of six back-bone classes that have different specialized attributes. Furthermore, for the purpose of enforcing the semantic expression, there are some specific mandatory vocabulary domains have been defined for representing the content values of some attributes. In the light of the fact that it is a duplicated effort on spending a lot of time and human cost to develop and modify Clinical Information Systems (CIS) for most hospitals due to the variety of workflows. This study attempts to design and develop sharing RIM-based components of the CIS for the different business processes. Therefore, the CIS contains data of a consistent format and type. The programmers can do transactions with the RIM-based clinical repository by the sharing RIM-based components. And when developing functions of the CIS, the sharing components also can be adopted in the system. These components not only satisfy physicians- needs in using a CIS but also reduce the time of developing new components of a system. All in all, this study provides a new viewpoint that integrating the data and functions with the business processes, it is an easy and flexible approach to build a new CIS.
Intelligent Network-Based Stepping Stone Detection Approach
This research intends to introduce a new usage of Artificial Intelligent (AI) approaches in Stepping Stone Detection (SSD) fields of research. By using Self-Organizing Map (SOM) approaches as the engine, through the experiment, it is shown that SOM has the capability to detect the number of connection chains that involved in a stepping stones. Realizing that by counting the number of connection chain is one of the important steps of stepping stone detection and it become the research focus currently, this research has chosen SOM as the AI techniques because of its capabilities. Through the experiment, it is shown that SOM can detect the number of involved connection chains in Network-based Stepping Stone Detection (NSSD).
A Tutorial on Dynamic Simulation of DC Motor and Implementation of Kalman Filter on a Floating Point DSP
With the advent of inexpensive 32 bit floating point digital signal processor-s availability in market, many computationally intensive algorithms such as Kalman filter becomes feasible to implement in real time. Dynamic simulation of a self excited DC motor using second order state variable model and implementation of Kalman Filter in a floating point DSP TMS320C6713 is presented in this paper with an objective to introduce and implement such an algorithm, for beginners. A fractional hp DC motor is simulated in both Matlab® and DSP and the results are included. A step by step approach for simulation of DC motor in Matlab® and “C" routines in CC Studio® is also given. CC studio® project file details and environmental setting requirements are addressed. This tutorial can be used with 6713 DSK, which is based on floating point DSP and CC Studio either in hardware mode or in simulation mode.
Lunar Rover Virtual Simulation System with Autonomous Navigation
The paper researched and presented a virtual simulation system based on a full-digital lunar terrain, integrated with kinematics and dynamics module as well as autonomous navigation simulation module. The system simulation models are established. Enabling technologies such as digital lunar surface module, kinematics and dynamics simulation, Autonomous navigation are investigated. A prototype system for lunar rover locomotion simulation is developed based on these technologies. Autonomous navigation is a key echnology in lunar rover system, but rarely involved in virtual simulation system. An autonomous navigation simulation module have been integrated in this prototype system, which was proved by the simulation results that the synthetic simulation and visualizing analysis system are established in the system, and the system can provide efficient support for research on the autonomous navigation of lunar rover.
A Simulation Method to Find the Optimal Design of Photovoltaic Home System in Malaysia, Case Study: A Building Integrated Photovoltaic in Putra Jaya
Over recent years, the number of building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) installations for home systems have been increasing in Malaysia. The paper concerns an analysis - as part of current Research and Development (R&D) efforts - to integrate photovoltaics as an architectural feature of a detached house in the new satellite township of Putrajaya, Malaysia. The analysis was undertaken using calculation and simulation tools to optimize performance of BIPV home system. In this study, a the simulation analysis was undertaken for selected bungalow units based on a long term recorded weather data for city of Kuala Lumpur. The simulation and calculation was done with consideration of a PV panels' tilt and direction, shading effect and economical considerations. A simulation of the performance of a grid connected BIPV house in Kuala Lumpur was undertaken. This case study uses a 60 PV modules with power output of 2.7 kW giving an average of PV electricity output is 255 kWh/month..
An Empirical Quest for Linkages between HPWS and Employee Behaviors – a Perspective from the Non Managerial Employees in Japanese Organizations
High Performance Work Systems (HPWS) generally give rise to positive impacts on employees by increasing their commitments in workplaces. While some argued this actually have considerable negative impacts on employees with increasing possibilities of imposing strains caused by stress and intensity of such work places. Do stressful workplaces hamper employee commitment? The author has tried to find the answer by exploring linkages between HPWS practices and its impact on employees in Japanese organizations. How negative outcomes like job intensity and workplaces and job stressors can influence different forms of employees- commitments which can be a hindrance to their performance. Design: A close ended questionnaire survey was conducted amongst 16 large, medium and small sized Japanese companies from diverse industries around Chiba, Saitama, and Ibaraki Prefectures and in Tokyo from the month of October 2008 to February 2009. Questionnaires were aimed to the non managerial employees- perceptions of HPWS practices, their behavior, working life experiences in their work places. A total of 227 samples are used for analysis in the study. Methods: Correlations, MANCOVA, SEM Path analysis using AMOS software are used for data analysis in this study. Findings: Average non-managerial perception of HPWS adoption is significantly but negatively correlated to both work place Stressors and Continuous commitment, but positively correlated to job Intensity, Affective, Occupational and Normative commitments in different workplaces at Japan. The path analysis by SEM shows significant indirect relationship between Stressors and employee Affective organizational commitment and Normative organizational commitments. Intensity also has a significant indirect effect on Occupational commitments. HPWS has an additive effect on all the outcomes variables. Limitations: The sample size in this study cannot be a representative to the entire population of non-managerial employees in Japan. There were no respondents from automobile, pharmaceuticals, finance industries. The duration of the survey coincided in a period when Japan as most of the other countries is under going recession. Biases could not be ruled out completely. We must take cautions in interpreting the results of studies as they cannot be generalized. And the path analysis cannot provide the complete causality of the inter linkages between the variables used in the study. Originality: There have been limited studies on linkages in HPWS adoptions and their impacts on employees- behaviors and commitments in Japanese workplaces. This study may provide some ingredients for further research in the fields of HRM policies and practices and their linkages on different forms of employees- commitments.
Simulation of an Auto-Tuning Bicycle Suspension Fork with Quick Releasing Valves
Bicycle configuration is not as large as those of motorcycles or automobiles, while it indeed composes a complicated dynamic system. People-s requirements on comfortability, controllability and safety grow higher as the research and development technologies improve. The shock absorber affects the vehicle suspension performances enormously. The absorber takes the vibration energy and releases it at a suitable time, keeping the wheel under a proper contact condition with road surface, maintaining the vehicle chassis stability. Suspension design for mountain bicycles is more difficult than that of city bikes since it encounters dynamic variations on road and loading conditions. Riders need a stiff damper as they exert to tread on the pedals when climbing, while a soft damper when they descend downhill. Various switchable shock absorbers are proposed in markets, however riders have to manually switch them among soft, hard and lock positions. This study proposes a novel design of the bicycle shock absorber, which provides automatic smooth tuning of the damping coefficient, from a predetermined lower bound to theoretically unlimited. An automatic quick releasing valve is involved in this design so that it can release the peak pressure when the suspension fork runs into a square-wave type obstacle and prevent the chassis from damage, avoiding the rider skeleton from injury. This design achieves the automatic tuning process by innovative plunger valve and fluidic passage arrangements without any electronic devices. Theoretical modelling of the damper and spring are established in this study. Design parameters of the valves and fluidic passages are determined. Relations between design parameters and shock absorber performances are discussed in this paper. The analytical results give directions to the shock absorber manufacture.
Introducing Sequence-Order Constraint into Prediction of Protein Binding Sites with Automatically Extracted Templates
Search for a tertiary substructure that geometrically
matches the 3D pattern of the binding site of a well-studied protein provides a solution to predict protein functions. In our previous work,
a web server has been built to predict protein-ligand binding sites
based on automatically extracted templates. However, a drawback of such templates is that the web server was prone to resulting in many
false positive matches. In this study, we present a sequence-order constraint to reduce the false positive matches of using automatically
extracted templates to predict protein-ligand binding sites. The binding site predictor comprises i) an automatically constructed template library and ii) a local structure alignment algorithm for
querying the library. The sequence-order constraint is employed to
identify the inconsistency between the local regions of the query protein and the templates. Experimental results reveal that the sequence-order constraint can largely reduce the false positive matches and is effective for template-based binding site prediction.
A Design of Supply Chain Management System with Flexible Planning Capability
In production planning (PP) periods with excess capacity
and growing demand, the manufacturers have two options to use the excess capacity. First, it could do more changeovers and thus reduce lot sizes, inventories, and inventory costs. Second, it could produce in excess of demand in the period and build additional inventory that can be used to satisfy future demand increments, thus
delaying the purchase of the next machine that is required to meet the growth in demand. In this study we propose an enhanced supply
chain planning model with flexible planning capability. In addition, a 3D supply chain planning system is illustrated.
RDFGraph: New Data Modeling Tool for Semantic Web
The emerging Semantic Web has been attracted many
researchers and developers. New applications have been developed on top of Semantic Web and many supporting tools introduced to improve its software development process. Metadata modeling is one of development process where supporting tools exists. The existing
tools are lack of readability and easiness for a domain knowledge expert to graphically models a problem in semantic model. In this paper, a metadata modeling tool called RDFGraph is proposed. This
tool is meant to solve those problems. RDFGraph is also designed to work with modern database management systems that support RDF and to improve the performance of the query execution process. The
testing result shows that the rules used in RDFGraph follows the W3C standard and the graphical model produced in this tool is properly translated and correct.
Knowledge Sharing Behavior in E-Communities: from the Perspective of Transaction Cost Theory
This study aims to examine the factors affecting
knowledge sharing behavior in knowledge-based electronic communities (e-communities) because quantity and quality of
knowledge shared among the members play a critical role in the community-s sustainability. Past research has suggested three
perspectives that may affect the quantity and quality of knowledge
shared: economics, social psychology, and social ecology. In this
study, we strongly believe that an economic perspective may be suitable to validate factors influencing newly registered members-
knowledge contribution at the beginning of relationship development.
Accordingly, this study proposes a model to validate the factors influencing members- knowledge sharing based on Transaction Cost
Theory. By doing so, we may empirically test our hypotheses in various types of e-communities to determine the generalizability of our research models.
A CT-based Monte Carlo Dose Calculations for Proton Therapy Using a New Interface Program
The purpose of this study is to introduce a new
interface program to calculate a dose distribution with Monte Carlo method in complex heterogeneous systems such as organs or tissues
in proton therapy. This interface program was developed under
MATLAB software and includes a friendly graphical user interface
with several tools such as image properties adjustment or results display. Quadtree decomposition technique was used as an image
segmentation algorithm to create optimum geometries from Computed Tomography (CT) images for dose calculations of proton
beam. The result of the mentioned technique is a number of nonoverlapped
squares with different sizes in every image. By this way
the resolution of image segmentation is high enough in and near
heterogeneous areas to preserve the precision of dose calculations
and is low enough in homogeneous areas to reduce the number of
cells directly. Furthermore a cell reduction algorithm can be used to combine neighboring cells with the same material. The validation of this method has been done in two ways; first, in comparison with experimental data obtained with 80 MeV proton beam in Cyclotron
and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC) in Tohoku University and second, in comparison with data based on polybinary tissue calibration method, performed in CYRIC. These results are presented in this paper. This program can read the output file of Monte Carlo code while region of interest is selected manually, and give a plot of dose distribution of proton beam superimposed onto the CT images.
Multi-objective Optimization of Graph Partitioning using Genetic Algorithm
Graph partitioning is a NP-hard problem with multiple
conflicting objectives. The graph partitioning should minimize the
inter-partition relationship while maximizing the intra-partition
relationship. Furthermore, the partition load should be evenly
distributed over the respective partitions. Therefore this is a multiobjective
optimization problem (MOO). One of the approaches to
MOO is Pareto optimization which has been used in this paper. The
proposed methods of this paper used to improve the performance are
injecting best solutions of previous runs into the first generation of
next runs and also storing the non-dominated set of previous
generations to combine with later generation's non-dominated set.
These improvements prevent the GA from getting stuck in the local
optima and increase the probability of finding more optimal
solutions. Finally, a simulation research is carried out to investigate
the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The simulation results
confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Conflicts and Compromise at the Management of Transboundry Water Resources (The Case of the Central Asia)
The problem of complex use of water resources in
Central Asia by taking into consideration the sovereignty of the states
and increasing demand on use of water for economic aspects are
considered. Complex program with appropriate mathematical
software intended for calculation of possible variants of using the
Amudarya up-stream water resources according to satisfaction of
incompatible requirements of the national economics in irrigation
and energy generation is proposed.
Porous Particles Drying in a Vertical Upward Pneumatic Conveying Dryer
A steady two-phase flow model has been developed to simulate the drying process of porous particle in a pneumatic conveying dryer. The model takes into account the momentum, heat and mass transfer between the continuous phase and the dispersed phase. A single particle model was employed to calculate the evaporation rate. In this model the pore structure is simplified to allow the dominant evaporation mechanism to be readily identified at all points within the duct. The predominant mechanism at any time depends upon the pressure, temperature and the diameter of pore from which evaporating is occurring. The model was validated against experimental studies of pneumatic transport at low and high speeds as well as pneumatic drying. The effects of operating conditions on the dryer parameters are studied numerically. The present results show that the drying rate is enhanced as the inlet gas temperature and the gas flow rate increase and as the solid mass flow rate deceases. The present results also demonstrate the necessity of measuring the inlet gas velocity or the solid concentration in any experimental analysis.
Primer Design with Specific PCR Product using Particle Swarm Optimization
Before performing polymerase chain reactions (PCR), a feasible primer set is required. Many primer design methods have been proposed for design a feasible primer set. However, the majority of these methods require a relatively long time to obtain an optimal solution since large quantities of template DNA need to be analyzed. Furthermore, the designed primer sets usually do not provide a specific PCR product. In recent years, evolutionary computation has been applied to PCR primer design and yielded promising results. In this paper, a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed to solve primer design problems associated with providing a specific product for PCR experiments. A test set of the gene CYP1A1, associated with a heightened lung cancer risk was analyzed and the comparison of accuracy and running time with the genetic algorithm (GA) and memetic algorithm (MA) was performed. A comparison of results indicated that the proposed PSO method for primer design finds optimal or near-optimal primer sets and effective PCR products in a relatively short time.
A Novel Prediction Method for Tag SNP Selection using Genetic Algorithm based on KNN
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) hold much promise as a basis for disease-gene association. However, research is limited by the cost of genotyping the tremendous number of SNPs. Therefore, it is important to identify a small subset of informative SNPs, the so-called tag SNPs. This subset consists of selected SNPs of the genotypes, and accurately represents the rest of the SNPs. Furthermore, an effective evaluation method is needed to evaluate prediction accuracy of a set of tag SNPs. In this paper, a genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to tag SNP problems, and the K-nearest neighbor (K-NN) serves as a prediction method of tag SNP selection. The experimental data used was taken from the HapMap project; it consists of genotype data rather than haplotype data. The proposed method consistently identified tag SNPs with considerably better prediction accuracy than methods from the literature. At the same time, the number of tag SNPs identified was smaller than the number of tag SNPs in the other methods. The run time of the proposed method was much shorter than the run time of the SVM/STSA method when the same accuracy was reached.
Evaluation of a New Method for Detection of Kidney Stone during Laparoscopy Using 3D Conceptual Modeling
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is now being widely used as a preferred choice for various types of operations. The need to detect various tactile properties, justifies the key role of tactile sensing that is currently missing in MIS. In this regard, Laparoscopy is one of the methods of minimally invasive surgery that can be used in kidney stone removal surgeries. At this moment, determination of the exact location of stone during laparoscopy is one of the limitations of this method that no scientific solution has been found for so far. Artificial tactile sensing is a new method for obtaining the characteristics of a hard object embedded in a soft tissue. Artificial palpation is an important application of artificial tactile sensing that can be used in different types of surgeries. In this study, a new method for determining the exact location of stone during laparoscopy is presented. In the present study, the effects of stone existence on the surface of kidney were investigated using conceptual 3D model of kidney containing a simulated stone. Having imitated palpation and modeled it conceptually, indications of stone existence that appear on the surface of kidney were determined. A number of different cases were created and solved by the software and using stress distribution contours and stress graphs, it is illustrated that the created stress patterns on the surface of kidney show not only the existence of stone inside, but also its exact location. So three-dimensional analysis leads to a novel method of predicting the exact location of stone and can be directly applied to the incorporation of tactile sensing in artificial palpation, helping surgeons in non-invasive procedures.
Design of Extremum Seeking Control with PD Accelerator and its Application to Monod and Williams-Otto Models
In this paper, we are concerned with the design and
its simulation studies of a modified extremum seeking control for
nonlinear systems. A standard extremum seeking control has a simple
structure, but it takes a long time to reach an optimal operating point.
We consider a modification of the standard extremum seeking control
which is aimed to reach the optimal operating point more speedily
than the standard one. In the modification, PD acceleration term
is added before an integrator making a principal control, so that it
enables the objects to be regulated to the optimal point smoothly. This
proposed method is applied to Monod and Williams-Otto models to
investigate its effectiveness. Numerical simulation results show that
this modified method can improve the time response to the optimal
operating point more speedily than the standard one.
Analysis of Acoustic Emission Signal for the Detection of Defective Manufactures in Press Process
Small cracks or chips of a product appear very
frequently in the course of continuous production of an automatic
press process system. These phenomena become the cause of not only
defective product but also damage of a press mold. In order to solve
this problem AE system was introduced. AE system was expected to
be very effective to real time detection of the defective product and to
prevention of the damage of the press molds.
In this study, for pick and analysis of AE signals generated from the
press process, AE sensors/pre-amplifier/analysis and processing board
were used as frequently found in the other similar cases. For analysis
and processing the AE signals picked in real time from the good or bad
products, specialized software called cdm8 was used. As a result of
this work it was conformed that intensity and shape of the various AE
signals differ depending on the weight and thickness of metal sheet
and process type.
Application of Neural Network in User Authentication for Smart Home System
Security has been an important issue and concern in the
smart home systems. Smart home networks consist of a wide range of
wired or wireless devices, there is possibility that illegal access to
some restricted data or devices may happen. Password-based
authentication is widely used to identify authorize users, because this
method is cheap, easy and quite accurate. In this paper, a neural
network is trained to store the passwords instead of using verification
table. This method is useful in solving security problems that
happened in some authentication system. The conventional way to
train the network using Backpropagation (BPN) requires a long
training time. Hence, a faster training algorithm, Resilient
Backpropagation (RPROP) is embedded to the MLPs Neural
Network to accelerate the training process. For the Data Part, 200
sets of UserID and Passwords were created and encoded into binary
as the input. The simulation had been carried out to evaluate the
performance for different number of hidden neurons and combination
of transfer functions. Mean Square Error (MSE), training time and
number of epochs are used to determine the network performance.
From the results obtained, using Tansig and Purelin in hidden and
output layer and 250 hidden neurons gave the better performance. As
a result, a password-based user authentication system for smart home
by using neural network had been developed successfully.
Enhanced Economic Evaluation – Approach for a Holistic Evaluation of Factory Planning Variants
The building of a factory can be a strategic investment
owing to its long service life. An evaluation that only focuses, for
example, on payments for the building, the technical equipment of
the factory, and the personnel for the enterprise is – considering the
complexity of the system factory – not sufficient for this long-term
view. The success of an investment is secured, among other things,
by the attainment of nonmonetary goals, too, like transformability.
Such aspects are not considered in traditional investment calculations
like the net present value method. This paper closes this gap with the
enhanced economic evaluation (EWR) for factory planning. The
procedure and the first results of an application in a project are
Extrapolation of Clinical Data from an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Using a Support Vector Machine
To extract the important physiological factors related to
diabetes from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) by mathematical
modeling, highly informative but convenient protocols are required.
Current models require a large number of samples and extended
period of testing, which is not practical for daily use. The purpose
of this study is to make model assessments possible even from a
reduced number of samples taken over a relatively short period.
For this purpose, test values were extrapolated using a support
vector machine. A good correlation was found between reference and
extrapolated values in evaluated 741 OGTTs. This result indicates
that a reduction in the number of clinical test is possible through a
A Multiple Inlet Swirler for Gas Turbine Combustors
The central recirculation zone (CRZ) in a swirl
stabilized gas turbine combustor has a dominant effect on the fuel air
mixing process and flame stability. Most of state of the art swirlers
share one disadvantage; the fixed swirl number for the same swirler
configuration. Thus, in a mathematical sense, Reynolds number
becomes the sole parameter for controlling the flow characteristics
inside the combustor. As a result, at low load operation, the
generated swirl is more likely to become feeble affecting the flame
stabilization and mixing process. This paper introduces a new swirler
concept which overcomes the mentioned weakness of the modern
configurations. The new swirler introduces air tangentially and
axially to the combustor through tangential vanes and an axial vanes
respectively. Therefore, it provides different swirl numbers for the
same configuration by regulating the ratio between the axial and
tangential flow momenta. The swirler aerodynamic performance was
investigated using four CFD simulations in order to demonstrate the
impact of tangential to axial flow rate ratio on the CRZ. It was found
that the length of the CRZ is directly proportional to the tangential to
axial air flow rate ratio.
Effect of Crude Oil Particle Elasticity on the Separation Efficiency of a Hydrocyclone
The separation efficiency of a hydrocyclone has
extensively been considered on the rigid particle assumption. A
collection of experimental studies have demonstrated their
discrepancies from the modeling and simulation results. These
discrepancies caused by the actual particle elasticity have generally
led to a larger amount of energy consumption in the separation
process. In this paper, the influence of particle elasticity on the
separation efficiency of a hydrocyclone system was investigated
through the Finite Element (FE) simulations using crude oil droplets
as the elastic particles. A Reitema-s design hydrocyclone with a
diameter of 8 mm was employed to investigate the separation
mechanism of the crude oil droplets from water. The cut-size
diameter eter of the crude oil was 10 - Ðçm in order to fit with the
operating range of the adopted hydrocylone model. Typical
parameters influencing the performance of hydrocyclone were varied
with the feed pressure in the range of 0.3 - 0.6 MPa and feed
concentration between 0.05 – 0.1 w%. In the simulation, the Finite
Element scheme was applied to investigate the particle-flow
interaction occurred in the crude oil system during the process. The
interaction of a single oil droplet at the size of 10 - Ðçm to the flow
field was observed. The feed concentration fell in the dilute flow
regime so the particle-particle interaction was ignored in the study.
The results exhibited the higher power requirement for the separation
of the elastic particulate system when compared with the rigid
Optical Coherence Tomography Combined with the Confocal Microscopy Method and Fluorescence for Class V Cavities Investigations
The purpose of this study is to present a non invasive
method for the marginal adaptation evaluation in class V composite
restorations. Standardized class V cavities, prepared in human
extracted teeth, were filled with Premise (Kerr) composite. The
specimens were thermo cycled. The interfaces were examined by
Optical Coherence Tomography method (OCT) combined with the
confocal microscopy and fluorescence. The optical configuration
uses two single mode directional couplers with a superluminiscent
diode as the source at 1300 nm. The scanning procedure is similar to
that used in any confocal microscope, where the fast scanning is enface
(line rate) and the depth scanning is much slower (at the frame
rate). Gaps at the interfaces as well as inside the composite resin
materials were identified. OCT has numerous advantages which
justify its use in vivo as well as in vitro in comparison with
Material Defects Identification in Metal Ceramic Fixed Partial Dentures by En-Face Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography
The fixed partial dentures are mainly used in the frontal
part of the dental arch because of their great esthetics. There are
several factors that are associated with the stress state created in
ceramic restorations, including: thickness of ceramic layers,
mechanical properties of the materials, elastic modulus of the
supporting substrate material, direction, magnitude and frequency of
applied load, size and location of occlusal contact areas, residual
stresses induced by processing or pores, restoration-cement
interfacial defects and environmental defects. The purpose of this
study is to evaluate the capability of Polarization Sensitive Optical
Coherence Tomography (PSOCT) in detection and analysis of
possible material defects in metal-ceramic and integral ceramic fixed
partial dentures. As a conclusion, it is important to have a non
invasive method to investigate fixed partial prostheses before their
insertion in the oral cavity in order to satisfy the high stress
requirements and the esthetic function.
Faults Forecasting System
This paper presents Faults Forecasting System (FFS)
that utilizes statistical forecasting techniques in analyzing process
variables data in order to forecast faults occurrences. FFS is
proposing new idea in detecting faults. Current techniques used in
faults detection are based on analyzing the current status of the
system variables in order to check if the current status is fault or not.
FFS is using forecasting techniques to predict future timing for faults
before it happens. Proposed model is applying subset modeling
strategy and Bayesian approach in order to decrease dimensionality
of the process variables and improve faults forecasting accuracy. A
practical experiment, designed and implemented in Okayama
University, Japan, is implemented, and the comparison shows that
our proposed model is showing high forecasting accuracy and
Effects of Operating Conditions on Calcium Carbonate Fouling in a Plate Heat Exchanger
The aim of this work is to investigate on the internalflow
patterns in a plate heat exchanger channel, which affect the
rate of sedimentation fouling on the heat transfer surface of the
plate heat exchanger. The research methodologies were the
computer simulation using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
and the experimental works. COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS™
Version 3.3 was used to simulate the velocity flow fields to verify
the low and high flow regions. The results from the CFD technique
were then compared with the images obtained from the
experiments in which the fouling test rig was set up with a singlechannel
plate heat exchanger to monitor the fouling of calcium
carbonate. Two parameters were varied i.e., the crossing angle of
the two plate: 55/55, 10/10, and 55/10 degree, and the fluid flow
rate at the inlet: 0.0566, 0.1132 and 0.1698 m/s. The type of plate
“GX-12" (the surface area 0.12 m2, the depth 2.9 mm, the width of
fluid flow 215 mm and the thickness of stainless plate of 0.5 mm)
was used in this study. The results indicated that the velocity
distribution for the case of 55/55 degree seems to be very well
organized when compared with the others. Also, an increase in the
inlet velocity resulted in the reduction of fouling rate on the surface
of plate heat exchangers.
Modeling and Simulation of a Serial Production Line with Constant Work-In-Process
This paper presents a model for an unreliable
production line, which is operated according to demand with constant
work-in-process (CONWIP). A simulation model is developed based
on the discrete model and several case problems are analyzed using
the model. The model is utilized to optimize storage space capacities
at intermediate stages and the number of kanbans at the last stage,
which is used to trigger the production at the first stage. Furthermore,
effects of several line parameters on production rate are analyzed
using design of experiments.
Optimization of Distributed Processors for Power System: Kalman Filters using Petri Net
The growth and interconnection of power networks in many regions has invited complicated techniques for energy management services (EMS). State estimation techniques become a powerful tool in power system control centers, and that more information is required to achieve the objective of EMS. For the online state estimator, assuming the continuous time is equidistantly sampled with period Δt, processing events must be finished within this period. Advantage of Kalman Filtering (KF) algorithm in using system information to improve the estimation precision is utilized. Computational power is a major issue responsible for the achievement of the objective, i.e. estimators- solution at a small sampled period. This paper presents the optimum utilization of processors in a state estimator based on KF. The model used is presented using Petri net (PN) theory.
Tolerance of Heavy Metals by Gram Positive Soil Bacteria
With the intention of screening for heavy metal
tolerance, a number of bacteria were isolated and characterized from
a pristine soil. Two Gram positive isolates were identified as
Paenibacillus sp. and Bacillus thuringeinsis. Tolerance of Cd2+, Cu2+
and Zn2+ by these bacteria was studied and found that both bacteria
were highly sensitive to Cu2+ compared to other two metals. Both
bacteria showed the same pattern of metal tolerance in the order Zn+
> Cd2+ > Cu2+. When the metal tolerance in both bacteria was
compared, Paenibacillus sp. showed the highest sensitivity to Cu2+
where as B. thuringiensis showed highest sensitivity to Cd2+ and Zn2+
.These findings revealed the potential of Paenibacillus sp. in
developing a biosensor to detect Cu2+ in environmental samples.
Methods for Manufacture of Corrugated Wire Mesh Laminates
Corrugated wire mesh laminates (CWML) are a class
of engineered open cell structures that have potential for applications
in many areas including aerospace and biomedical engineering. Two
different methods of fabricating corrugated wire mesh laminates from
stainless steel, one using a high temperature Lithobraze alloy and the
other using a low temperature Eutectic solder for joining the
corrugated wire meshes are described herein. Their implementation is
demonstrated by manufacturing CWML samples of 304 and 316
stainless steel (SST). It is seen that due to the facility of employing
wire meshes of different densities and wire diameters, it is possible to
create CWML laminates with a wide range of effective densities. The
fabricated laminates are tested under uniaxial compression. The
variation of the compressive yield strength with relative density of the
CWML is compared to the theory developed by Gibson and Ashby for
open cell structures . It is shown that the compressive strength of
the corrugated wire mesh laminates can be described using the same
equations by using an appropriate value for the linear coefficient in the
Tabu Search Approach to Solve Routing Issues in Communication Networks
Optimal routing in communication networks is a
major issue to be solved. In this paper, the application of Tabu Search
(TS) in the optimum routing problem where the aim is to minimize
the computational time and improvement of quality of the solution in
the communication have been addressed. The goal is to minimize the
average delays in the communication. The effectiveness of Tabu
Search method is shown by the results of simulation to solve the
shortest path problem. Through this approach computational cost can
Simulation of Ethical Behavior in Urban Transportation
For controlling urban transportations, traffic lights
show similar behavior for different kinds of vehicles at intersections.
Emergency vehicles need special behavior at intersections, so traffic
lights should behave in different manner when emergency vehicles
approach them. At the present time, intelligent traffic lights control
urban transportations intelligently. In this paper the ethical aspect of
this topic is considered. A model is proposed for adding special
component to emergency vehicles and traffic lights for controlling
traffic in ethical manner. The proposed model is simulated by JADE.
Promoting Collaborative Learning in Software Engineering by Adapting the PBL Strategy
Software engineering education not only embraces
technical skills of software development but also necessitates
communication and interaction among learners. In this paper, it is
proposed to adapt the PBL methodology that is especially designed to
be integrated into software engineering classroom in order to promote
collaborative learning environment. This approach helps students
better understand the significance of social aspects and provides a
systematic framework to enhance teamwork skills. The adaptation of
PBL facilitates the transition to an innovative software development
environment where cooperative learning can be actualized.
A Study on the Leadership Behavior, Safety Culture, and Safety Performance of the Healthcare Industry
Object: Review recent publications of patient safety
culture to investigate the relationship between leadership behavior,
safety culture, and safety performance in the healthcare industry.
Method: This study is a cross-sectional study, 350 questionnaires were
mailed to hospital workers with 195 valid responses obtained, and a
55.7% valid response rate. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was
carried out to test the factor structure and determine if the composite
reliability was significant with a factor loading of >0.5, resulting in an
acceptable model fit. Results: Through the analysis of One-way
ANOVA, the results showed that physicians significantly have more
negative patient safety culture perceptions and safety performance
perceptions than non- physicians. Conclusions: The path analysis
results show that leadership behavior affects safety culture and safety
performance in the health care industry. Safety performance was
affected and improved with contingency leadership and a positive
patient safety organization culture. The study suggests improving
safety performance by providing a well-managed system that
includes: consideration of leadership, hospital worker training
courses, and a solid safety reporting system.
Finding Fuzzy Association Rules Using FWFP-Growth with Linguistic Supports and Confidences
In data mining, the association rules are used to search
for the relations of items of the transactions database. Following the
data is collected and stored, it can find rules of value through
association rules, and assist manager to proceed marketing strategy
and plan market framework. In this paper, we attempt fuzzy partition
methods and decide membership function of quantitative values of
each transaction item. Also, by managers we can reflect the
importance of items as linguistic terms, which are transformed as
fuzzy sets of weights. Next, fuzzy weighted frequent pattern growth
(FWFP-Growth) is used to complete the process of data mining. The
method above is expected to improve Apriori algorithm for its better
efficiency of the whole association rules. An example is given to
clearly illustrate the proposed approach.
A Decision Support System for Predicting Hospitalization of Hemodialysis Patients
Hemodialysis patients might suffer from unhealthy
care behaviors or long-term dialysis treatments. Ultimately they need
to be hospitalized. If the hospitalization rate of a hemodialysis center
is high, its quality of service would be low. Therefore, how to decrease
hospitalization rate is a crucial problem for health care. In this study
we combined temporal abstraction with data mining techniques for
analyzing the dialysis patients' biochemical data to develop a decision
support system. The mined temporal patterns are helpful for clinicians
to predict hospitalization of hemodialysis patients and to suggest them
some treatments immediately to avoid hospitalization.
Analysis of Physicochemical Properties on Prediction of R5, X4 and R5X4 HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage
Bioinformatics methods for predicting the T cell
coreceptor usage from the array of membrane protein of HIV-1 are
investigated. In this study, we aim to propose an effective prediction
method for dealing with the three-class classification problem of
CXCR4 (X4), CCR5 (R5) and CCR5/CXCR4 (R5X4). We made
efforts in investigating the coreceptor prediction problem as follows: 1)
proposing a feature set of informative physicochemical properties
which is cooperated with SVM to achieve high prediction test
accuracy of 81.48%, compared with the existing method with
accuracy of 70.00%; 2) establishing a large up-to-date data set by
increasing the size from 159 to 1225 sequences to verify the proposed
prediction method where the mean test accuracy is 88.59%, and 3)
analyzing the set of 14 informative physicochemical properties to
further understand the characteristics of HIV-1coreceptors.
Preparation of Tender for Building Conservation Work: Current Practices in Malaysia
Building conservation work generally involves complex and non-standard work different from new building construction processes. In preparing tenders for building conservation projects, therefore, the quantity surveyor must carefully consider the specificity of non-standard items and demarcate the scope of unique conservation work. While the quantity surveyor must appreciate the full range of works to prepare a good tender document, he typically manages many unfamiliar elements, including practical construction methods, restoration techniques and work sequences. Only by fulfilling the demanding requirements of building conservation work can the quantity surveyor enhance his professionalism an area of growing cultural value and economic importance. By discussing several issues crucial to tender preparations for building conservation projects in Malaysia, this paper seeks a deeper understanding of how quantity surveying can better standardize tender preparation work and more successfully manage building conservation processes.
File Format of Flow Chart Simulation Software - CFlow
CFlow is a flow chart software, it contains facilities to
draw and evaluate a flow chart. A flow chart evaluation applies a
simulation method to enable presentation of work flow in a flow
chart solution. Flow chart simulation of CFlow is executed by
manipulating the CFlow data file which is saved in a graphical vector
format. These text-based data are organised by using a data
classification technic based on a Library classification-scheme. This
paper describes the file format for flow chart simulation software of
A hybrid Tabu Search Algorithm to Cell Formation Problem and its Variants
Cell formation is the first step in the design of cellular
manufacturing systems. In this study, a general purpose
computational scheme employing a hybrid tabu search algorithm as
the core is proposed to solve the cell formation problem and its
variants. In the proposed scheme, great flexibilities are left to the
users. The core solution searching algorithm embedded in the scheme
can be easily changed to any other meta-heuristic algorithms, such as
the simulated annealing, genetic algorithm, etc., based on the
characteristics of the problems to be solved or the preferences the
users might have. In addition, several counters are designed to control
the timing of conducting intensified solution searching and diversified
solution searching strategies interactively.
Negative Slope Ramp Carrier Control for High Power Factor Boost Converters in CCM Operation
This paper, a simple continuous conduction mode (CCM) pulse-width-modulated (PWM) controller for high power factor boost converters is introduced. The duty ratios were obtained by the comparison of a sensed signal from inductor current or switch current and a negative slope ramp carrier waveform in each switching period. Due to the proposed control requires only the inductor current or switch current sensor and the output voltage sensor, its circuit implementation was very simple. To verify the proposed control, the circuit experimentation of a 350 W boost converter with the proposed control was applied. From the results, the input current waveform was shaped to be closely sinusoidal, implying high power factor and low harmonics.
Emission Assessment of Rice Husk Combustion for Power Production
Rice husk is one of the alternative fuels for Thailand because of its high potential and environmental benefits. Nonetheless, the environmental profile of the electricity production from rice husk must be assessed to ensure reduced environmental damage. A 10 MW pilot plant using rice husk as feedstock is the study site. The environmental impacts from rice husk power plant are evaluated by using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Energy, material and carbon balances have been determined for tracing the system flow. Carbon closure has been used for describing of the net amount of CO2 released from the system in relation to the amount being recycled between the power plant and the CO2 adsorbed by rice husk. The transportation of rice husk to the power plant has significant on global warming, but not on acidification and photo-oxidant formation. The results showed that the impact potentials from rice husk power plant are lesser than the conventional plants for most of the categories considered; except the photo-oxidant formation potential from CO. The high CO from rice husk power plant may be due to low boiler efficiency and high moisture content in rice husk. The performance of the study site can be enhanced by improving the combustion efficiency.
Clinical Benefits of an Embedded Decision Support System in Anticoagulant Control
Computer-based decision support (CDSS) systems can
deliver real patient care and increase chances of long-term survival in
areas of chronic disease management prone to poor control. One such
CDSS, for the management of warfarin, is described in this paper and
the outcomes shown. Data is derived from the running system and
show a performance consistently around 20% better than the
The Design of Axisymmetric Ducts for Incompressible Flow with a Parabolic Axial Velocity Inlet Profile
In this paper a numerical algorithm is described for solving the boundary value problem associated with axisymmetric, inviscid, incompressible, rotational (and irrotational) flow in order to obtain duct wall shapes from prescribed wall velocity distributions. The governing equations are formulated in terms of the stream function ψ (x,y)and the function φ (x,y)as independent variables where for irrotational flow φ (x,y)can be recognized as the velocity potential function, for rotational flow φ (x,y)ceases being the velocity potential function but does remain orthogonal to the stream lines. A numerical method based on the finite difference scheme on a uniform mesh is employed. The technique described is capable of tackling the so-called inverse problem where the velocity wall distributions are prescribed from which the duct wall shape is calculated, as well as the direct problem where the velocity distribution on the duct walls are calculated from prescribed duct geometries. The two different cases as outlined in this paper are in fact boundary value problems with Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions respectively. Even though both approaches are discussed, only numerical results for the case of the Dirichlet boundary conditions are given. A downstream condition is prescribed such that cylindrical flow, that is flow which is independent of the axial coordinate, exists.
Estimating Regression Effects in Com Poisson Generalized Linear Model
Com Poisson distribution is capable of modeling the count responses irrespective of their mean variance relation and the parameters of this distribution when fitted to a simple cross sectional data can be efficiently estimated using maximum likelihood (ML) method. In the regression setup, however, ML estimation of the parameters of the Com Poisson based generalized linear model is computationally intensive. In this paper, we propose to use quasilikelihood (QL) approach to estimate the effect of the covariates on the Com Poisson counts and investigate the performance of this method with respect to the ML method. QL estimates are consistent and almost as efficient as ML estimates. The simulation studies show that the efficiency loss in the estimation of all the parameters using QL approach as compared to ML approach is quite negligible, whereas QL approach is lesser involving than ML approach.
Heat Transfer Coefficients for Particulate Airflow in Shell and Coiled Tube Heat Exchangers
In this work, we experimentally study heat transfer
from exhaust particulate air of detergent spray drying tower to water
by using coiled tube heat exchanger. Water flows in the coiled
tubes, where air loaded with detergent particles of 43 micrometers
in diameter flows within the shell. Four coiled tubes with different
coil pitches are used in a counter-current flow configuration. We
investigate heat transfer coefficients of inside and outside the heat
transfer surfaces through 400 experiments. The correlations between
Nusselt number and Reynolds number, Prandtl number, mass flow
rate of particulates to mass flow rate of air ratio and coiled tube
pitch parameter are proposed. The correlations procured can be used
to predicted heat transfer between tube and shell of the heat
A Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Trained Inspectors in Different Workloads between Feed Forward and Feedback Training
Objective of this study was to study and compare the effectiveness of inspectors who had different workloads for feed forward and feedback training. The visual search task was simulated to search for specified alphabets called defects. These defects were included of four alphabets in Thai and English such as s ภ, ถ, X, and V with different background. These defects were combined in the specified alphabets and were given the different three backgrounds i.e., Thai, English, and mixed English and Thai alphabets. Sixty students were chosen as a sample in this study and test for final selection subject. Finally, five subjects were taken into testing process. They were asked to search for defects after they were provided basic information. Experiment design was used factorial design and subjects were trained for feed forward and the feedback training. The results show that both trainings were affected on mean search time. It was also found that the feedback training can increase the effectiveness of visual inspectors rather than the feed forward training significantly different at the level of .05
Performance Analysis of Evolutionary ANN for Output Prediction of a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System
This paper presents performance analysis of the
Evolutionary Programming-Artificial Neural Network (EPANN)
based technique to optimize the architecture and training parameters
of a one-hidden layer feedforward ANN model for the prediction of
energy output from a grid connected photovoltaic system. The ANN
utilizes solar radiation and ambient temperature as its inputs while the
output is the total watt-hour energy produced from the grid-connected
PV system. EP is used to optimize the regression performance of the
ANN model by determining the optimum values for the number of
nodes in the hidden layer as well as the optimal momentum rate and
learning rate for the training. The EPANN model is tested using two
types of transfer function for the hidden layer, namely the tangent
sigmoid and logarithmic sigmoid. The best transfer function, neural
topology and learning parameters were selected based on the highest
regression performance obtained during the ANN training and testing
process. It is observed that the best transfer function configuration for
the prediction model is [logarithmic sigmoid, purely linear].
A Refined Energy-Based Model for Friction-Stir Welding
Friction-stir welding has received a huge interest in the last few years. The many advantages of this promising process have led researchers to present different theoretical and experimental explanation of the process. The way to quantitatively and qualitatively control the different parameters of the friction-stir welding process has not been paved. In this study, a refined energybased model that estimates the energy generated due to friction and plastic deformation is presented. The effect of the plastic deformation at low energy levels is significant and hence a scale factor is introduced to control its effect. The predicted heat energy and the obtained maximum temperature using our model are compared to the theoretical and experimental results available in the literature and a good agreement is obtained. The model is applied to AA6000 and AA7000 series.
Burning Rates of Turbulent Gaseous and Aerosol Flames
Combustion of sprays is of technological importance, but its flame behavior is not fully understood. Furthermore, the multiplicity of dependent variables such as pressure, temperature, equivalence ratio, and droplet sizes complicates the study of spray combustion. Fundamental study on the influence of the presence of liquid droplets has revealed that laminar flames within aerosol mixtures more readily become unstable than for gaseous ones and this increases the practical burning rate. However, fundamental studies on turbulent flames of aerosol mixtures are limited particularly those under near mono-dispersed droplet conditions. In the present work, centrally ignited expanding flames at near atmospheric pressures are employed to quantify the burning rates in gaseous and aerosol flames. Iso-octane-air aerosols are generated by expansion of the gaseous pre-mixture to produce a homogeneously distributed suspension of fuel droplets. The effects of the presence of droplets and turbulence velocity in relation to the burning rates of the flame are also investigated.
Implementation of Feed-in Tariffs into Multi-Energy Systems
This paper considers the influence of promotion
instruments for renewable energy sources (RES) on a multi-energy
modeling framework. In Europe, so called Feed-in Tariffs are
successfully used as incentive structures to increase the amount of
energy produced by RES. Because of the stochastic nature of large
scale integration of distributed generation, many problems have
occurred regarding the quality and stability of supply. Hence, a
macroscopic model was developed in order to optimize the power
supply of the local energy infrastructure, which includes electricity,
natural gas, fuel oil and district heating as energy carriers. Unique
features of the model are the integration of RES and the adoption of
Feed-in Tariffs into one optimization stage. Sensitivity studies are
carried out to examine the system behavior under changing profits
for the feed-in of RES. With a setup of three energy exchanging
regions and a multi-period optimization, the impact of costs and
profits are determined.
Doping of Conveyor Belt Materials with Nanostructured Fillers to Adapt Innovative Performance Characteristics
The “conveyor belt" as a product represents a
complex high performance component with a wide range of different
applications. Further development of these highly complex
components demands an integration of new technologies and new
enhanced materials. In this context nanostructured fillers appear to
have a more promising effect on the performance of the conveyor
belt composite than conventional micro-scaled fillers.
Within the project “DotTrans" nanostructured fillers, for example
silicon dioxide, are used to optimize performance parameters of
conveyor belt systems. The objective of the project includes
operating parameters like energy consumption or friction
characteristics as well as adaptive parameters like cut or wear
The Project of Three Photovoltaic Systems in an Italian Natural Park
The development of renewable energies - particularly energy from wind, water, solar power and biomass - is a central aim of the European Commission's energy policy. There are several reasons for this choice: renewable energies are sustainable, nonpolluting, widely available and clean. Increasing the share of renewable energy in the energy balance enhances sustainability. It also helps to improve the security of energy supply by reducing the Community's growing dependence on imported energy sources.In this paper it was studied the possibility to realize three photovoltaic systems in the Italian Natural Park “Gola della Rossa e di Frasassi". The first photovoltaic system is a grid-connected system for Services and Documentation Center of Castelletta with a nominal power of about 6 kWp. The second photovoltaic system is a grid-connected integrated system on the ticket office-s roof with a nominal power of about 4 kWp. The third project is set up by five grid-connected systems integrated on the roofs of the bungalows in Natural Park-s tourist camping with a nominal power of about 10 kWp. The electricity which is generated by all these plants is purchased according to the Italian program called “Conto Energia". Economical analysis and the amount of the avoided CO2 emissions are elaborated for these photovoltaic systems.
A Study of Feedback Strategy to Improve Inspector Performance by Using Computer Based Training
The purpose of this research was to study the inspector performance by using computer based training (CBT). Visual inspection task was printed circuit board (PCB) simulated on several types of defects. Subjects were 16 undergraduate randomly selected from King Mongkut-s University of Technology Thonburi and test for 20/20. Then, they were equally divided on performance into two groups (control and treatment groups) and were provided information before running the experiment. Only treatment group was provided feedback information after first experiment. Results revealed that treatment group was showed significantly difference at the level of 0.01. The treatment group showed high percentage on defects detected. Moreover, the attitude of inspectors on using the CBT to inspection was showed on good. These results have been showed that CBT could be used for training to improve inspector performance.
A Comparison Study of Inspector's Performance between Regular and Complex Tasks
This research was to study a comparison of inspector-s performance between regular and complex visual inspection task. Visual task was simulated on DVD read control circuit. Inspection task was performed by using computer. Subjects were 10 undergraduate randomly selected and test for 20/20. Then, subjects were divided into two groups, five for regular inspection (control group) and five for complex inspection (treatment group) tasks. Result was showed that performance on regular and complex inspectors was significantly difference at the level of 0.05. Inspector performance on regular inspection was showed high percentage on defects detected by using equal time to complex inspection. This would be indicated that inspector performance was affected by visual inspection task.
Simultaneous Reaction-Separation in a Microchannel Reactor with the Aid of a Guideline Structure
A microchannel with two inlets and two outlets was tested as a potential reactor to carry out two-phase catalytic phase transfer reaction with phase separation at the exit of the microchannel. The catalytic phase transfer reaction between benzyl chloride and sodium sulfide was chosen as a model reaction. The effect of operational time on the conversion was studied. By utilizing a multiphase parallel flow inside the microchannel reactor with the aid of a guideline structure, the catalytic phase reaction followed by phase separation could be ensured. The organic phase could be separated completely from one exit and part of the aqueous phase was separated purely and could be reused with slightly affecting the catalytic phase transfer reaction.
A Novel Strategy for Oriented Protein Immobilization
A new strategy for oriented immobilization of proteins was proposed. The strategy contains two steps. The first step is to search for a docking site away from the active site on the protein surface. The second step is trying to find a ligand that is able to grasp the targeted site of the protein. To avoid ligand binding to the active site of protein, the targeted docking site is selected to own opposite charges to those near the active site. To enhance the ligand-protein binding, both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions need to be included. The targeted docking site should therefore contain hydrophobic amino acids. The ligand is then selected through the help of molecular docking simulations. The enzyme α-amylase derived from Aspergillus oryzae (TAKA) was taken as an example for oriented immobilization. The active site of TAKA is surrounded by negatively charged amino acids. All the possible hydrophobic sites on the surface of TAKA were evaluated by the free energy estimation through benzene docking. A hydrophobic site on the opposite side of TAKA-s active site was found to be positive in net charges. A possible ligand, 3,3-,4,4- – Biphenyltetra- carboxylic acid (BPTA), was found to catch TAKA by the designated docking site. Then, the BPTA molecules were grafted onto silica gels and measured the affinity of TAKA adsorption and the specific activity of thereby immobilized enzymes. It was found that TAKA had a dissociation constant as low as 7.0×10-6 M toward the ligand BPTA on silica gel. The increase in ionic strength has little effect on the adsorption of TAKA, which indicated the existence of hydrophobic interaction between ligands and proteins. The specific activity of the immobilized TAKA was compared with the randomly adsorbed TAKA on primary amine containing silica gel. It was found that the orderly immobilized TAKA owns a specific activity twice as high as the one randomly adsorbed by ionic interaction.
Analysis of Social Network Using Clever Ant Colony Metaphor
A social network is a set of people or organization or other social entities connected by some form of relationships. Analysis of social network broadly elaborates visual and mathematical representation of that relationship. Web can also be considered as a social network. This paper presents an innovative approach to analyze a social network using a variant of existing ant colony optimization algorithm called as Clever Ant Colony Metaphor. Experiments are performed and interesting findings and observations have been inferred based on the proposed model.
Testing of DISAL D240 and D420 Ceramic Tool Materials with an Interrupted Cut Simulator
This paper presents a solution for ceramic cutting tools availability in interrupted machining. Experiments were performed on a special fixture – the interrupted cut simulator. This fixture was constructed at our Department of Machining and Assembly within the scope of a project by the Czech Science Foundation. The goals of the tests were to contribute to the wider usage of these cutting materials in machining, especially in interrupted machining. Through the centuries, producers of ceramic cutting tools have taken big steps forward. Namely, increasing durability in maintaining high levels of strength and hardness lends an advantage. Some producers of these materials advise cutting inserts for interrupted machining at the present time [1, 2].
A Proxy Multi-Signature Scheme with Anonymous Vetoable Delegation
Frequently a group of people jointly decide and authorize
a specific person as a representative in some business/poitical
occasions, e.g., the board of a company authorizes the chief executive
officer to close a multi-billion acquisition deal. In this paper, an
integrated proxy multi-signature scheme that allows anonymously
vetoable delegation is proposed. This protocol integrates mechanisms
of private veto, distributed proxy key generation, secure transmission
of proxy key, and existentially unforgeable proxy multi-signature
scheme. First, a provably secure Guillou-Quisquater proxy signature
scheme is presented, then the “zero-sharing" protocol is extended
over a composite modulus multiplicative group, and finally the above
two are combined to realize the GQ proxy multi-signature with
anonymously vetoable delegation. As a proxy signature scheme, this
protocol protects both the original signers and the proxy signer.
The modular design allows simplified implementation with less
communication overheads and better computation performance than
a general secure multi-party protocol.
Feasibility Study on Vanillin Production from Jatropha curcas Stem Using Steam Explosion as a Pretreatment
Jatropha curcas stem was analyzed for chemical
compositions: 19.11% pentosan, 42.99% alphacellulose and 24.11%
lignin based on dry weight of 100-g raw material. The condition to
fractionate cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in J. curcas stem using
steam explosion was optimized. The procedure started from cutting J.
curcas stem into small pieces and soaked in water for overnight.
After that, they were steam exploded at 214 °C and 21 kg/cm2 for 5
min. The obtained hydrolysate contained 1.55 g/L ferulic acid which
after that was used as substrate for vanillin production by Aspergillus
niger and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus in one-step process. The
maximum 0.65 g/L of vanillin were obtained with the conversion rate
of 45.2% based on the initial ferulic acid.
Design and Analysis of MEMS based Accelerometer for Automatic Detection of Railway Wheel Flat
This paper presents the modeling of a MEMS based accelerometer in order to detect the presence of a wheel flat in the railway vehicle. A haversine wheel flat is assigned to one wheel of a 5 DOF pitch plane vehicle model, which is coupled to a 3 layer track model. Based on the simulated acceleration response obtained from the vehicle-track model, an accelerometer is designed that meets all the requirements to detect the presence of a wheel flat. The proposed accelerometer can survive in a dynamic shocking environment with acceleration up to ±150g. The parameters of the accelerometer are calculated in order to achieve the required specifications using lumped element approximation and the results are used for initial design layout. A finite element analysis code (COMSOL) is used to perform simulations of the accelerometer under various operating conditions and to determine the optimum configuration. The simulated results are found within about 2% of the calculated values, which indicates the validity of lumped element approach. The stability of the accelerometer is also determined in the desired range of operation including the condition under shock.
Technology Adoption among Small and Medium Enterprises (SME's): A Research Agenda
This paper presents the research agenda that has been proposed to develop an integrated model to explain technology adoption of SMEs in Malaysia. SMEs form over 90% of all business entities in Malaysia and they have been contributing to the development of the nation. Technology adoption has been a thorn issue among SMEs as they require big outlay which might not be available to the SMEs. Although resource has been an issue among SMEs they cannot lie low and ignore the technological advancements that are taking place at a rapid pace. With that in mind this paper proposes a model to explain the technology adoption issue among SMEs.
Comprehensive Study on the Linear Hydrodynamic Analysis of a Truss Spar in Random Waves
Truss spars are used for oil exploitation in deep and ultra-deep water if storage crude oil is not needed. The linear hydrodynamic analysis of truss spar in random sea wave load is necessary for determining the behaviour of truss spar. This understanding is not only important for design of the mooring lines, but also for optimising the truss spar design. In this paper linear hydrodynamic analysis of truss spar is carried out in frequency domain. The hydrodynamic forces are calculated using the modified Morison equation and diffraction theory. Added mass and drag coefficients of truss section computed by transmission matrix and normal acceleration and velocity component acting on each element and for hull section computed by strip theory. The stiffness properties of the truss spar can be separated into two components; hydrostatic stiffness and mooring line stiffness. Then, platform response amplitudes obtained by solved the equation of motion. This equation is non-linear due to viscous damping term therefore linearised by iteration method . Finally computed RAOs and significant response amplitude and results are compared with experimental data.
Analyzing Artificial Emotion in Game Characters Using Soft Computing
This paper describes a simulation model for analyzing artificial emotion injected to design the game characters. Most of the game storyboard is interactive in nature and the virtual characters of the game are equipped with an individual personality and dynamic emotion value which is similar to real life emotion and behavior. The uncertainty in real expression, mood and behavior is also exhibited in game paradigm and this is focused in the present paper through a fuzzy logic based agent and storyboard. Subsequently, a pheromone distribution or labeling is presented mimicking the behavior of social insects.
Applying Theory of Perceived Risk and Technology Acceptance Model in the Online Shopping Channel
As the advancement of technology, online shopping channel develops rapidly in recent years. According to the report of Taiwan Network Information Center, there are almost eighty percents of internet population shopping in online channel. Synthesizing insights from the previous research, this study develops the conceptual model to integrate Theory of Perceived Risk (TPR) and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to apply in online shopping. Using data collected from 637 respondents from online survey website, we use structural equation modeling to test measurement and structural models. The results suggest the need for consideration of perceived risk as an antecedent in the Technology Acceptance Model. The limitations and implications are discussed.
Dissolution of Solid Particles in Liquids: A Shrinking Core Model
The dissolution of spherical particles in liquids is analyzed dynamically. Here, we consider the case the dissolution of solute yields a solute-free solid phase in the outer portion of a particle. As dissolution proceeds, the interface between the undissolved solid phase and the solute-free solid phase moves towards the center of the particle. We assume that there exist two resistances for the diffusion of solute molecules: the resistance due to the solute-free portion of the particle and that due to a surface layer near solid-liquid interface. In general, the equation governing the dynamic behavior of dissolution needs to be solved numerically. However, analytical expressions for the temporal variation of the size of the undissoved portion of a particle and the variation of dissolution time can be obtained in some special cases. The present analysis takes the effect of variable bulk solute concentration on dissolution into account.
Toward Community-Based Personal Cloud Computing
This paper proposes a new of cloud computing for individual computer users to share applications in distributed communities, called community-based personal cloud computing (CPCC). The paper also presents a prototype design and implementation of CPCC. The users of CPCC are able to share their computing applications with other users of the community. Any member of the community is able to execute remote applications shared by other members. The remote applications behave in the same way as their local counterparts, allowing the user to enter input, receive output as well as providing the access to the local data of the user. CPCC provides a peer-to-peer (P2P) environment where each peer provides applications which can be used by the other peers that are connected CPCC.
Photovoltaic Small-Scale Wastewater Treatment Project for Rural and New-Cultivated Areas in Egypt
The problem of wastewater treatment in Egypt is a two-fold problem; the first part concerning the existing rural areas, the second one dealing with new industrial/domestic areas. In Egypt several agricultural projects have been initiated by the government and the private sector as well, in order to change its infrastructure. As a reliable energy source, photovoltaic pumping systems have contributed to supply water for local rural communities worldwide; they can also be implemented to solve the problem “wastewater environment pollution". The solution of this problem can be categorised as recycle process. In addition, because of regional conditions past technologies are being reexamined to select a smallscale treatment system requiring low construction and maintenance costs. This paper gives the design guidelines of a Photovoltaic Small- Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant (PVSSWTP) based on technologies that can be transferred.
Dynamic Performances of Tubular Linear Induction Motor for Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline System
Tubular linear induction motor (TLIM) can be used as a capsule pump in a large pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) system. Parametric performance evaluation of the designed 1-meter diameter PCP-TLIM system yields encouraging results for practical implementation. The capsule thrust and speed inside the TLIM pump can be calculated from the combination of the PCP fluid mechanics and the TLIM equations. The TLIM equivalent circuits derived from those of the conventional three-phase induction motor are used as a model to predict the static test results of a small-scale PCP-TLIM system. In this paper, additional dynamic tests are performed on the same small-scale PCP-TLIM system with two capsules of different diameters. The behaviors of the capsule inside the pump are observed and analyzed. The dynamic performances from the dynamic tests are compared with the theoretical predictions based on the TLIM equivalent circuit model.
A Digital Media e-Learning Training Strategy for Healthcare Employees: Cost effective Distance Learning by Collaborative offline / online Engagement and Assessment
Within the healthcare system, training and continued professional development although essential, can be effected by cost and logistical restraints due to the nature of healthcare provision e.g employee shift patterns, access to expertise, cost factors in releasing staff to attend training etc. The use of multimedia technology for the development of e-learning applications is also a major cost consideration for healthcare management staff, and this type of media whether optical or on line requires careful planning in order to remain inclusive of all staff with potentially varied access to multimedia computing. This paper discusses a project in which the use of DVD authoring technology has been successfully implemented to meet the needs of distance learning and user considerations, and is based on film production techniques and reduced product turnaround deadlines.
Exploring the Professional Competency Contents for International Marketer in Taiwan
The main purpose of this study was to establish Professional Competency Contents for International Marketer in Taiwan. To establish these contents a set of interviews with international marketing managers and three rounds of Delphi Technique surveys were employed. Five international marketing managers were interviewed for discussions on definitions, framework, and items of international marketing competency. A questionnaire for the " Delphi Technique Survey " was developed based on the results acquired from the interviews. The resulting questionnaire was distributed to another group of 30 international marketer of trading companies in Taiwan. After three rounds of Delphi Technique Survey with these participants, the "Contents of Professional Competency for International Marketer " was established. Five dimensions and thirty indicators were identified. It is hoped that the proposed contents could be served as a self-evaluation tool for international marketer as well as the basis for staffing and training programs for international marketer in Taiwan.
Simulation of the Flow in a Packed-Bed with and without a Static Mixer by Using CFD Technique
The major focus of this work was to characterize hydrodynamics in a packed-bed with and without static mixer by using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). The commercial software: COMSOL MULTIPHYSICSTM Version 3.3 was used to simulate flow fields of mixed-gas reactants i.e. CO and H2. The packed-bed was a single tube with the inside diameter of 0.8 cm and the length of 1.2 cm. The static mixer was inserted inside the tube. The number of twisting elements was 1 with 0.8 cm in diameter and 1.2 cm in length. The packed-bed with and without static mixer were both packed with approximately 700 spherical structures representing catalyst pellets. Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations were used to model the gas flow inside the beds at steady state condition, in which the inlet Reynolds Number (Re) was 2.31. The results revealed that, with the insertion of static mixer, the gas was forced to flow radially inward and outward between the central portion of the tube and the tube wall. This could help improving the overall performance of the packed-bed, which could be utilized for heterogeneous catalytic reaction such as reforming and Fischer- Tropsch reactions.
Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Effects Using FEM for Transmission Lines Transposition
This paper presents the mathematical model of electric field and magnetic field in transmission system, which performs in second-order partial differential equation. This research has conducted analyzing the electromagnetic field radiating to atmosphere around the transmission line, when there is the transmission line transposition in case of long distance distribution. The six types of 500 kV transposed HV transmission line with double circuit will be considered. The computer simulation is applied finite element method that is developed by MATLAB program. The problem is considered to two dimensions, which is time harmonic system with the graphical performance of electric field and magnetic field. The impact from simulation of six types long distance distributing transposition will not effect changing of electric field and magnetic field which surround the transmission line.
Organisational Learning as Perceived and Expected by Management and Non Management Staff
The study applied a combination of organisational learning models (Senge, 1994: Pedler, Burgoyne and Boydell, 1991) and later adopted fifteen organisational learning principles with one of the biggest energy providers in South East Asia. The purposes of the current study were to: a) investigate the company-s practices on fifteen organisational learning principles; b) explore the perceptions and expectations of its employees in relations to the principles; and c) compare the perceptions and expectations between management and non-management staff toward the fifteen factors. One hundred and ten employees responded on a designed questionnaire and the results indicated that the company was practicing activities that associated with organisational learning principles. Also, according to the T-test results, significant differences between management and non-management respondents were found. Research implications are also provided.
Spectral Analysis of Radiation-Induced Natural Convection in Littoral Waters
The mixing of pollutions and sediments in near shore regions of natural water bodies depends heavily on the characteristics such as the strength and frequency of flow instability. In the present paper, the instability of natural convection induced by absorption of solar radiation in littoral regions is considered. Spectral analysis is conducted on the quasi-steady state flow to reveal the power and frequency modes of the instability at various positions. Results indicate that the power of instability, the number of frequency modes, the prominence of higher frequency modes, and the highest frequency mode increase with the offshore distance and/or Rayleigh number. Harmonic modes are present at relatively low Rayleigh numbers. For a given offshore distance, the position with the strongest power of instability is located adjacent to the sloping bottom while the frequency modes are the same over the local depth. As the Rayleigh number increases, the unstable region extends toward the shore.
Coherence Analysis between Respiration and PPG Signal by Bivariate AR Model
PPG is a potential tool in clinical applications. Among such, the relationship between respiration and PPG signal has attracted attention in past decades. In this research, a bivariate AR spectral estimation method was utilized for the coherence analysis between these two signals. Ten healthy subjects participated in this research with signals measured at different respiratory rates. The results demonstrate that high coherence exists between respiration and PPG signal, whereas the coherence disappears in breath-holding experiments. These results imply that PPG signal reveals the respiratory information. The utilized method may provide an attractive alternative approach for the related researches.
FCA-based Conceptual Knowledge Discovery in Folksonomy
The tagging data of (users, tags and resources) constitutes a folksonomy that is the user-driven and bottom-up approach to organizing and classifying information on the Web. Tagging data stored in the folksonomy include a lot of very useful information and knowledge. However, appropriate approach for analyzing tagging data and discovering hidden knowledge from them still remains one of the main problems on the folksonomy mining researches. In this paper, we have proposed a folksonomy data mining approach based on FCA for discovering hidden knowledge easily from folksonomy. Also we have demonstrated how our proposed approach can be applied in the collaborative tagging system through our experiment. Our proposed approach can be applied to some interesting areas such as social network analysis, semantic web mining and so on.
Improvement of Passengers Ride Comfort in Rail Vehicles Equipped with Air Springs
In rail vehicles, air springs are very important isolating component, which guarantee good ride comfort for passengers during their trip. In the most new rail–vehicle models, developed by researchers, the thermo–dynamical effects of air springs are ignored and secondary suspension is modeled by simple springs and dampers. As the performance of suspension components have significant effects on rail–vehicle dynamics and ride comfort of passengers, a complete nonlinear thermo–dynamical air spring model, which is a combination of two different models, is introduced. Result from field test shows remarkable agreement between proposed model and experimental data. Effects of air suspension parameters on the system performances are investigated here and then these parameters are tuned to minimize Sperling ride comfort index during the trip. Results showed that by modification of air suspension parameters, passengers comfort is improved and ride comfort index is reduced about 10%.
IFS on the Multi-Fuzzy Fractal Space
The IFS is a scheme for describing and manipulating complex fractal attractors using simple mathematical models. More precisely, the most popular “fractal –based" algorithms for both representation and compression of computer images have involved some implementation of the method of Iterated Function Systems (IFS) on complete metric spaces. In this paper a new generalized space called Multi-Fuzzy Fractal Space was constructed. On these spases a distance function is defined, and its completeness is proved. The completeness property of this space ensures the existence of a fixed-point theorem for the family of continuous mappings. This theorem is the fundamental result on which the IFS methods are based and the fractals are built. The defined mappings are proved to satisfy some generalizations of the contraction condition.
Sustainable Construction in Malaysia – Developers- Awareness
The creation of a sustainable future depends on the knowledge and involvement of the people, as well as an understanding of the consequences of individual actions. Construction industry has long been associated with the detrimental effects to our mother earth. In Malaysia, the government, professional bodies and private companies are beginning to take heed in the necessity to reduce this environmental problem without restraining the need for development. This paper focuses on the actions undertaken by the Malaysian government, non-government organizations and construction players in promoting sustainability in construction. To ensure that those concerted efforts are not only skin deep in its impact, a survey was conducted to investigate the awareness of the developers regarding this issue and whether those developers has absorb the concept of sustainable construction in their current practices. The survey revealed that although the developers are aware of the rising issues on sustainability, little efforts are generated from them in implementing it. More effort is necessary to boost this application and further stimulate actions and strategies towards a sustainable built environment.
Secure peerTalk Using PEERT System
Multiparty voice over IP (MVoIP) systems allows a group of people to freely communicate each other via the internet, which have many applications such as online gaming, teleconferencing, online stock trading etc. Peertalk is a peer to peer multiparty voice over IP system (MVoIP) which is more feasible than existing approaches such as p2p overlay multicast and coupled distributed processing. Since the stream mixing and distribution are done by the peers, it is vulnerable to major security threats like nodes misbehavior, eavesdropping, Sybil attacks, Denial of Service (DoS), call tampering, Man in the Middle attacks etc. To thwart the security threats, a security framework called PEERTS (PEEred Reputed Trustworthy System for peertalk) is implemented so that efficient and secure communication can be carried out between peers.
Bio-inspired Audio Content-Based Retrieval Framework (B-ACRF)
Content-based music retrieval generally involves analyzing, searching and retrieving music based on low or high level features of a song which normally used to represent artists, songs or music genre. Identifying them would normally involve feature extraction and classification tasks. Theoretically the greater features analyzed, the better the classification accuracy can be achieved but with longer execution time. Technique to select significant features is important as it will reduce dimensions of feature used in classification and contributes to the accuracy. Artificial Immune System (AIS) approach will be investigated and applied in the classification task. Bio-inspired audio content-based retrieval framework (B-ACRF) is proposed at the end of this paper where it embraces issues that need further consideration in music retrieval performances.
Adjusted Ratio and Regression Type Estimators for Estimation of Population Mean when some Observations are missing
Ratio and regression type estimators have been used by previous authors to estimate a population mean for the principal variable from samples in which both auxiliary x and principal y variable data are available. However, missing data are a common problem in statistical analyses with real data. Ratio and regression type estimators have also been used for imputing values of missing y data. In this paper, six new ratio and regression type estimators are proposed for imputing values for any missing y data and estimating a population mean for y from samples with missing x and/or y data. A simulation study has been conducted to compare the six ratio and regression type estimators with a previous estimator of Rueda. Two population sizes N = 1,000 and 5,000 have been considered with sample sizes of 10% and 30% and with correlation coefficients between population variables X and Y of 0.5 and 0.8. In the simulations, 10 and 40 percent of sample y values and 10 and 40 percent of sample x values were randomly designated as missing. The new ratio and regression type estimators give similar mean absolute percentage errors that are smaller than the Rueda estimator for all cases. The new estimators give a large reduction in errors for the case of 40% missing y values and sampling fraction of 30%.
A Comparative Study of Turbulence Models Performance for Turbulent Flow in a Planar Asymmetric Diffuser
This paper presents a computational study of the separated flow in a planer asymmetric diffuser. The steady RANS equations for turbulent incompressible fluid flow and six turbulence closures are used in the present study. The commercial software code, FLUENT 6.3.26, was used for solving the set of governing equations using various turbulence models. Five of the used turbulence models are available directly in the code while the v2-f turbulence model was implemented via User Defined Scalars (UDS) and User Defined Functions (UDF). A series of computational analysis is performed to assess the performance of turbulence models at different grid density. The results show that the standard k-ω, SST k-ω and v2-f models clearly performed better than other models when an adverse pressure gradient was present. The RSM model shows an acceptable agreement with the velocity and turbulent kinetic energy profiles but it failed to predict the location of separation and attachment points. The standard k-ε and the low-Re k- ε delivered very poor results.
Prediction of the Characteristics of Transformer Oil under Different Operation Conditions
Power systems and transformer are intrinsic apparatus, therefore its reliability and safe operation is important to determine their operation conditions, and the industry uses quality control tests in the insulation design of oil filled transformers. Hence the service period effect on AC dielectric strength is significant. The effect of aging on transformer oil physical, chemical and electrical properties was studied using the international testing methods for the evaluation of transformer oil quality. The study was carried out on six transformers operate in the field and for monitoring periods over twenty years. The properties which are strongly time dependent were specified and those which have a great impact on the transformer oil acidity, breakdown voltage and dissolved gas analysis were defined. Several tests on the transformers oil were studied to know the time of purifying or changing it, moreover prediction of the characteristics of it under different operation conditions.
An Analysis of the Optimization Condition of Plasma Generator for Air Conditioner System
This research aimed to develop plasma system used in air conditioners. This developed plasma system could be installed in the air conditioners - all split type. The quality of air could be improved to be equal to present plasma system. Development processes were as follows: 1) to study the plasma system used in the air conditioners, 2) to design a plasma generator, 3) to develop the plasma generator, and 4) to test its performance in many types of the air conditioners. This plasma system was developed by AC high voltage – 14 kv with a frequency of 50 kHz. Carbon was a conductor to generate arc in air purifier system. The research was tested by installing the plasma generator in the air conditioners - wall type. Whereas, there were 3 types of installations: air flow out, air flow in, and room center. The result of the plasma generator installed in the air conditioners, split type, revealed that the air flow out installation provided the highest average of o-zone at 223 mg/h. This type of installation provided the highest efficiency of air quality improvement. Moreover, the air flow in installation and the room center installation provided the average of the o-zone at 163 mg/h and 64 mg/h, respectively.
An Investigation of the Cu-Ni Compound Cathode Materials Affecting on Transient Recovery Voltage
The purpose of this research was to analyze and compare the instability of a contact surface between Copper and Nickel an alloy cathode in vacuum, the different ratio of Copper and Copper were conducted at 1%, 2% and 4% by using the cathode spot model. The transient recovery voltage is predicted. The cathode spot region is recognized as the collisionless space charge sheath connected with singly ionized collisional plasma. It was found that the transient voltage is decreased with increasing the percentage of an amount of Nickel in cathode materials.
Segmentation of Breast Lesions in Ultrasound Images Using Spatial Fuzzy Clustering and Structure Tensors
Segmentation in ultrasound images is challenging due to the interference from speckle noise and fuzziness of boundaries. In this paper, a segmentation scheme using fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering incorporating both intensity and texture information of images is proposed to extract breast lesions in ultrasound images. Firstly, the nonlinear structure tensor, which can facilitate to refine the edges detected by intensity, is used to extract speckle texture. And then, a spatial FCM clustering is applied on the image feature space for segmentation. In the experiments with simulated and clinical ultrasound images, the spatial FCM clustering with both intensity and texture information gets more accurate results than the conventional FCM or spatial FCM without texture information.
The Use of Voltage Stability Indices and Proposed Instability Prediction to Coordinate with Protection Systems
This paper proposes a methodology for mitigating the occurrence of cascading failure in stressed power systems. The methodology is essentially based on predicting voltage instability in the power system using a voltage stability index and then devising a corrective action in order to increase the voltage stability margin. The paper starts with a brief description of the cascading failure mechanism which is probable root cause of severe blackouts. Then, the voltage instability indices are introduced in order to evaluate stability limit. The aim of the analysis is to assure that the coordination of protection, by adopting load shedding scheme, capable of enhancing performance of the system after the major location of instability is determined. Finally, the proposed method to generate instability prediction is introduced.
Acceptance of Mobile Learning: a Respecification and Validation of Information System Success
With the proliferation of mobile computing technology, mobile learning (m-learning) will play a vital role in the rapidly growing electronic learning market. However, the acceptance of m-learning by individuals is critical to the successful implementation of m-learning systems. Thus, there is a need to research the factors that affect users- intention to use m-learning. Based on an updated information system (IS) success model, data collected from 350 respondents in Taiwan were tested against the research model using the structural equation modeling approach. The data collected by questionnaire were analyzed to check the validity of constructs. Then hypotheses describing the relationships between the identified constructs and users- satisfaction were formulated and tested.
Computer-aided Lenke Classification of Scoliotic Spines
The identification and classification of the spine deformity play an important role when considering surgical planning for adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis. The subject of this article is the Lenke classification of scoliotic spines using Cobb angle measurements. The purpose is two-fold: (1) design a rulebased diagram to assist clinicians in the classification process and (2) investigate a computer classifier which improves the classification time and accuracy. The rule-based diagram efficiency was evaluated in a series of scoliotic classifications by 10 clinicians. The computer classifier was tested on a radiographic measurement database of 603 patients. Classification accuracy was 93% using the rule-based diagram and 99% for the computer classifier. Both the computer classifier and the rule based diagram can efficiently assist clinicians in their Lenke classification of spine scoliosis.
A Renovated Cook's Distance Based On The Buckley-James Estimate In Censored Regression
There have been various methods created based on the regression ideas to resolve the problem of data set containing censored observations, i.e. the Buckley-James method, Miller-s method, Cox method, and Koul-Susarla-Van Ryzin estimators. Even though comparison studies show the Buckley-James method performs better than some other methods, it is still rarely used by researchers mainly because of the limited diagnostics analysis developed for the Buckley-James method thus far. Therefore, a diagnostic tool for the Buckley-James method is proposed in this paper. It is called the renovated Cook-s Distance, (RD* i ) and has been developed based on the Cook-s idea. The renovated Cook-s Distance (RD* i ) has advantages (depending on the analyst demand) over (i) the change in the fitted value for a single case, DFIT* i as it measures the influence of case i on all n fitted values Yˆ∗ (not just the fitted value for case i as DFIT* i) (ii) the change in the estimate of the coefficient when the ith case is deleted, DBETA* i since DBETA* i corresponds to the number of variables p so it is usually easier to look at a diagnostic measure such as RD* i since information from p variables can be considered simultaneously. Finally, an example using Stanford Heart Transplant data is provided to illustrate the proposed diagnostic tool.
Expression of Security Policy in Medical Systems for Electronic Healthcare Records
This paper introduces a tool that is being developed for the expression of information security policy controls that govern electronic healthcare records. By reference to published findings, the paper introduces the theory behind the use of knowledge management for automatic and consistent security policy assertion using the formalism called the Secutype; the development of the tool and functionality is discussed; some examples of Secutypes generated by the tool are provided; proposed integration with existing medical record systems is described. The paper is concluded with a section on further work and critique of the work achieved to date.
Brand Personality and Mobile Marketing: An Empirical Investigation
This research assesses the value of the brand personality and its influence on consumer-s decision making, through relational variables, after receiving a text message ad. An empirical study, in which 380 participants have received an SMS ad, confirms that brand personality does actually influence the brand trust as well as the attachment and commitment. The levels of sensitivity and involvement have an impact on the brand personality and the related variables to it.
The Use of KREISIG Computer Simulation Program to Optimize Signalized Roundabout
KREISIG is a computer simulation program, firstly developed by Munawar (1994) in Germany to optimize signalized roundabout. The traffic movement is based on the car following theory. Turbine method has been implemented for signal setting. The program has then been further developed in Indonesia to meet the traffic characteristics in Indonesia by adjusting the sensitivity of the drivers. Trial and error method has been implemented to adjust the saturation flow. The saturation flow output has also been compared to the calculation method according to 1997 Indonesian Highway Capacity Manual. It has then been implemented to optimize signalized roundabout at Kleringan roundabout in Malioboro area, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It is found that this method can optimize the signal setting of this roundabout. Therefore, it is recommended to use this program to optimize signalized roundabout.
A New Heuristic Approach for the Stock- Cutting Problems
This paper addresses a stock-cutting problem with rotation of items and without the guillotine cutting constraint. In order to solve the large-scale problem effectively and efficiently, we propose a simple but fast heuristic algorithm. It is shown that this heuristic outperforms the latest published algorithms for large-scale problem instances.
A DCT-Based Secure JPEG Image Authentication Scheme
The challenge in the case of image authentication is that in many cases images need to be subjected to non malicious operations like compression, so the authentication techniques need to be compression tolerant. In this paper we propose an image authentication system that is tolerant to JPEG lossy compression operations. A scheme for JPEG grey scale images is proposed based on a data embedding method that is based on a secret key and a secret mapping vector in the frequency domain. An encrypted feature vector extracted from the image DCT coefficients, is embedded redundantly, and invisibly in the marked image. On the receiver side, the feature vector from the received image is derived again and compared against the extracted watermark to verify the image authenticity. The proposed scheme is robust against JPEG compression up to a maximum compression of approximately 80%,, but sensitive to malicious attacks such as cutting and pasting.
A Study on Metal Hexagonal Honeycomb Crushing Under Quasi-Static Loading
In the study of honeycomb crushing under quasistatic loading, two parameters are important, the mean crushing stress and the wavelength of the folding mode. The previous theoretical models did not consider the true cylindrical curvature effects and the flow stress in the folding mode of honeycomb material. The present paper introduces a modification on Wierzbicki-s model based on considering two above mentioned parameters in estimating the mean crushing stress and the wavelength through implementation of the energy method. Comparison of the results obtained by the new model and Wierzbicki-s model with existing experimental data shows better prediction by the model presented in this paper.
An Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Gas Hydrate Plug Flow in the Inclined Pipes and Bends
Gas hydrates can agglomerate and block multiphase oil and gas pipelines when water is present at hydrate forming conditions. Using "Cold Flow Technology", the aim is to condition gas hydrates so that they can be transported as a slurry mixture without a risk of agglomeration. During the pipeline shut down however, hydrate particles may settle in bends and build hydrate plugs. An experimental setup has been designed and constructed to study the flow of such plugs at start up operations. Experiments have been performed using model fluid and model hydrate particles. The propagations of initial plugs in a bend were recorded with impedance probes along the pipe. The experimental results show a dispersion of the plug front. A peak in pressure drop was also recorded when the plugs were passing the bend. The evolutions of the plugs have been simulated by numerical integration of the incompressible mass balance equations, with an imposed mixture velocity. The slip between particles and carrier fluid has been calculated using a drag relation together with a particle-fluid force balance.
Performance of a Connected Random Covered Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Network
For the sensor network to operate successfully, the active nodes should maintain both sensing coverage and network connectivity. Furthermore, scheduling sleep intervals plays critical role for energy efficiency of wireless sensor networks. Traditional methods for sensor scheduling use either sensing coverage or network connectivity, but rarely both. In this paper, we use random scheduling for sensing coverage and then turn on extra sensor nodes, if necessary, for network connectivity. Simulation results have demonstrated that the number of extra nodes that is on with upper bound of around 9%, is small compared to the total number of deployed sensor nodes. Thus energy consumption for switching on extra sensor node is small.
Progressive Strategy of Milling by means of Tool Axis Inclination Angle
This work deals with problems of tool axis inclination angles in ball-end milling. Tool axis inclination angle contributes to improvement of functional surface properties (surface integrity - surface roughness, residual stress, micro hardness, etc.), decreasing cutting forces and improving production. By milling with ball-end milling tool, using standard way of cutting, when work piece and cutting tool contain right angle, we have zero cutting speed on edge. At this point cutting tool only pushes material into the work piece. Here we can observe the following undesirable effects - chip contraction, increasing of cutting temperature, increasing vibrations or creation of built-up edge. These effects have negative results – low quality of surface and decreasing of tool life (in the worse case even it is pinching out). These effects can be eliminated with the tilt of cutting tool or tilt of work piece.
Lean Changeability – Evaluation and Design of Lean and Transformable Factories
In today-s turbulent environment, companies are faced with two principal challenges. On the one hand, it is necessary to produce ever more cost-effectively to remain competitive. On the other hand, factories need to be transformable in order to manage unpredictable changes in the corporate environment. To deal with these different challenges, companies use the philosophy of lean production in the first case, in the second case the philosophy of transformability. To a certain extent these two approaches follow different directions. This can cause conflicts when designing factories. Therefore, the Institute of Production Systems and Logistics (IFA) of the Leibniz University of Hanover has developed a procedure to allow companies to evaluate and design their factories with respect to the requirements of both philosophies.
Diagnosis of the Abdominal Aorta Aneurysm in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Images
This paper presents a technique for diagnosis of the abdominal aorta aneurysm in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. First, our technique is designed to segment the aorta image in MRI images. This is a required step to determine the volume of aorta image which is the important step for diagnosis of the abdominal aorta aneurysm. Our proposed technique can detect the volume of aorta in MRI images using a new external energy for snakes model. The new external energy for snakes model is calculated from Law-s texture. The new external energy can increase the capture range of snakes model efficiently more than the old external energy of snakes models. Second, our technique is designed to diagnose the abdominal aorta aneurysm by Bayesian classifier which is classification models based on statistical theory. The feature for data classification of abdominal aorta aneurysm was derived from the contour of aorta images which was a result from segmenting of our snakes model, i.e., area, perimeter and compactness. We also compare the proposed technique with the traditional snakes model. In our experiment results, 30 images are trained, 20 images are tested and compared with expert opinion. The experimental results show that our technique is able to provide more accurate results than 95%.
The Internationalization of R&D and its Offshoring Process
Transnational corporations (TNCs) are playing a major role in global R&D, not only through activities in their home countries but also increasingly abroad. However, the process of R&D offshoring is not yet discussed thoroughly. Based on in-depth case study on Agilent China Communications Operation, this paper presents a stage model for theorizing the R&D offshoring process. This stage model outlines 5 maturity levels of organization and the offshoring process: Subsidiary team, Mirror team, Independent team, Mirror sector and the Independent sector (from software engineering point of view, it is similar to the local team's capability level of maturity model). Moreover, the paper gives a detailed discussion on the relevant characteristics, as well as the ability/responsibility of transfer, priorities and the corresponding organization structure. It also gives the characteristics and key points of different level-s R&D offshoring implementation using actual team practice.
A Dynamic Programming Model for Maintenance of Electric Distribution System
The paper presents dynamic programming based model as a planning tool for the maintenance of electric power systems. Every distribution component has an exponential age depending reliability function to model the fault risk. In the moment of time when the fault costs exceed the investment costs of the new component the reinvestment of the component should be made. However, in some cases the overhauling of the old component may be more economical than the reinvestment. The comparison between overhauling and reinvestment is made by optimisation process. The goal of the optimisation process is to find the cost minimising maintenance program for electric power distribution system.
Design, Implementation and Analysis of Composite Material Dampers for Turning Operations
This paper introduces a novel design for boring bar with enhanced damping capability. The principle followed in the design phase was to enhance the damping capability minimizing the loss in static stiffness through implementation of composite material interfaces. The newly designed tool has been compared to a conventional tool. The evaluation criteria were the dynamic characteristics, frequency and damping ratio, of the machining system, as well as the surface roughness of the machined workpieces. The use of composite material in the design of damped tool has been demonstrated effective. Furthermore, the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models presented in this paper take into consideration the interaction between the elastic structure of the machine tool and the cutting process and can therefore be used to characterize the machining system in operational conditions.
Challenges Facing Housing Developers to Deliver Zero Carbon Homes in England
Housebuilders in England have been the target of numerous government policies in recent years promoting increased productivity and affordability. As a result, the housebuilding industry is currently faced with objectives to improve the affordability and sustainability of new homes whilst also increasing production rates to 240,000 per year by 2016.Yet amidst a faltering economic climate, the UK Government is forging ahead with the 'Code for Sustainable Homes', which includes stringent sustainable standards for all new homes and sets ambitious targets for the housebuilding industry, the culmination of which is the production of zero carbon homes by 2016.Great uncertainty exists amongst housebuilders as to the costs, benefits and risks of building zero carbon homes. This paper examines the key barriers to zero carbon homes from housebuilders- perspective. A comprehensive opinion on the challenges to deliver zero carbon homes is gathered through a questionnaire survey issued to the major housing developers in England. The study found that a number of cultural, legislative, and financial barriers stand in the way of the widespread construction of zero carbon homes. The study concludes with several recommendations to both the Government and the housebuilding industry to address the barriers that hinder a successful delivery of zero carbon homes in England.
Public Participation in Sustainable Urban Planning
Urban planning, in particular on protected landscape
areas, demands an increasing role of public participation within the
frame of the efficiency of sustainable planning process. The
development of urban planning actions in Protected Landscape areas,
as Sintra-Cascais Natural Park, should perform a methodological
process that is structured over distinct sequential stages, providing
the development of a continuous, interactive, integrated and
participative planning. From the start of Malveira da Serra and Janes
Plan process, several public participation actions were promoted, in
order to involve the local agents, stakeholders and the population in
the decision of specific local key issues and define the appropriate
priorities within the goals and strategies previously settled. As a
result, public participation encouraged an innovative process that
guarantees the efficiency of sustainable urban planning and promotes
a sustainable new way of living in community.
Reducing the Short Circuit Levels in Kuwait Transmission Network (A Case Study)
Preliminary studies on Kuwait high voltage
transmission system show significant increase in the short circuit
level at some of the grid substations and some generating stations.
This increase results from the growth in the power transmission
systems in size and complexity. New generating stations are expected
to be added to the system within the next few years. This paper
describes the study analysis performed to evaluate the available and
potential solutions to control SC levels in Kuwait power system. It
also presents a modified planning of the transmission network in
order to fulfill this task.
Multi-models Approach for Describing and Verifying Constraints Based Interactive Systems
The requirements analysis, modeling, and simulation have consistently been one of the main challenges during the development of complex systems. The scenarios and the state machines are two successful models to describe the behavior of an interactive system. The scenarios represent examples of system execution in the form of sequences of messages exchanged between objects and are a partial view of the system. In contrast, state machines can represent the overall system behavior. The automation of processing scenarios in the state machines provide some answers to various problems such as system behavior validation and scenarios consistency checking. In this paper, we propose a method for translating scenarios in state machines represented by Discreet EVent Specification and procedure to detect implied scenarios. Each induced DEVS model represents the behavior of an object of the system. The global system behavior is described by coupling the atomic DEVS models and validated through simulation. We improve the validation process with integrating formal methods to eliminate logical inconsistencies in the global model. For that end, we use the Z notation.
eLearning Tools Evaluation based on Quality Concept Distance Computing. A Case Study
Despite the extensive use of eLearning systems, there
is no consensus on a standard framework for evaluating this kind of
quality system. Hence, there is only a minimum set of tools that can
supervise this judgment and gives information about the course
content value. This paper presents two kinds of quality set evaluation
indicators for eLearning courses based on the computational process
of three known metrics, the Euclidian, Hamming and Levenshtein
distances. The “distance" calculus is applied to standard evaluation
templates (i.e. the European Commission Programme procedures vs.
the AFNOR Z 76-001 Standard), determining a reference point in the
evaluation of the e-learning course quality vs. the optimal concept(s).
The case study, based on the results of project(s) developed in the
framework of the European Programme “Leonardo da Vinci", with
Romanian contractors, try to put into evidence the benefits of such a
Evaluating Customer Satisfaction as an Aspect of Quality Management
A major goal of any enterprise is to create a ratings
system of customer satisfaction, goods and services. It is obvious that
the company cannot change what is not measured. In order to get a
clearer picture of the preferences of the major consumer groups, this
stage should be based on extensive research, including a variety of
interviews and surveys. It is necessary to know the key benefits,
which determine customer satisfaction in the market segment, of the
properties of certain goods and services. It is important to estimate
the terms of these preferences from the viewpoint of the client. This
article discusses the importance of customer satisfaction, and ways of
Humor Roles of Females in a Product Color Matrix
Healthcare providers sometimes use the power of
humor as a treatment and therapy for buffering mental health or easing
mental disorders because humor can provide relief from distress and
conflict. Humor is also very suitable for advertising because of similar
benefits. This study carefully examines humor's widespread use in
advertising and identifies relationships among humor mechanisms,
female depictions, and product types. The purpose is to conceptualize
how humor theories can be used not only to successfully define a
product as fitting within one of four color categories of the product
color matrix, but also to identify compelling contemporary female
depictions through humor in ads. The results can offer an idealization
for marketing managers and consumers to help them understand how
female role depictions can be effectively used with humor in ads. The
four propositions developed herein are derived from related literature,
through the identification of marketing strategy formulations that
achieve product memory enhancement by adopting humor
mechanisms properly matched with female role depictions.
Corporate Social Responsibility and Values in Innovation Management
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) viewpoint have challenged the traditional perception to understand corporations position. Production- and managerial-centred views are expanding towards reference group-centred policies. Consequently, the significance of new kind of knowledge has emerged. In addition to management of the organisation, the idea of CSR emphasises the importance to recognise the value-expectations of operational environment. It is know that management is often well-aware of corporate social responsibilities, but it is less clear how well these high level goals are understood in practical product design and development work. In this study, the apprehension above proved to be real to some degree. While management was very aware of CSR it was less familiar to designers. The outcome shows that it is essential to raise ethical values and issues higher in corporate communication, if it is wished that they materialize also in products.
Equivalence Class Subset Algorithm
The equivalence class subset algorithm is a powerful
tool for solving a wide variety of constraint satisfaction problems and
is based on the use of a decision function which has a very high but
not perfect accuracy. Perfect accuracy is not required in the decision
function as even a suboptimal solution contains valuable information
that can be used to help find an optimal solution. In the hardest
problems, the decision function can break down leading to a
suboptimal solution where there are more equivalence classes than
are necessary and which can be viewed as a mixture of good decision
and bad decisions. By choosing a subset of the decisions made in
reaching a suboptimal solution an iterative technique can lead to an
optimal solution, using series of steadily improved suboptimal
solutions. The goal is to reach an optimal solution as quickly as
possible. Various techniques for choosing the decision subset are
The Parameters Analysis for the Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems Based on Radar Sensors
This paper mainly studies the analyses of parameters
in the intersection collision avoidance (ICA) system based on the radar
sensors. The parameters include the positioning errors, the repeat
period of the radar sensor, the conditions of potential collisions of two
cross-path vehicles, etc. The analyses of the parameters can provide
the requirements, limitations, or specifications of this ICA system. In
these analyses, the positioning errors will be increased as the measured
vehicle approach the intersection. In addition, it is not necessary to
implement the radar sensor in higher position since the positioning
sensitivities become serious as the height of the radar sensor increases.
A concept of the safety buffer distances for front and rear of the
measured vehicle is also proposed. The conditions for potential
collisions of two cross-path vehicles are also presented to facilitate the
Numerical Analysis of Electrical Interaction between two Axisymmetric Spheroids
The electrical interaction between two axisymmetric
spheroidal particles in an electrolyte solution is examined numerically.
A Galerkin finite element method combined with a Newton-Raphson
iteration scheme is proposed to evaluate the spatial variation in the
electrical potential, and the result obtained used to estimate the
interaction energy between two particles. We show that if the surface
charge density is fixed, the potential gradient is larger at a point, which
has a larger curvature, and if surface potential is fixed, surface charge
density is proportional to the curvature. Also, if the total interaction
energy against closest surface-to-surface curve exhibits a primary
maximum, the maximum follows the order (oblate-oblate) >
(sphere-sphere)>(oblate-prolate)>(prolate-prolate), and if the curve
has a secondary minimum, the absolute value of the minimum follows
the same order.
The Performance of PVD Coated Grade in Milling of ADI 800
The aim of this investigation is to study the
performance of the new generation of the PVD coated grade and to
map the influence of cutting conditions on the tool life in milling of
ADI (Austempered Ductile Iron). The results show that chipping is
the main wear mechanism which determines the tool life in dry
condition and notch wear in wet condition for this application. This
due to the different stress mechanisms and preexisting cracks in the
coating. The wear development shows clearly that the new PVD
coating (C20) has the best ability to delay the chipping growth. It
was also found that a high content of Al in the new coating (C20)
was especially favorable compared to a TiAlN multilayer with lower
Al content (C30) or CVD coating. This is due to fine grains and low
compressive stress level in the coating which increase the coating
ability to withstand the mechanical and thermal impact. It was also
found that the use of coolant decreases the tool life with 70-80%
compare to dry milling.
E-Government in Transition Economies
This paper deals with e-government issues at several
levels. Initially we look at the concept of e-government itself in order
to give it a sound framework. Than we look at the e-government
issues at three levels, first we analyse it at the global level, second we
analyse it at the level of transition economies, and finally we take a
closer look on developments in Croatia. The analysis includes actual
progress being made in selected transition economies given the Euro
area averages, along with e-government potential in future
Evaluation of Chiller Power Consumption Using Grey Prediction
98% of the energy needed in Taiwan has been
imported. The prices of petroleum and electricity have been
increasing. In addition, facility capacity, amount of electricity
generation, amount of electricity consumption and number of Taiwan
Power Company customers have continued to increase. For these
reasons energy conservation has become an important topic. In the
past linear regression was used to establish the power consumption
models for chillers. In this study, grey prediction is used to evaluate
the power consumption of a chiller so as to lower the total power
consumption at peak-load (so that the relevant power providers do not
need to keep on increasing their power generation capacity and facility
In grey prediction, only several numerical values (at least four
numerical values) are needed to establish the power consumption
models for chillers. If PLR, the temperatures of supply chilled-water
and return chilled-water, and the temperatures of supply cooling-water
and return cooling-water are taken into consideration, quite accurate
results (with the accuracy close to 99% for short-term predictions)
may be obtained. Through such methods, we can predict whether the
power consumption at peak-load will exceed the contract power
capacity signed by the corresponding entity and Taiwan Power
Company. If the power consumption at peak-load exceeds the power
demand, the temperature of the supply chilled-water may be adjusted
so as to reduce the PLR and hence lower the power consumption.
Hybrid Algorithm for Hammerstein System Identification Using Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization
This paper presents a method of model selection and
identification of Hammerstein systems by hybridization of the genetic
algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). An unknown
nonlinear static part to be estimated is approximately represented
by an automatic choosing function (ACF) model. The weighting
parameters of the ACF and the system parameters of the linear
dynamic part are estimated by the linear least-squares method. On
the other hand, the adjusting parameters of the ACF model structure
are properly selected by the hybrid algorithm of the GA and PSO,
where the Akaike information criterion is utilized as the evaluation
value function. Simulation results are shown to demonstrate the
effectiveness of the proposed hybrid algorithm.
Supply Chain Management: After Business Process Re-Engineering
This paper is prepared to provide a review of how an automotive manufacturer, ISUZU HICOM Malaysia Co. Ltd. sustained the supply chain management after business process reengineering in 2007. One of the authors is currently undergoing industrial attachment and has spent almost 6 months researching in the production and operation management system of the company. This study was carried out as part of the tasks in the attachment program. The result shows that delivery lateness and outsourcing are the main barriers that affected productivity. From the gap analysis, the authors found that new business process operation had improved suppliers delivery performance.
Collaborative Web-Based E-learning Environment for Information Security Curriculum
In recent years, the development of e-learning is very
rapid. E-learning is an attractive and efficient way for computer
education. Student interaction and collaboration also plays an
important role in e-learning. In this paper, a collaborative web-based
e-learning environment is presented. A wide range of interactive and
collaborative methods are integrated into a web-based environment.
This e-learning environment is designed for information security
An Images Monitoring System based on Multi-Format Streaming Grid Architecture
This paper proposes a novel multi-format stream grid
architecture for real-time image monitoring system. The system, based
on a three-tier architecture, includes stream receiving unit, stream
processor unit, and presentation unit. It is a distributed computing and
a loose coupling architecture. The benefit is the amount of required
servers can be adjusted depending on the loading of the image
monitoring system. The stream receive unit supports multi capture
source devices and multi-format stream compress encoder. Stream
processor unit includes three modules; they are stream clipping
module, image processing module and image management module.
Presentation unit can display image data on several different platforms.
We verified the proposed grid architecture with an actual test of image
monitoring. We used a fast image matching method with the
adjustable parameters for different monitoring situations. Background
subtraction method is also implemented in the system. Experimental
results showed that the proposed architecture is robust, adaptive, and
powerful in the image monitoring system.
The Problems of Legal Regulation of Intellectual Property Rights in Innovation Activities in Russia (Institutional Approach)
Part IV of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation dedicated to legal regulation of Intellectual property rights came into force in 2008. It is a first attempt of codification in Intellectual property sphere in Russia. That is why a lot of new norms appeared. The main problem of the Russian Civil Code (part IV) is that many rules (norms of Law) contradict the norms of International Intellectual property Law (i.e. protection of inventions, creations, ideas, know-how, trade secrets, innovations). Intellectual property rights protect innovations and creations and reward innovative and creative activity. Intellectual property rights are international in character and in that respect they fit in rather well with the economic reality of the global economy. Inventors prefer not to take out a patent for inventions because it is a very difficult procedure, it takes a lot of time and is very expensive. That-s why they try to protect their inventions as ideas, know-how, confidential information. An idea is the main element of any object of Intellectual property (creation, invention, innovation, know-how, etc.). But ideas are not protected by Civil Code of Russian Federation. The aim of the paper is to reveal the main problems of legal regulation of Intellectual property in Russia and to suggest possible solutions. The authors of this paper have raised these essential issues through different activities. Through the panel survey, questionnaires which were spread among the participants of intellectual activities the main problems of implementation of innovations, protecting of the ideas and know-how were identified. The implementation of research results will help to solve economic and legal problems of innovations, transfer of innovations and intellectual property.1
An Integrative Bayesian Approach to Supporting the Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions: A Case Study in Human Heart Failure
Recent years have seen a growing trend towards the
integration of multiple information sources to support large-scale
prediction of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks in model
organisms. Despite advances in computational approaches, the
combination of multiple “omic" datasets representing the same type
of data, e.g. different gene expression datasets, has not been
rigorously studied. Furthermore, there is a need to further investigate
the inference capability of powerful approaches, such as fullyconnected
Bayesian networks, in the context of the prediction of PPI
networks. This paper addresses these limitations by proposing a
Bayesian approach to integrate multiple datasets, some of which
encode the same type of “omic" data to support the identification of
PPI networks. The case study reported involved the combination of
three gene expression datasets relevant to human heart failure (HF).
In comparison with two traditional methods, Naive Bayesian and
maximum likelihood ratio approaches, the proposed technique can
accurately identify known PPI and can be applied to infer potentially
Evolutionary Eigenspace Learning using CCIPCA and IPCA for Face Recognition
Traditional principal components analysis (PCA)
techniques for face recognition are based on batch-mode training
using a pre-available image set. Real world applications require that
the training set be dynamic of evolving nature where within the
framework of continuous learning, new training images are
continuously added to the original set; this would trigger a costly
continuous re-computation of the eigen space representation via
repeating an entire batch-based training that includes the old and new
images. Incremental PCA methods allow adding new images and
updating the PCA representation. In this paper, two incremental
PCA approaches, CCIPCA and IPCA, are examined and compared.
Besides, different learning and testing strategies are proposed and
applied to the two algorithms. The results suggest that batch PCA is
inferior to both incremental approaches, and that all CCIPCAs are
An Innovation Capability Maturity Model – Development and Initial Application
The seemingly ambiguous title of this paper – use of the terms maturity and innovation in concord – signifies the imperative of every organisation within the competitive domain. Where organisational maturity and innovativeness were traditionally considered antonymous, the assimilation of these two seemingly contradictory notions is fundamental to the assurance of long-term organisational prosperity. Organisations are required, now more than ever, to grow and mature their innovation capability – rending consistent innovative outputs. This paper describes research conducted to consolidate the principles of innovation and identify the fundamental components that constitute organisational innovation capability. The process of developing an Innovation Capability Maturity Model is presented. A brief description is provided of the basic components of the model, followed by a description of the case studies that were conducted to evaluate the model. The paper concludes with a summary of the findings and potential future research.
Visualising Energy Efficiency Landscape
This paper discusses the landscape design that could
increase energy efficiency in a house. By planting trees in a house
compound, the tree shades prevent direct sunlight from heating up
the building, and it enables cooling off the surrounding air. The
requirement for air-conditioning could be minimized and the air
quality could be improved. During the life time of a tree, the saving
cost from the mentioned benefits could be up to US $ 200 for each
tree. The project intends to visually describe the landscape design in
a house compound that could enhance energy efficiency and
consequently lead to energy saving. The house compound model was
developed in three dimensions by using AutoCAD 2005, the
animation was programmed by using LightWave 3D softwares i.e.
Modeler and Layout to display the tree shadings in the wall. The
visualization was executed on a VRML Pad platform and
implemented on a web environment.
A Cognitive Robot Collaborative Reinforcement Learning Algorithm
A cognitive collaborative reinforcement learning
algorithm (CCRL) that incorporates an advisor into the learning
process is developed to improve supervised learning. An autonomous
learner is enabled with a self awareness cognitive skill to decide
when to solicit instructions from the advisor. The learner can also
assess the value of advice, and accept or reject it. The method is
evaluated for robotic motion planning using simulation. Tests are
conducted for advisors with skill levels from expert to novice. The
CCRL algorithm and a combined method integrating its logic with
Clouse-s Introspection Approach, outperformed a base-line fully
autonomous learner, and demonstrated robust performance when
dealing with various advisor skill levels, learning to accept advice
received from an expert, while rejecting that of less skilled
collaborators. Although the CCRL algorithm is based on RL, it fits
other machine learning methods, since advisor-s actions are only
added to the outer layer.
Development of a Project Selection Method on Information System Using ANP and Fuzzy Logic
Project selection problems on management
information system (MIS) are often considered a multi-criteria
decision-making (MCDM) for a solving method. These problems
contain two aspects, such as interdependencies among criteria and
candidate projects and qualitative and quantitative factors of projects.
However, most existing methods reported in literature consider these
aspects separately even though these two aspects are simultaneously
incorporated. For this reason, we proposed a hybrid method using
analytic network process (ANP) and fuzzy logic in order to represent
both aspects. We then propose a goal programming model to conduct
an optimization for the project selection problems interpreted by a
hybrid concept. Finally, a numerical example is conducted as
Mechanical Design and Theoretical Analysis of a Skip-Cycle Mechanism for an Internal Combustion Engine
Skip cycle is a working strategy for spark ignition
engines, which allows changing the effective stroke of an engine
through skipping some of the four stroke cycles. This study proposes
a new mechanism to achieve the desired skip-cycle strategy for
internal combustion engines. The air and fuel leakage, which occurs
through the gas exchange, negatively affects the efficiency of the
engine at high speeds and loads. An absolute sealing is assured by
direct use of poppet valves, which are kept in fully closed position
during the skipped mode. All the components of the mechanism were
designed according to the real dimensions of the Anadolu Motor's
gasoline engine and modeled in 3D by means of CAD software. As
the mechanism operates in two modes, two dynamically equivalent
models are established to obtain the force and strength analysis for
Corporate Culture and Innovation: Implications for Reward Systems
Continuous innovation is becoming a necessity if
firms want to stay competitive. Different factors influence the rate of
innovation in a firm, among which corporate culture has often been
recognized among the most important factors. In this paper we argue
that the development of corporate culture that will support and foster
innovation must be accompanied with an appropriate reward system.
A research conducted among Croatian firms showed that a
statistically significant relationship exists among corporate culture
that supports innovations and reward system features.
Mathematical Modeling to Predict Surface Roughness in CNC Milling
Surface roughness (Ra) is one of the most important requirements in machining process. In order to obtain better surface roughness, the proper setting of cutting parameters is crucial before the process take place. This research presents the development of mathematical model for surface roughness prediction before milling process in order to evaluate the fitness of machining parameters; spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut. 84 samples were run in this study by using FANUC CNC Milling α-Τ14ιE. Those samples were randomly divided into two data sets- the training sets (m=60) and testing sets(m=24). ANOVA analysis showed that at least one of the population regression coefficients was not zero. Multiple Regression Method was used to determine the correlation between a criterion variable and a combination of predictor variables. It was established that the surface roughness is most influenced by the feed rate. By using Multiple Regression Method equation, the average percentage deviation of the testing set was 9.8% and 9.7% for training data set. This showed that the statistical model could predict the surface roughness with about 90.2% accuracy of the testing data set and 90.3% accuracy of the training data set.
Narrowband Speech Hiding using Vector Quantization
In this work we introduce an efficient method to limit
the impact of the hiding process on the quality of the cover speech.
Vector quantization of the speech spectral information reduces drastically
the number of the secret speech parameters to be embedded
in the cover signal. Compared to scalar hiding, vector quantization
hiding technique provides a stego signal that is indistinguishable from
the cover speech. The objective and subjective performance measures
reveal that the current hiding technique attracts no suspicion about the
presence of the secret message in the stego speech, while being able
to recover an intelligible copy of the secret message at the receiver
Modeling and Analysis of the Effects of Nephrolithiasis in Kidney Using a Computational Tactile Sensing Approach
Having considered tactile sensing and palpation of a
surgeon in order to detect kidney stone during open surgery; we
present the 2D model of nephrolithiasis (two dimensional model of
kidney containing a simulated stone). The effects of stone existence
that appear on the surface of kidney (because of exerting mechanical
load) are determined. Using Finite element method, it is illustrated
that the created stress patterns on the surface of kidney and stress
graphs not only show existence of stone inside kidney, but also show
its exact location.
Overcoming Barriers to Open Innovation at Apple, Nintendo and Nokia
This is a conceptual paper on the application of open
innovation in three case examples of Apple, Nintendo, and Nokia.
Utilizing key concepts from research into managerial and
organizational cognition, we describe how each company overcame
barriers to utilizing open innovation strategy in R&D and
commercialization projects. We identify three levels of barriers:
cognitive, behavioral, and institutional, and describe the companies
balanced between internal and external resources to launch products
that were instrumental in companies reinventing themselves in
Glucose-dependent Functional Heterogeneity In β-TC-6 Murine Insulinoma
To determine if the murine insulinoma, β-TC-6, is a
suitable substitute for primary pancreatic β-cells in the study of β-
cell functional heterogeneity, we used three distinct functional assays
to ascertain the cell line-s response to glucose or a glucose analog.
These assays include: (i) a 2-NBDG uptake assay; (ii) a calcium
influx assay, and; (iii) a quinacrine secretion assay. We show that a
population of β-TC-6 cells endocytoses the glucose analog, 2-
NBDG, at different rates, has non-uniform intracellular calcium ion
concentrations and releases quinacrine at different rates when
challenged with glucose. We also measured the Km for β-TC-6
glucose uptake to be 46.9 mM and the Vm to be 8.36 x 10-5
mmole/million cells/min. These data suggest that β-TC-6 might be
used as an alternative to primary pancreatic β-cells for the study of
glucose-dependent β-cell functional heterogeneity.
Operational Risks for Highway Projects in Malaysia
The Malaysia Highway Authority (MHA) was
established by the Government in 1980 for the purpose of designing,
constructing and maintaining toll highways in Malaysia that include
the North-South Expressway and the Penang Bridge, which were
procured using the publicly-funded traditional procurement. However
following a recession in the mid 80-s, the operations of these tolledhighways
had been privatized to ensure that their operational services
continue through private financing as a result of long-term
concession agreement concurred between the Malaysian Government
and private operators. The change in the contract strategy for
highway projects in Malaysia would have a great tendency to dictate
a significant risk exposure towards the key parties involved,
particularly the Malaysian Government as project principal, unless
operational risks are clearly identified and managed via appropriate
mitigation measures prior to a contract signing.
This research identifies potential operational risks that have a
possibility to occur in highway projects in Malaysia from the
perspective of public sector clients. Since this research focuses on the
operational risks for highway projects in Malaysia, the initial results
acquired from literature review on the operational risks of highway
projects in some Asian countries are then justified by a number of
key individuals from the MHA through interviews. As a result,
among key operational risks that have possibility to occur in the
highway projects in Malaysia include initial toll-tariff decided by the
Government, traffic congestion, change of road network and overloaded
freight transportation, which could cause damage to the road
surface and hence affecting the operation of a particular highway.
Design, Fabrication and Evaluation of MR Damper
This paper presents the design, fabrication and
evaluation of magneto-rheological damper. Semi-active control
devices have received significant attention in recent years because
they offer the adaptability of active control devices without requiring
the associated large power sources. Magneto-Rheological (MR)
dampers are semi- active control devices that use MR fluids to
produce controllable dampers. They potentially offer highly reliable
operation and can be viewed as fail-safe in that they become passive
dampers if the control hardware malfunction. The advantage of MR
dampers over conventional dampers are that they are simple in
construction, compromise between high frequency isolation and
natural frequency isolation, they offer semi-active control, use very
little power, have very quick response, has few moving parts, have a
relax tolerances and direct interfacing with electronics. Magneto-
Rheological (MR) fluids are Controllable fluids belonging to the
class of active materials that have the unique ability to change
dynamic yield stress when acted upon by an electric or magnetic
field, while maintaining viscosity relatively constant. This property
can be utilized in MR damper where the damping force is changed by
changing the rheological properties of the fluid magnetically. MR
fluids have a dynamic yield stress over Electro-Rheological fluids
(ER) and a broader operational temperature range. The objective of
this papert was to study the application of an MR damper to vibration
control, design the vibration damper using MR fluids, test and
evaluate its performance. In this paper the Rheology and the theory
behind MR fluids and their use on vibration control were studied.
Then a MR vibration damper suitable for vehicle suspension was
designed and fabricated using the MR fluid. The MR damper was
tested using a dynamic test rig and the results were obtained in the
form of force vs velocity and the force vs displacement plots. The
results were encouraging and greatly inspire further research on the
Study on the Characteristics of the Measurement System for pH Array Sensors
A measurement system for pH array sensors is
introduced to increase accuracy, and decrease non-ideal effects
successfully. An array readout circuit reads eight potentiometric
signals at the same time, and obtains an average value. The deviation
value or the extreme value is counteracted and the output voltage is a
relatively stable value. The errors of measuring pH buffer solutions are
decreased obviously with this measurement system, and the non-ideal
effects, drift and hysteresis, are lowered to 1.638mV/hr and 1.118mV,
respectively. The efficiency and stability are better than single sensor.
The whole sensing characteristics are improved.
Long-term Monitor of Seawater by using TiO2:Ru Sensing Electrode for Hard Clam Cultivation
The hard clam (meretrix lusoria) cultivated industry
has been developed vigorously for recent years in Taiwan, and
seawater quality determines the cultivated environment. The pH
concentration variation affects survival rate of meretrix lusoria
immediately. In order to monitor seawater quality, solid-state sensing
electrode of ruthenium-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2:Ru) is developed
to measure hydrogen ion concentration in different cultivated
solutions. Because the TiO2:Ru sensing electrode has high chemical
stability and superior sensing characteristics, thus it is applied as a pH
sensor. Response voltages of TiO2:Ru sensing electrode are readout by
instrument amplifier in different sample solutions. Mean sensitivity
and linearity of TiO2:Ru sensing electrode are 55.20 mV/pH and 0.999
from pH1 to pH13, respectively. We expect that the TiO2:Ru sensing
electrode can be applied to real environment measurement, therefore
we collect two sample solutions by different meretrix lusoria
cultivated ponds in the Yunlin, Taiwan. The two sample solutions are
both measured for 200 seconds after calibration of standard pH buffer
solutions (pH7, pH8 and pH 9). Mean response voltages of sample 1
and sample 2 are -178.758 mV (Standard deviation=0.427 mV) and
-180.206 mV (Standard deviation =0.399 mV), respectively. Response
voltages of the two sample solutions are between pH 8 and pH 9 which
conform to weak alkali range and suitable meretrix lusoria growth. For
long-term monitoring, drift of cultivated solutions (sample 1 and
sample 2) are 1.16 mV/hour and 1.03 mV/hour, respectively.
Design of Measurement Interface and System for Ion Sensors
A measurement system was successfully fabricated to
detect ion concentrations (hydrogen and chlorine) in this study.
PIC18F4520, the microcontroller was used as the control unit in the
measurement system. The measurement system was practically used
to sense the H+ and Cl- in different examples, and the pH and pCl
values were exhibited on real-time LCD display promptly. In the study,
the measurement method is used to judge whether the response voltage
is stable. The change quantity is smaller than 0.01%, that the present
response voltage compares with next response voltage for H+
measurement, and the above condition is established only 6 sec.
Besides, the change quantity is smaller than 0.01%, that the present
response voltage compares with next response voltage for Clmeasurement,
and the above condition is established only 5 sec.
Furthermore, the average error quantities would also be considered,
and they are 0.05 and 0.07 for measurements of pH and pCl values,
Flexible Sensor Array with Programmable Measurement System
This study is concerned with pH solution detection
using 2 × 4 flexible sensor array based on a plastic polyethylene
terephthalate (PET) substrate that is coated a conductive layer and a
ruthenium dioxide (RuO2) sensitive membrane with the technologies
of screen-printing and RF sputtering. For data analysis, we also
prepared a dynamic measurement system for acquiring the response
voltage and analyzing the characteristics of the working electrodes
(WEs), such as sensitivity and linearity. In this condition, an array
measurement system was designed to acquire the original signal from
sensor array, and it is based on the method of digital signal processing
(DSP). The DSP modifies the unstable acquisition data to a direct
current (DC) output using the technique of digital filter. Hence, this
sensor array can obtain a satisfactory yield, 62.5%, through the design
measurement and analysis system in our laboratory.
Performance Evaluation of A Stratified Chilled- Water Thermal Storage System
In countries with hot climates, air-conditioning forms
a large proportion of annual peak electrical demand, requiring
expansion of power plants to meet the peak demand, which goes
unused most of the time. Use of well-designed cool storage can offset
the peak demand to a large extent. In this study, an air conditioning
system with naturally stratified storage tank was designed,
constructed and tested. A new type of diffuser was designed and used
in this study. Factors that influence the performance of chilled water
storage tanks were investigated. The results indicated that stratified
storage tank consistently stratified well without any physical barrier.
Investigation also showed that storage efficiency decreased with
increasing flow rate due to increased mixing of warm and chilled
water. Diffuser design and layout primarily affected the mixing near
the inlet diffuser and the extent of this mixing had primary influence
on the shape of the thermocline. The heat conduction through tank
walls and through the thermocline caused widening of mixed volume.
Thermal efficiency of stratified storage tanks was as high as 90
percent, which indicates that stratified tanks can effectively be used
as a load management technique.
Investigation into the Bond between CFRP and Steel Plates
The use of externally bonded Carbon Fiber
Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) reinforcement has proven to be an
effective technique to strengthen steel structures. An experimental
study on CFRP bonded steel plate with double strap joint has been
conducted and specimens are tested under tensile loadings. An
empirical model has been developed using stress-based approach to
predict ultimate capacity of the CFRP bonded steel structure. The
results from the model are comparable with the experimental result
with a reasonable accuracy.
Integrating Hedgerow into Town Planning: A Framework for Sustainable Residential Development
The vast rural landscape in the southern United States
is conspicuously characterized by the hedgerow trees or groves. The
patchwork landscape of fields surrounded by high hedgerows is a
traditional and familiar feature of the American countryside.
Hedgerows are in effect linear strips of trees, groves, or woodlands,
which are often critical habitats for wildlife and important for the
visual quality of the landscape. As landscape interfaces, hedgerows
define the spaces in the landscape, give the landscape life and
meaning, and enrich ecologies and cultural heritages of the American
countryside. Although hedgerows were originally intended as fences
and to mark property and townland boundaries, they are not merely
the natural or man-made additions to the landscape--they have
gradually become “naturalized" into the landscape, deeply rooted in
the rural culture, and now formed an important component of the
southern American rural environment. However, due to the ever
expanding real estate industry and high demand for new residential
development, substantial areas of authentic hedgerow landscape in
the southern United States are being urbanized. Using Hudson Farm
as an example, this study illustrated guidelines of how hedgerows can
be integrated into town planning as green infrastructure and
landscape interface to innovate and direct sustainable land use, and
suggest ways in which such vernacular landscapes can be preserved
and integrated into new development without losing their contextual
Single Zone Model for HCCI Engine Fueled with n-Heptane
In this study, we developed a model to predict the
temperature and the pressure variation in an internal combustion
engine operated in HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition)
mode. HCCI operation begins from aspirating of homogeneous charge
mixture through intake valve like SI (Spark ignition) engine and the
premixed charge is compressed until temperature and pressure of
mixture reach autoignition point like diesel engine. Combustion phase
was described by double-Wiebe function. The single zone model
coupled with an double-Wiebe function were performed to simulated
pressure and temperature between the period of IVC (Inlet valve close)
and EVO (Exhaust valve open). Mixture gas properties were
implemented using STANJAN and transfer the results to main model.
The model has considered the engine geometry and enables varying in
fuelling, equivalence ratio, manifold temperature and pressure. The
results were compared with the experiment and showed good
correlation with respect to combustion phasing, pressure rise, peak
pressure and temperature. This model could be adapted and use to
control start of combustion for HCCI engine.
Simulation and Design of the Geometric Characteristics of the Oscillatory Thermal Cycler
Since polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been
invented, it has emerged as a powerful tool in genetic analysis. The
PCR products are closely linked with thermal cycles. Therefore, to
reduce the reaction time and make temperature distribution uniform in
the reaction chamber, a novel oscillatory thermal cycler is designed.
The sample is placed in a fixed chamber, and three constant isothermal
zones are established and lined in the system. The sample is oscillated
and contacted with three different isothermal zones to complete
thermal cycles. This study presents the design of the geometric
characteristics of the chamber. The commercial software
CFD-ACE+TM is utilized to investigate the influences of various
materials, heating times, chamber volumes, and moving speed of the
chamber on the temperature distributions inside the chamber. The
chamber moves at a specific velocity and the boundary conditions
with time variations are related to the moving speed. Whereas the
chamber moves, the boundary is specified at the conditions of the
convection or the uniform temperature. The user subroutines compiled
by the FORTRAN language are used to make the numerical results
realistically. Results show that the reaction chamber with a rectangular
prism is heated on six faces; the effects of various moving speeds of
the chamber on the temperature distributions are examined. Regarding
to the temperature profiles and the standard deviation of the
temperature at the Y-cut cross section, the non-uniform temperature
inside chamber is found as the moving speed is larger than 0.01 m/s.
By reducing the heating faces to four, the standard deviation of the
temperature of the reaction chamber is under 1.4×10-3K with the range
of velocities between 0.0001 m/s and 1 m/s. The nature convective
boundary conditions are set at all boundaries while the chamber moves
between two heaters, the effects of various moving velocities of the
chamber on the temperature distributions are negligible at the assigned
Text Summarization for Oil and Gas News Article
Information is increasing in volumes; companies are overloaded with information that they may lose track in getting the intended information. It is a time consuming task to scan through each of the lengthy document. A shorter version of the document which contains only the gist information is more favourable for most information seekers. Therefore, in this paper, we implement a text summarization system to produce a summary that contains gist information of oil and gas news articles. The summarization is intended to provide important information for oil and gas companies to monitor their competitor-s behaviour in enhancing them in formulating business strategies. The system integrated statistical approach with three underlying concepts: keyword occurrences, title of the news article and location of the sentence. The generated summaries were compared with human generated summaries from an oil and gas company. Precision and recall ratio are used to evaluate the accuracy of the generated summary. Based on the experimental results, the system is able to produce an effective summary with the average recall value of 83% at the compression rate of 25%.
Analysis of Wave Propagation in Two-dimensional Phononic Crystals with Hollow Cylinders
Large full frequency band gaps of surface and bulk
acoustic waves in two-dimensional phononic band structures with
hollow cylinders are addressed in this paper. It is well-known that
absolute frequency band gaps are difficultly obtained in a band
structure consisted of low-acoustic-impedance cylinders in
high-acoustic-impedance host materials such as PMMA/Ni band
structures. Phononic band structures with hollow cylinders are
analyzed and discussed to obtain large full frequency band gaps not
only for bulk modes but also for surface modes. The tendency of
absolute frequency band gaps of surface and bulk acoustic waves is
also addressed by changing the inner radius of hollow cylinders in this
paper. The technique and this kind of band structure are useful for
tuning the frequency band gaps and the design of acoustic waveguides.
Advanced Micromanufacturing for Ultra Precision Part by Soft Lithography and Nano Powder Injection Molding
Recently, the advanced technologies that offer high
precision product, relative easy, economical process and also rapid
production are needed to realize the high demand of ultra precision
micro part. In our research, micromanufacturing based on soft
lithography and nanopowder injection molding was investigated. The
silicone metal pattern with ultra thick and high aspect ratio succeeds to
fabricate Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro mold. The process
followed by nanopowder injection molding (PIM) by a simple vacuum
hot press. The 17-4ph nanopowder with diameter of 100 nm, succeed
to be injected and it forms green sample microbearing with thickness,
microchannel and aspect ratio is 700μm, 60μm and 12, respectively.
Sintering process was done in 1200 C for 2 hours and heating rate
0.83oC/min. Since low powder load (45% PL) was applied to achieve
green sample fabrication, ~15% shrinkage happen in the 86% relative
density. Several improvements should be done to produce high
accuracy and full density sintered part.
Detailed Mapping of Pyroclastic Flow Deposits by SAR Data Processing for an Active Volcano in the Torrid Zone
Field mapping activity for an active volcano mainly in
the Torrid Zone is usually hampered by several problems such as steep
terrain and bad atmosphere conditions. In this paper we present a
simple solution for such problem by a combination Synthetic Aperture
Radar (SAR) and geostatistical methods. By this combination, we
could reduce the speckle effect from the SAR data and then estimate
roughness distribution of the pyroclastic flow deposits. The main
purpose of this study is to detect spatial distribution of new pyroclastic
flow deposits termed as P-zone accurately using the β°data from two
RADARSAT-1 SAR level-0 data. Single scene of Hyperion data and
field observation were used for cross-validation of the SAR results.
Mt. Merapi in central Java, Indonesia, was chosen as a study site and
the eruptions in May-June 2006 were examined. The P-zones were
found in the western and southern flanks. The area size and the longest
flow distance were calculated as 2.3 km2 and 6.8 km, respectively. The
grain size variation of the P-zone was mapped in detail from fine to
coarse deposits regarding the C-band wavelength of 5.6 cm.
Hybrid Power – Application for Tourism in Isolated Areas
The rapidly increasing costs of power line extensions
and fossil fuel, combined with the desire to reduce carbon dioxide
emissions pushed the development of hybrid power system suited for
remote locations, the purpose in mind being that of autonomous local
power systems. The paper presents the suggested solution for a “high
penetration" hybrid power system, it being determined by the
location of the settlement and its “zero policy" on carbon dioxide
emissions. The paper focuses on the technical solution and the power
flow management algorithm of the system, taking into consideration
local conditions of development.
Fuzzy Control of a Quarter-Car Suspension System
An active suspension system has been proposed to
improve the ride comfort. A quarter-car 2 degree-of-freedom (DOF)
system is designed and constructed on the basis of the concept of a
four-wheel independent suspension to simulate the actions of an
active vehicle suspension system. The purpose of a suspension
system is to support the vehicle body and increase ride comfort. The
aim of the work described in the paper was to illustrate the
application of fuzzy logic technique to the control of a continuously
damping automotive suspension system. The ride comfort is
improved by means of the reduction of the body acceleration caused
by the car body when road disturbances from smooth road and real
The paper describes also the model and controller used in the
study and discusses the vehicle response results obtained from a
range of road input simulations. In the conclusion, a comparison of
active suspension fuzzy control and Proportional Integration
derivative (PID) control is shown using MATLAB simulations.
An Edge Detection and Filtering Mechanism of Two Dimensional Digital Objects Based on Fuzzy Inference
The general idea behind the filter is to average a pixel
using other pixel values from its neighborhood, but simultaneously to
take care of important image structures such as edges. The main
concern of the proposed filter is to distinguish between any variations
of the captured digital image due to noise and due to image structure.
The edges give the image the appearance depth and sharpness. A
loss of edges makes the image appear blurred or unfocused.
However, noise smoothing and edge enhancement are traditionally
conflicting tasks. Since most noise filtering behaves like a low pass
filter, the blurring of edges and loss of detail seems a natural
consequence. Techniques to remedy this inherent conflict often
encompass generation of new noise due to enhancement.
In this work a new fuzzy filter is presented for the noise reduction
of images corrupted with additive noise. The filter consists of three
stages. (1) Define fuzzy sets in the input space to computes a fuzzy
derivative for eight different directions (2) construct a set of IFTHEN
rules by to perform fuzzy smoothing according to
contributions of neighboring pixel values and (3) define fuzzy sets in
the output space to get the filtered and edged image.
Experimental results are obtained to show the feasibility of the
proposed approach with two dimensional objects.
Computational Simulation of Turbulence Heat Transfer in Multiple Rectangular Ducts
This study comprehensively simulate the use of k-ε
model for predicting flow and heat transfer with measured flow field
data in a stationary duct with elucidates on the detailed physics
encountered in the fully developed flow region, and the sharp 180°
bend region. Among the major flow features predicted with accuracy
are flow transition at the entrance of the duct, the distribution of
mean and turbulent quantities in the developing, fully developed, and
sharp 180° bend, the development of secondary flows in the duct
cross-section and the sharp 180° bend, and heat transfer
augmentation. Turbulence intensities in the sharp 180° bend are
found to reach high values and local heat transfer comparisons show
that the heat transfer augmentation shifts towards the wall and along
the duct. Therefore, understanding of the unsteady heat transfer in
sharp 180° bends is important. The design and simulation are related
to concept of fluid mechanics, heat transfer and thermodynamics.
Simulation study has been conducted on the response of turbulent
flow in a rectangular duct in order to evaluate the heat transfer rate
along the small scale multiple rectangular duct
The Entrepreneur's General Personality Traits and Technological Developments
Technological newness and innovativeness are
important aspects of small firm development, growth and wealth
creation. The contribution of the study to entrepreneurship
personality research and to technology-related research in
entrepreneurship is that the model of the general personality driven
technological development was developed and empirically tested.
Hypotheses relating the big five personality factors (OCEAN:
openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and
neuroticism) and technological developments were tested by using
multiple regression analysis on survey data from a sample of 160
entrepreneurs from Slovenia. The model reveals two personality
factors, which are predictive of technological developments:
openness (positive impact) and neuroticism (negative impact). In
addition, a positive impact of firm age on technological
developments was found. Other personality factors
(conscientiousness, extraversion and agreeableness) of entrepreneurs
may not be considered important for their firm technological
Performance Appraisal System using Multifactorial Evaluation Model
Performance appraisal of employee is important in
managing the human resource of an organization. With the change
towards knowledge-based capitalism, maintaining talented
knowledge workers is critical. However, management classification
of “outstanding", “poor" and “average" performance may not be an
easy decision. Besides that, superior might also tend to judge the
work performance of their subordinates informally and arbitrarily
especially without the existence of a system of appraisal. In this
paper, we propose a performance appraisal system using
multifactorial evaluation model in dealing with appraisal grades
which are often express vaguely in linguistic terms. The proposed
model is for evaluating staff performance based on specific
performance appraisal criteria. The project was collaboration with
one of the Information and Communication Technology company in
Malaysia with reference to its performance appraisal process.
Reducing SAGE Data Using Genetic Algorithms
Serial Analysis of Gene Expression is a powerful
quantification technique for generating cell or tissue gene expression
data. The profile of the gene expression of cell or tissue in several
different states is difficult for biologists to analyze because of the large
number of genes typically involved. However, feature selection in
machine learning can successfully reduce this problem. The method
allows reducing the features (genes) in specific SAGE data, and
determines only relevant genes. In this study, we used a genetic
algorithm to implement feature selection, and evaluate the
classification accuracy of the selected features with the K-nearest
neighbor method. In order to validate the proposed method, we used
two SAGE data sets for testing. The results of this study conclusively
prove that the number of features of the original SAGE data set can be
significantly reduced and higher classification accuracy can be
Automatic Road Network Recognition and Extraction for Urban Planning
The uses of road map in daily activities are numerous
but it is a hassle to construct and update a road map whenever there
are changes. In Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, research on Automatic
Road Extraction (ARE) was explored to solve the difficulties in
updating road map. The research started with using Satellite Image
(SI), or in short, the ARE-SI project. A Hybrid Simple Colour Space
Segmentation & Edge Detection (Hybrid SCSS-EDGE) algorithm
was developed to extract roads automatically from satellite-taken
images. In order to extract the road network accurately, the satellite
image must be analyzed prior to the extraction process. The
characteristics of these elements are analyzed and consequently the
relationships among them are determined. In this study, the road
regions are extracted based on colour space elements and edge details
of roads. Besides, edge detection method is applied to further filter
out the non-road regions. The extracted road regions are validated by
using a segmentation method. These results are valuable for building
road map and detecting the changes of the existing road database.
The proposed Hybrid Simple Colour Space Segmentation and Edge
Detection (Hybrid SCSS-EDGE) algorithm can perform the tasks
fully automatic, where the user only needs to input a high-resolution
satellite image and wait for the result. Moreover, this system can
work on complex road network and generate the extraction result in
Performance Analysis of Routing Protocol for WSN Using Data Centric Approach
Sensor Network are emerging as a new tool for
important application in diverse fields like military surveillance,
habitat monitoring, weather, home electrical appliances and others.
Technically, sensor network nodes are limited in respect to energy
supply, computational capacity and communication bandwidth. In
order to prolong the lifetime of the sensor nodes, designing efficient
routing protocol is very critical. In this paper, we illustrate the
existing routing protocol for wireless sensor network using data
centric approach and present performance analysis of these protocols.
The paper focuses in the performance analysis of specific protocol
namely Directed Diffusion and SPIN. This analysis reveals that the
energy usage is important features which need to be taken into
consideration while designing routing protocol for wireless sensor
Cultivating Focal Firm-s Supply Chain Process Integration Capabilities: The Investigation of Critical Determinants and Consequences
In today-s competitive global business environment,
the concept of supply chain management (SCM) continues to become
increasingly market-oriented, shifting the primary driver of the value
chain from supply to demand. Recent recommendations encourage
researchers to focus investigations on the supply chain process
integration (SCPI) capabilities that integrate a focal firm with its
network of suppliers and business customers to create value for it.
However, theoretical and empirical researches pertaining to the
antecedents and consequences of a focal firm-s SCPI capabilities have
been limited and piecemeal. The purpose of this study is to investigate
the critical determinants and consequences of a focal firm-s SCPI
capabilities. We test our proposed research framework using a sample
of 139 sales managers of manufacturing industries in Taiwan, our
research findings show that (1) both perceived business customer-s
power and focal firm-s market-oriented culture positively influences a
focal firm-s SCPI capabilities, and (2) SCPI capabilities positively
influence a focal firm-s SCM performance, both operational and
strategic benefits. Implications for practitioners and researchers and
suggestions for future research are also addressed in this study.
Influence of Service and Product Quality towards Customer Satisfaction: A Case Study at the Staff Cafeteria in the Hotel Industry
The main objectives of this study were to identify
attributes that influence customer satisfaction and determine their
relationships with customer satisfaction. The variables included in
this research are place/ambience, food quality and service quality as
independent variables and customer satisfaction as the dependent
variable. A survey questionnaire which consisted of three parts to
measure demographic factors, independent variables, and dependent
variables was constructed based on items determined by past
research. 149 respondents from one of the well known hotel in Kuala
Lumpur, MALAYSIA were selected as a sample. Psychometric
testing was conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the
questionnaire. From the findings, there were positive significant
relationship between place/ambience (r=0.563**, p=0.000) and
service quality (r=0.544**, p=0.000) with customer satisfaction.
However, although relationship between food quality and customer
satisfaction was significant, it was in the negative direction (r=-
0.268**, p=0.001). New findings were discovered after conducting
this research and previous research findings were strengthened by the
results of this research. Future researchers could concentrate on
determining attributes that influence customer satisfaction when
cost/price is not a factor and reasons for place/ambience is currently
becoming the leading factor in determining customer satisfaction.
A Novel and Green Approach to Produce Nano- Porous Materials Zeolite A and MCM-41 from Coal Fly Ash and their Applications in Environmental Protection
Zeolite A and MCM-41 have extensive applications in basic science, petrochemical science, energy conservation/storage, medicine, chemical sensor, air purification, environmentally benign composite structure and waste remediation. However, the use of zeolite A and MCM-41 in these areas, especially environmental remediation, are restricted due to prohibitive production cost. Efficient recycling of and resource recovery from coal fly ash has been a major topic of current international research interest, aimed at achieving sustainable development of human society from the viewpoints of energy, economy, and environmental strategy. This project reported an original, novel, green and fast methods to produce nano-porous zeolite A and MCM-41 materials from coal fly ash. For zeolite A, this novel production method allows a reduction by half of the total production time while maintaining a high degree of crystallinity of zeolite A which exists in a narrower particle size distribution. For MCM-41, this remarkably green approach, being an environmentally friendly process and reducing generation of toxic waste, can produce pure and long-range ordered MCM-41 materials from coal fly ash. This approach took 24 h at 25 oC to produce 9 g of MCM-41 materials from 30 g of the coal fly ash, which is the shortest time and lowest reaction temperature required to produce pure and ordered MCM-41 materials (having the largest internal surface area) compared to the values reported in the literature. Performance evaluation of the produced zeolite A and MCM-41 materials in wastewater treatment and air pollution control were reported. The residual fly ash was also converted to zeolite Na-P1 which showed good performance in removal of multi-metal ions in wastewater. In wastewater treatment, compared to commercial-grade zeolite A, adsorbents produced from coal fly ash were effective in removing multi heavy metal ions in water and could be an alternative material for treatment of wastewater. In methane emission abatement, the zeolite A (produced from coal fly ash) achieved similar methane removal efficiency compared to the zeolite A prepared from pure chemicals. This report provides the guidance for production of zeolite A and MCM-41 from coal fly ash by a cost-effective approach which opens potential applications of these materials in environmental industry. Finally, environmental and economic aspects of production of zeolite A and MCM-41 from coal fly ash were discussed.
An Experimental Study on Clothes Drying Using Waste Heat from Split Type Air Conditioner
This paper was to study the clothes dryer using waste
heat from a split type air conditioner with a capacity of 12,648 btu/h.
The drying chamber had a minimum cross section area with the size
of 0.5 x 1.0 m2. The chamber was constructed by sailcloth and was
inside folded with aluminium foil. Then, it was connected to the
condensing unit of an air conditioner. The experiment was carried out
in two aspects which were the clothes drying with and without
auxiliary fan unit. The results showed that the drying rate of clothes
in the chamber installed with and without auxiliary fan unit were
2.26 and 1.1 kg/h, respectively. In case of the chamber installed with
a auxiliary fan unit, the additional power of 0.011 kWh was
consumed and the drying rate was higher than that of clothes drying
without auxiliary fan unit. Without auxiliary fan unit installation, no
energy was required but there was a portion of hot air leaks away
through the punctured holes at the wall of the drying chamber, hence
the drying rate was dropped below. The drying rate of clothes drying
using waste heat was higher than natural indoor drying and
commercial dryer which their drying rate were 0.17 and 1.9 kg/h,
respectively. It was noted that the COP of the air conditioner did not
change during the operating of clothes drying.
Knowledge Acquisition, Absorptive Capacity, and Innovation Capability: An Empirical Study of Taiwan's Knowledge-Intensive Industries
This study investigates the roles of knowledge
acquisition, absorptive capacity, and innovation capability in finance
and manufacturing industries. With 362 valid questionnaires from
manufactures and financial industries in Taiwan, we examine the
relationships between absorptive capacity, knowledge acquisition and
innovation capability using a structural equation model. The results
indicate that absorptive capacity is the mediator between knowledge
acquisition and innovation capability, and that knowledge acquisition
has a positive effect on absorptive capacity.
Region-Based Image Fusion with Artificial Neural Network
For most image fusion algorithms separate
relationship by pixels in the image and treat them more or less
independently. In addition, they have to be adjusted different
parameters in different time or weather. In this paper, we propose a
region–based image fusion which combines aspects of feature and
pixel-level fusion method to replace only by pixel. The basic idea is
to segment far infrared image only and to add information of each
region from segmented image to visual image respectively. Then we
determine different fused parameters according different region. At
last, we adopt artificial neural network to deal with the problems of
different time or weather, because the relationship between fused
parameters and image features are nonlinear. It render the fused
parameters can be produce automatically according different states.
The experimental results present the method we proposed indeed
have good adaptive capacity with automatic determined fused
parameters. And the architecture can be used for lots of applications.
Influence on Willingness of Virtual Community's Knowledge Sharing: Based on Social Capital Theory and Habitual Domain
Despite the fact that Knowledge Sharing (KS) is very important, we found only little discussion about the reasons why people have the willingness to share knowledge at such platform even though there is no immediate benefit to the persons who contribute knowledge in it. The aim of this study is to develop an integrative understanding of the factors that support or inhibit individuals- knowledge sharing intentions in virtual communities and to find whether habit would generate people-s willingness to be involved. We apply Social Capital Theory (SCT), and we also add two dimensions for discussion: member incentive and habitual domain (HD). This research assembles the questionnaire from individuals who have experienced knowledge sharing in virtual communities, and applies survey and Structural Equation Model (SEM) to analyze the results from the questionnaires. Finally, results confirm that individuals are willing to share knowledge in virtual communities: (1) if they consider reciprocity, centrality, and have longer tenure in their field, and enjoy helping. (2) if they have the habit of sharing knowledge. This study is useful for the developers of virtual communities to insight into knowledge sharing in cyberspace.
Optimum Design of an 8x8 Optical Switch with Thermal Compensated Mechanisms
This paper studies the optimum design for reducing
optical loss of an 8x8 mechanical type optical switch due to the
temperature change. The 8x8 optical switch is composed of a base, 8
input fibers, 8 output fibers, 3 fixed mirrors and 17 movable mirrors.
First, an innovative switch configuration is proposed with
thermal-compensated design. Most mechanical type optical switches
have a disadvantage that their precision and accuracy are influenced
by the ambient temperature. Therefore, the thermal-compensated
design is to deal with this situation by using materials with different
thermal expansion coefficients (α). Second, a parametric modeling
program is developed to generate solid models for finite element
analysis, and the thermal and structural behaviors of the switch are
analyzed. Finally, an integrated optimum design program, combining
Autodesk Inventor Professional software, finite element analysis
software, and genetic algorithms, is developed for improving the
thermal behaviors that the optical loss of the switch is reduced. By
changing design parameters of the switch in the integrated design
program, the final optimum design that satisfies the design constraints
and specifications can be found.
Simultaneous Term Structure Estimation of Hazard and Loss Given Default with a Statistical Model using Credit Rating and Financial Information
The objective of this study is to propose a statistical
modeling method which enables simultaneous term structure
estimation of the risk-free interest rate, hazard and loss given default,
incorporating the characteristics of the bond issuing company such as
credit rating and financial information. A reduced form model is used
for this purpose. Statistical techniques such as spline estimation and
Bayesian information criterion are employed for parameter estimation
and model selection. An empirical analysis is conducted using the
information on the Japanese bond market data. Results of the
empirical analysis confirm the usefulness of the proposed method.
The Study of the Intelligent Fuzzy Weighted Input Estimation Method Combined with the Experiment Verification for the Multilayer Materials
The innovative intelligent fuzzy weighted input
estimation method (FWIEM) can be applied to the inverse heat
transfer conduction problem (IHCP) to estimate the unknown
time-varying heat flux of the multilayer materials as presented in this
paper. The feasibility of this method can be verified by adopting the
temperature measurement experiment. The experiment modular may
be designed by using the copper sample which is stacked up 4
aluminum samples with different thicknesses. Furthermore, the
bottoms of copper samples are heated by applying the standard heat
source, and the temperatures on the tops of aluminum are measured by
using the thermocouples. The temperature measurements are then
regarded as the inputs into the presented method to estimate the heat
flux in the bottoms of copper samples. The influence on the estimation
caused by the temperature measurement of the sample with different
thickness, the processing noise covariance Q, the weighting factor γ ,
the sampling time interval Δt , and the space discrete interval Δx ,
will be investigated by utilizing the experiment verification. The
results show that this method is efficient and robust to estimate the
unknown time-varying heat input of the multilayer materials.
Optimization of Protein Hydrolysate Production Process from Jatropha curcas Cake
This was the first document revealing the
investigation of protein hydrolysate production optimization from J.
curcas cake. Proximate analysis of raw material showed 18.98%
protein, 5.31% ash, 8.52% moisture and 12.18% lipid. The
appropriate protein hydrolysate production process began with
grinding the J. curcas cake into small pieces. Then it was suspended
in 2.5% sodium hydroxide solution with ratio between solution/ J.
curcas cake at 80:1 (v/w). The hydrolysis reaction was controlled at
temperature 50 °C in water bath for 45 minutes. After that, the
supernatant (protein hydrolysate) was separated using centrifuge at
8000g for 30 minutes. The maximum yield of resulting protein
hydrolysate was 73.27 % with 7.34% moisture, 71.69% total protein,
7.12% lipid, 2.49% ash. The product was also capable of well
dissolving in water.
A Markov Chain Approximation for ATS Modeling for the Variable Sampling Interval CCC Control Charts
The cumulative conformance count (CCC) charts are
widespread in process monitoring of high-yield manufacturing.
Recently, it is found the use of variable sampling interval (VSI)
scheme could further enhance the efficiency of the standard CCC
charts. The average time to signal (ATS) a shift in defect rate has
become traditional measure of efficiency of a chart with the VSI
scheme. Determining the ATS is frequently a difficult and tedious
task. A simple method based on a finite Markov Chain approach for
modeling the ATS is developed. In addition, numerical results are
A New Cut–Through Mechanism in IEEE 802.16 Mesh Networks
IEEE 802.16 is a new wireless technology standard, it
has some advantages, including wider coverage, higher bandwidth,
and QoS support. As the new wireless technology for last mile
solution, there are designed two models in IEEE 802.16 standard. One
is PMP (point to multipoint) and the other is Mesh. In this paper we
only focus on IEEE 802.16 Mesh model. According to the IEEE
802.16 standard description, Mesh model has two scheduling modes,
centralized and distributed. Considering the pros and cons of the two
scheduling, we present the combined scheduling QoS framework that
the BS (Base Station) controls time frame scheduling and selects the
shortest path from source to destination directly. On the other hand, we
propose the Expedited Queue mechanism to cut down the transmission
time. The EQ mechanism can reduce a lot of end-to-end delay in our
QoS framework. Simulation study has shown that the average delay is
smaller than contrasts. Furthermore, our proposed scheme can also
achieve higher performance.
Stability Analysis for a Multicriteria Problem with Linear Criteria and Parameterized Principle of Optimality “from Lexicographic to Slater“
A multicriteria linear programming problem with integer variables and parameterized optimality principle "from lexicographic to Slater" is considered. A situation in which initial coefficients of penalty cost functions are not fixed but may be potentially a subject to variations is studied. For any efficient solution, appropriate measures of the quality are introduced which incorporate information about variations of penalty cost function coefficients. These measures correspond to the so-called stability and accuracy functions defined earlier for efficient solutions of a generic multicriteria combinatorial optimization problem with Pareto and lexicographic optimality principles. Various properties of such functions are studied and maximum norms of perturbations for which an efficient solution preserves the property of being efficient are calculated.
Numerical Simulation of Iron Ore Reactor Isobaric and Cooling zone to Investigate Total Carbon Formation in Sponge Iron
Isobaric and cooling zone of iron ore reactor have been
simulated. In this paper, heat and mass transfer equation are
formulated to perform the temperature and concentration of gas and
solid phase respectively. Temperature profile for isobaric zone is
simulated on the range temperature of 873-1163K while cooling zone
is simulated on the range temperature of 733-1139K. The simulation
results have a good agreement with the plant data. Total carbon
formation in the isobaric zone is only 30% of total carbon contained in
the sponge iron product. The formation of Fe3C in isobaric zone
reduces metallization degree up to 0.58% whereas reduction of
metallization degree in cooling zone up to 1.139%. The decreasing of
sponge iron temperature in the isobaric and cooling zone is around 300
K and 600 K respectively.
Virulent-GO: Prediction of Virulent Proteins in Bacterial Pathogens Utilizing Gene Ontology Terms
Prediction of bacterial virulent protein sequences can
give assistance to identification and characterization of novel
virulence-associated factors and discover drug/vaccine targets against
proteins indispensable to pathogenicity. Gene Ontology (GO)
annotation which describes functions of genes and gene products as a
controlled vocabulary of terms has been shown effectively for a
variety of tasks such as gene expression study, GO annotation
prediction, protein subcellular localization, etc. In this study, we
propose a sequence-based method Virulent-GO by mining informative
GO terms as features for predicting bacterial virulent proteins.
Each protein in the datasets used by the existing method
VirulentPred is annotated by using BLAST to obtain its homologies
with known accession numbers for retrieving GO terms. After
investigating various popular classifiers using the same five-fold
cross-validation scheme, Virulent-GO using the single kind of GO
term features with an accuracy of 82.5% is slightly better than
VirulentPred with 81.8% using five kinds of sequence-based features.
For the evaluation of independent test, Virulent-GO also yields better
results (82.0%) than VirulentPred (80.7%). When evaluating single
kind of feature with SVM, the GO term feature performs much well,
compared with each of the five kinds of features.
Application of Company Financial Crisis Early Warning Model- Use of “Financial Reference Database“
In July 1, 2007, Taiwan Stock Exchange (TWSE) on
market observation post system (MOPS) adds a new "Financial
reference database" for investors to do investment reference. This
database as a warning to public offering companies listed on the
public financial information and it original within eight targets. In
this paper, this database provided by the indicators for the application
of company financial crisis early warning model verify that the
database provided by the indicator forecast for the financial crisis,
whether or not companies have a high accuracy rate as opposed to
domestic and foreign scholars have positive results. There is use of
Logistic Regression Model application of the financial early warning
model, in which no joined back-conditions is the first model, joined it
in is the second model, has been taken occurred in the financial crisis
of companies to research samples and then business took place
before the financial crisis point with T-1 and T-2 sample data to do
positive analysis. The results show that this database provided the
debt ratio and net per share for the best forecast variables.
Generator Capability Curve Constraint for PSO Based Optimal Power Flow
An optimal power flow (OPF) based on particle swarm
optimization (PSO) was developed with more realistic generator
security constraint using the capability curve instead of only Pmin/Pmax
and Qmin/Qmax. Neural network (NN) was used in designing digital
capability curve and the security check algorithm. The algorithm is
very simple and flexible especially for representing non linear
generation operation limit near steady state stability limit and under
excitation operation area. In effort to avoid local optimal power flow
solution, the particle swarm optimization was implemented with
enough widespread initial population. The objective function used in
the optimization process is electric production cost which is
dominated by fuel cost. The proposed method was implemented at
Java Bali 500 kV power systems contain of 7 generators and 20
buses. The simulation result shows that the combination of generator
power output resulted from the proposed method was more economic
compared with the result using conventional constraint but operated
at more marginal operating point.
Remote Operation of CNC Milling Through Virtual Simulation and Remote Desktop Interface
Increasing the demand for effectively use of the
production facility requires the tools for sharing the manufacturing
facility through remote operation of the machining process. This
research introduces the methodology of machining technology for
direct remote operation of networked milling machine. The
integrated tools with virtual simulation, remote desktop protocol and
Setup Free Attachment for remote operation of milling process are
proposed. Accessing and monitoring of machining operation is
performed by remote desktop interface and 3D virtual simulations.
Capability of remote operation is supported by an auto setup
attachment with a reconfigurable pin type setup free technology
installed on the table of CNC milling machine to perform unattended
machining process. The system is designed using a computer server
and connected to a PC based controlled CNC machine for real time
monitoring. A client will access the server through internet
communication and virtually simulate the machine activity. The
result has been presented that combination between real time virtual
simulation and remote desktop tool is enabling to operate all machine
tool functions and as well as workpiece setup..
Towards External Varieties to Internal Varieties − Modular Perspective
Product customization is an essential requirement for
manufacturing firms to achieve higher customers- satisfaction and
fulfill business target. In order to achieve these objectives, firms need
to handle both external varieties such as customer preference,
government regulations, cultural considerations etc and internal
varieties such as functional requirements of product, production
efficiency, quality etc. Both of the varieties need to be accumulated
and integrated together for the purpose of producing customized
product. These varieties are presented and discussed in this paper
along with the perspectives of modular product design and
development process. Other development strategies such as
modularity, component commonality, product family design and
product platform are presented with a view to achieve product variety
quickly and economically. A case example both for the concept of
modular design and platform based product development process is
also presented with the help of design structure matrix (DSM) tool.
This paper is concluded with several managerial implications and
future research direction.
Transient Stress Analysis on Medium Modules Spur Gear by Using Mode Super Position Technique
Natural frequencies and dynamic response of a spur
gear sector are investigated using a two dimensional finite element
model that offers significant advantages for dynamic gear analyses.
The gear teeth are analyzed for different operating speeds. A primary
feature of this modeling is determination of mesh forces using a
detailed contact analysis for each time step as the gears roll through
the mesh. ANSYS software has been used on the proposed model to
find the natural frequencies by Block Lanczos technique and
displacements and dynamic stresses by transient mode super position
method. The effect of rotational speed of the gear on the dynamic
response of gear tooth has been studied and design limits have been
Commercializing Technology Solutions- Moving from Products to Solutions
The paper outlines the drivers behind the movement
from products to solutions in the Hi-Tech Business-to-Business
markets. The paper lists out the challenges in enabling the
transformation from products to solutions and also attempts to explore
strategic and operational recommendations based on the authors-
factual experiences with Japanese Hi-tech manufacturing
organizations. Organizations in the Hi-Tech Business-to-Business
markets are increasingly being compelled to move to a solutions model
from the conventional products model. Despite the added complexity
of solutions, successful technology commercialization can be achieved
by making prudent choices in defining a relevant solutions model, by
backing the solution model through appropriate organizational design,
and by overhauling the new product development process and
The Effect of Interlamellar Distance in Pearlite on CGI Machining
Swedish truck industry is investigating the possibility
for implementing the use of Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) in their
heavy duty diesel engines. Compared to the alloyed gray iron used
today, CGI has superior mechanical properties but not as good
machinability. Another issue that needs to be addressed when
implementing CGI is the inhomogeneous microstructure when the
cast component has different section thicknesses, as in cylinder
blocks. Thinner sections results in finer pearlite, in the material, with
higher strength. Therefore an investigation on its influence on
machinability was needed. This paper focuses on the effect that
interlamellar distance in pearlite has on CGI machinability and
material physical properties. The effect of pearlite content and
nodularity is also examined. The results showed that interlamellar
distance in pearlite did not have as large effect on the material
physical properties or machinability as pearlite content. The paper
also shows the difficulties of obtaining a homogeneous
microstructure in inhomogeneous workpieces.
Investigation of Transmission Line Overvoltages and their Deduction Approach
The two significant overvoltages in power system,
switching overvoltage and lightning overvoltage, are investigated in
this paper. Firstly, the effect of various power system parameters on
Line Energization overvoltages is evaluated by simulation in ATP.
The dominant parameters include line parameters; short-circuit
impedance and circuit breaker parameters. Solutions to reduce
switching overvoltages are reviewed and controlled closing using
switchsync controllers is proposed as proper method.
This paper also investigates lightning overvoltages in the
overhead-cable transition. Simulations are performed in
PSCAD/EMTDC. Surge arresters are applied in both ends of cable to
fulfill the insulation coordination. The maximum amplitude of
overvoltages inside the cable is surveyed which should be of great
concerns in insulation coordination studies.
The Particle Swarm Optimization Against the Runge’s Phenomenon: Application to the Generalized Integral Quadrature Method
In the present work, we introduce the particle swarm optimization called (PSO in short) to avoid the Runge-s phenomenon occurring in many numerical problems. This new approach is tested with some numerical examples including the generalized integral quadrature method in order to solve the Volterra-s integral equations
Modeling Electric Field Distribution on Insulator under Electron Bombardment in Vacuum
Charging and discharging phenomenon on the surface
of materials can be found in plasma display panel, spacecraft
charging, high voltage insulator, etc. This report gives a simple
explanation on this phenomenon. A scanning electron microscope
was used not only as a tool to produce energetic electron beam to
charge an insulator without metallic coating and to produce a surface
discharging (surface breakdown/flashover) but also to observe the
visible charging and discharging on the sample surface. A model of
electric field distribution on the surface was developed in order to
explain charging and discharging phenomena. Since charging and
discharging process involves incubation time, therefore this process
can be used to evaluate the insulation property of materials under
PeliGRIFF: A Parallel DEM-DLM/FD Method for DNS of Particulate Flows with Collisions
An original Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) method to tackle the problem of particulate flows at moderate to high concentration and finite Reynolds number is presented. Our method is built on the framework established by Glowinski and his coworkers  in the sense that we use their Distributed Lagrange Multiplier/Fictitious Domain (DLM/FD) formulation and their operator-splitting idea but differs in the treatment of particle collisions. The novelty of our contribution relies on replacing the simple artificial repulsive force based collision model usually employed in the literature by an efficient Discrete Element Method (DEM) granular solver. The use of our DEM solver enables us to consider particles of arbitrary shape (at least convex) and to account for actual contacts, in the sense that particles actually touch each other, in contrast with the simple repulsive force based collision model. We recently upgraded our serial code, GRIFF 1 , to full MPI capabilities. Our new code, PeliGRIFF 2, is developed under the framework of the full MPI open source platform PELICANS . The new MPI capabilities of PeliGRIFF open new perspectives in the study of particulate flows and significantly increase the number of particles that can be considered in a full DNS approach: O(100000) in 2D and O(10000) in 3D. Results on the 2D/3D sedimentation/fluidization of isometric polygonal/polyedral particles with collisions are presented.