Open Science Research Excellence

Open Science Index

Commenced in January 2007 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 31

Mixed Convection Heat Transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Vertical Tube

In this paper, experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid laminar flow in vertical smooth and microfin tubes as the surface temperature is constant. The effect of adding the nanoparticle to base fluid and Richardson number on the heat transfer enhancement is investigated as Richardson number increases from 0.1 to 0.7. The experimental results demonstrate that the combined forced-natural convection heat transfer rate may be improved significantly with an increment of mass nanoparticle concentration from 0% to 1.5%. In this experiment, a correlation is also proposed to predict the mixed convection heat transfer rate of CuO-HTO nanofluid flow. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 14%. Moreover, a correlation is presented to estimate the Nusselt number inside vertical smooth and microfin tubes as Rayleigh number is between 2´105 and 6.8´106 with the maximum deviation of 12%.

Experimental on Free and Forced Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Horizontal and Inclined Microfin Tube

In this paper, the combined free and forced convection heat transfer of the Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid flow in horizontal and inclined microfin tubes is studied experimentally. The flow regime is laminar, and pipe surface temperature is constant. The effect of nanoparticle and microfin tube on the heat transfer rate is investigated with the Richardson number which is between 0.1 and 0.7. The results show an increasing nanoparticle concentration between 0% and 1.5% leads to enhance the combined free and forced convection heat transfer rate. According to the results, five correlations are proposed to provide estimating the free and forced heat transfer rate as the increasing Richardson number from 0.1 to 0.7. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 16%. Moreover, four correlations are suggested to assess the Nusselt number based on the Rayleigh number in inclined tubes from 1800000 to 7000000. The maximum deviation of the correlation is almost 16%. The Darcy friction factor of the nanofluid flow has been investigated. Furthermore, CuO-HTO nanofluid flows in inclined microfin tubes.

Mixed Convection Enhancement in a 3D Lid-Driven Cavity Containing a Rotating Cylinder by Applying an Artificial Roughness
A numerical investigation of unsteady mixed convection heat transfer in a 3D moving top wall enclosure, which has a central rotating cylinder and uses either artificial roughness on the bottom hot plate or smooth bottom hot plate to study the heat transfer enhancement, is completed for fixed circular cylinder, and anticlockwise and clockwise rotational speeds, -1 ≤ Ω ≤ 1, at Reynolds number of 5000. The top lid-driven wall was cooled, while the other remaining walls that completed obstructed cubic were kept insulated and motionless. A standard k-ε model of Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) method is involved to deal with turbulent flow. It has been clearly noted that artificial roughness can strongly control the thermal fields and fluid flow patterns. Ultimately, the heat transfer rate has been dramatically increased by involving artificial roughness on the heated bottom wall in the presence of rotating cylinder.
Conjugate Mixed Convection Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation of Cu-Water Nanofluid in an Enclosure with Thick Wavy Bottom Wall
Mixed convection of Cu-water nanofluid in an enclosure with thick wavy bottom wall has been investigated numerically. A co-ordinate transformation method is used to transform the computational domain into an orthogonal co-ordinate system. The governing equations in the computational domain are solved through a pressure correction based iterative algorithm. The fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are analyzed for a wide range of Richardson number (0.1 ≤ Ri ≤ 5), nanoparticle volume concentration (0.0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.2), amplitude (0.0 ≤ α ≤ 0.1) of the wavy thick- bottom wall and the wave number (ω) at a fixed Reynolds number. Obtained results showed that heat transfer rate increases remarkably by adding the nanoparticles. Heat transfer rate is dependent on the wavy wall amplitude and wave number and decreases with increasing Richardson number for fixed amplitude and wave number. The Bejan number and the entropy generation are determined to analyze the thermodynamic optimization of the mixed convection.
Analysis of Three-Dimensional Longitudinal Rolls Induced by Double Diffusive Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Benard Flows in Rectangular Channels
This numerical study investigates the travelling wave’s appearance and the behavior of Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Benard (PRB) flow induced in 3D thermosolutale mixed convection (TSMC) in horizontal rectangular channels. The governing equations are discretized by using a control volume method with third order Quick scheme in approximating the advection terms. Simpler algorithm is used to handle coupling between the momentum and continuity equations. To avoid the excessively high computer time, full approximation storage (FAS) with full multigrid (FMG) method is used to solve the problem. For a broad range of dimensionless controlling parameters, the contribution of this work is to analyzing the flow regimes of the steady longitudinal thermoconvective rolls (noted R//) for both thermal and mass transfer (TSMC). The transition from the opposed volume forces to cooperating ones, considerably affects the birth and the development of the longitudinal rolls. The heat and mass transfers distribution are also examined.
Numerical Analysis of Laminar Mixed Convection within a Complex Geometry
The study of mixed convection is, usually, focused on the straight channels in which the onset of the mixed convection is well defined as function of the ratio between Grashof number and Reynolds number, Gr/Re. This is not the case for a complex channel wherein the mixed convection is not sufficiently examined in the literature. Our paper focuses on the study of the mixed convection in a complex geometry in which our main contribution reveals that the critical value of the ratio Gr/Re for the onset of the mixed convection increases highly in the type of geometry contrary to the straight channel. Furthermore, the accentuated secondary flow in this geometry prevents the thermal stratification in the flow and consequently the buoyancy driven becomes negligible. To perform these objectives, a numerical study in complex geometry for several values of the ratio Gr/Re with prescribed wall heat flux (H2), was realized by using the CFD code.
CFD Investigation of Turbulent Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in a Closed Lid-Driven Cavity
Both steady and unsteady turbulent mixed convection heat transfer in a 3D lid-driven enclosure, which has constant heat flux on the middle of bottom wall and with isothermal moving sidewalls, is reported in this paper for working fluid with Prandtl number Pr = 0.71. The other walls are adiabatic and stationary. The dimensionless parameters used in this research are Reynolds number, Re = 5000, 10000 and 15000, and Richardson number, Ri = 1 and 10. The simulations have been done by using different turbulent methods such as RANS, URANS, and LES. The effects of using different k-ε models such as standard, RNG and Realizable k-ε model are investigated. Interesting behaviours of the thermal and flow fields with changing the Re or Ri numbers are observed. Isotherm and turbulent kinetic energy distributions and variation of local Nusselt number at the hot bottom wall are studied as well. The local Nusselt number is found increasing with increasing either Re or Ri number. In addition, the turbulent kinetic energy is discernibly affected by increasing Re number. Moreover, the LES results have shown good ability of this method in predicting more detailed flow structures in the cavity.
MHD Mixed Convection in a Vertical Porous Channel
This work deals with the problem of MHD mixed convection in a completely porous and differentially heated vertical channel. The model of Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer with the Boussinesq approximation is adopted and the governing equations are solved by the finite volume method. The effects of magnetic field and buoyancy force intensities are given by the Hartmann and Richardson numbers respectively, as well as the Joule heating represented by Eckert number on the velocity and temperature fields, are examined. The main results show an augmentation of heat transfer rate with the decrease of Darcy number and the increase of Ri and Ha when Joule heating is neglected.
Numerical Study of Mixed Convection Coupled to Radiation in a Square Cavity with a Lid-Driven
In this study, we investigated numerically heat transfer by mixed convection coupled to radiation in a square cavity; the upper horizontal wall is movable. The purpose of this study is to see the influence of the emissivity ε and the varying of the Richardson number Ri on the variation of average Nusselt number Nu. The vertical walls of the cavity are differentially heated, the left wall is maintained at a uniform temperature higher than the right wall, and the two horizontal walls are adiabatic. The finite volume method is used for solving the dimensionless Governing Equations. Emissivity values used in this study are ranged between 0 and 1, the Richardson number in the range 0.1 to 10. The Rayleigh number is fixed to Ra=104 and the Prandtl number is maintained constant Pr=0.71. Streamlines, isothermal lines and the average Nusselt number are presented according to the surface emissivity. The results of this study show that the Richardson number Ri and emissivity ε affect the average Nusselt number.
Study of Mixed Convection in a Vertical Channel Filled with a Reactive Porous Medium in the Absence of Local Thermal Equilibrium
This work consists of a numerical simulation of convective heat transfer in a vertical plane channel filled with a heat generating porous medium, in the absence of local thermal equilibrium. The walls are maintained to a constant temperature and the inlet velocity is uniform. The dynamic range is described by the Darcy-Brinkman model and the thermal field by two energy equations model. A dimensionless formulation is developed for performing a parametric study based on certain dimensionless groups such as, the Biot interstitial number, the thermal conductivity ratio and the volumetric heat generation, q '''. The governing equations are solved using the finite volume method, gave rise to a multitude of results concerning in particular the thermal field in the porous channel and the existence or not of the local thermal equilibrium.
Mixed Convective Heat Transfer in Water-Based Al2O3 Nanofluid in Horizontal Rectangular Duct

In the present study, mixed convection in a horizontal rectangular duct using Al2O3 is numerically investigated. The effects of different Rayleigh number, Reynolds number and radiation on flow and heat transfer characteristics are studied in detail. This study covers Rayleigh number in the range of 2 × 10^6 ≤ Ra ≤ 2 × 10^7 and Reynolds number in the range of 100 ≤ Re ≤ 1100. Results reveal that the Nusselt number increases as Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers increase. It is also found that the dimensionless temperature distribution increases as Rayleigh number increases.

Entropy Generation and Heat Transfer of Cu–Water Nanofluid Mixed Convection in a Cavity
In this numerical work, mixed convection and entropy generation of Cu–water nanofluid in a lid-driven square cavity have been investigated numerically using the Lattice Boltzmann Method. Horizontal walls of the cavity are adiabatic and vertical walls have constant temperature but different values. The top wall has been considered as moving from left to right at a constant speed, U0. The effects of different parameters such as nanoparticle volume concentration (0–0.05), Rayleigh number (104–106) and Reynolds numbers (1, 10 and 100) on the entropy generation, flow and temperature fields are studied. The results have shown that addition of nanoparticles to the base fluid affects the entropy generation, flow pattern and thermal behavior especially at higher Rayleigh and low Reynolds numbers. For pure fluid as well as nanofluid, the increase of Reynolds number increases the average Nusselt number and the total entropy generation, linearly. The maximum entropy generation occurs in nanofluid at low Rayleigh number and at high Reynolds number. The minimum entropy generation occurs in pure fluid at low Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers. Also at higher Reynolds number, the effect of Cu nanoparticles on enhancement of heat transfer was decreased because the effect of lid-driven cavity was increased. The present results are validated by favorable comparisons with previously published results. The results of the problem are presented in graphical and tabular forms and discussed.
Dual Solutions in Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow: A Stability Analysis

The mixed convection stagnation point flow toward a vertical plate is investigated. The external flow impinges normal to the heated plate and the surface temperature is assumed to vary linearly with the distance from the stagnation point. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a set of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved numerically using MATLAB routine boundary value problem solver bvp4c. Numerical results show that dual solutions are possible for a certain range of the mixed convection parameter. A stability analysis is performed to determine which solution is linearly stable and physically realizable.

Effect of Magnetic Field on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Shrinking Vertical Sheet with Suction

A theoretical study has been presented to describe the boundary layer flow and heat transfer on an exponentially shrinking sheet with a variable wall temperature and suction, in the presence of magnetic field. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation, which are then solved numerically using the shooting method. Results for the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity profiles as well as temperature profiles are presented through graphs and tables for several sets of values of the parameters. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined.

Effect of Mass Transfer on MHD Mixed Convective Flow along Inclined Porous Plate with Thermodiffusion

The effect of mass transfer on MHD mixed convective flow along inclined porous plate with thermodiffusion have been analyzed on the basis of boundary layer approximations. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible and dense, and a uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the direction of the flow. A Similarity transformation is used to transform the problem under consideration into coupled nonlinear boundary layer equations which are then solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta sixth-order integration scheme together with Nachtsheim-Swigert shooting iteration technique. The behavior of velocity, temperature, concentration, local skin-friction, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number for different values of parameters have been computed and the results are presented graphically, and analyzed thereafter. The validity of the numerical methodology and the results are questioned by comparing the findings obtained for some specific cases with those available in the literature, and a comparatively good agreement is reached.

Numerical Study of Laminar Mixed Convection Heat Transfer of a Nanofluid in a Concentric Annular Tube Using Two-Phase Mixture Model

Laminar mixed Convection heat transfer of a nanofluid with prescribed constant heat flux on the inner wall of horizontal annular tube has been studied numerically based on two-phase mixture model in different Rayleigh Numbers and Azimuth angles. Effects of applying of different volume fractions of Al2O3 nanoparticles in water as a base fluid on hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of the fluid flow such as axial velocity, secondary flow, temperature, heat transfer coefficient and friction coefficient at the inner and outer wall region, has been investigated. Conservation equations in elliptical form has been utilized and solved in three dimensions for a steady flow. It is observed that, there is a good agreement between results in this work and previously published experimental and numerical works on mixed convection in horizontal annulus. These particles cause to increase convection heat transfer coefficient of the fluid, meanwhile there is no considerable effect on friction coefficient.

Effect of Conjugate Heat and Mass Transfer on MHD Mixed Convective Flow past Inclined Porous Plate in Porous Medium

This analysis is performed to study the momentum, heat and mass transfer characteristics of MHD mixed convective flow past inclined porous plate in porous medium, including the effect of fluid suction. The fluid is assumed to be steady, incompressible and dense. Similarity solution is used to transform the problem under consideration into coupled nonlinear boundary layer equations which are then solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta sixth-order integration scheme together with Nachtsheim-Swigert shooting iteration technique. Numerical results for the various types of parameters entering into the problem for velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are presented graphically and analyzed thereafter. Moreover, expressions for the skin-friction, heat transfer co-efficient and mass transfer co-efficient are discussed with graphs against streamwise distance for various governing parameters.

Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow from a Vertical Cone in a Porous Medium Filled with a Nanofluid
The steady mixed convection boundary layer flow from a vertical cone in a porous medium filled with a nanofluid is numerically investigated using different types of nanoparticles as Cu (copper), Al2O3 (alumina) and TiO2 (titania). The boundary value problem is solved by using the shooting technique by reducing it into an ordinary differential equation. Results of interest for the local Nusselt number with various values of the constant mixed convection parameter and nanoparticle volume fraction parameter are evaluated. It is found that dual solutions exist for a certain range of mixed convection parameter.
Natural and Mixed Convection Heat Transfer Cooling of Discrete Heat Sources Placed Near the Bottom on a PCB
Steady state experiments have been conducted for natural and mixed convection heat transfer, from five different sized protruding discrete heat sources, placed at the bottom position on a PCB and mounted on a vertical channel. The characteristic length ( Lh ) of heat sources vary from 0.005 to 0.011 m. The study has been done for different range of Reynolds number and modified Grashof number. From the experiment, the surface temperature distribution and the Nusselt number of discrete heat sources have been obtained and the effects of Reynold number and Richardson number on them have been discussed. The objective is to find the rate of heat dissipation from heat sources, by placing them at the bottom position on a PCB and to compare both modes of cooling of heat sources.
Effect of Buoyancy Ratio on Non-Darcy Mixed Convection in a Vertical Channel: A Thermal Non-equilibrium Approach
This article presents a numerical study of the doublediffusive mixed convection in a vertical channel filled with porous medium by using non-equilibrium model. The flow is assumed fully developed, uni-directional and steady state. The controlling parameters are thermal Rayleigh number (RaT ), Darcy number (Da), Forchheimer number (F), buoyancy ratio (N), inter phase heat transfer coefficient (H), and porosity scaled thermal conductivity ratio (γ). The Brinkman-extended non-Darcy model is considered. The governing equations are solved by spectral collocation method. The main emphasize is given on flow profiles as well as heat and solute transfer rates, when two diffusive components in terms of buoyancy ratio are in favor (against) of each other and solid matrix and fluid are thermally non-equilibrium. The results show that, for aiding flow (RaT = 1000), the heat transfer rate of fluid (Nuf ) increases upto a certain value of H, beyond that decreases smoothly and converges to a constant, whereas in case of opposing flow (RaT = -1000), the result is same for N = 0 and 1. The variation of Nuf in (N, Nuf )-plane shows sinusoidal pattern for RaT = -1000. For both cases (aiding and opposing) the flow destabilize on increasing N by inviting point of inflection or flow separation on the velocity profile. Overall, the buoyancy force have significant impact on the non-Darcy mixed convection under LTNE conditions.
Simulation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the Inclined Enclosure

Mixed convection in two-dimensional shallow rectangular enclosure is considered. The top hot wall moves with constant velocity while the cold bottom wall has no motion. Simulations are performed for Richardson number ranging from Ri = 0.001 to 100 and for Reynolds number keeping fixed at Re = 408.21. Under these conditions cavity encompasses three regimes: dominating forced, mixed and free convection flow. The Prandtl number is set to 6 and the effects of cavity inclination on the flow and heat transfer are studied for different Richardson number. With increasing the inclination angle, interesting behavior of the flow and thermal fields are observed. The streamlines and isotherm plots and the variation of the Nusselt numbers on the hot wall are presented. The average Nusselt number is found to increase with cavity inclination for Ri ³ 1 . Also it is shown that the average Nusselt number changes mildly with the cavity inclination in the dominant forced convection regime but it increases considerably in the regime with dominant natural convection.

Effects of Mixed Convection and Double Dispersion on Semi Infinite Vertical Plate in Presence of Radiation
In this paper, the effects of radiation, chemical reaction and double dispersion on mixed convection heat and mass transfer along a semi vertical plate are considered. The plate is embedded in a Newtonian fluid saturated non - Darcy (Forchheimer flow model) porous medium. The Forchheimer extension and first order chemical reaction are considered in the flow equations. The governing sets of partial differential equations are nondimensionalized and reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations which are then solved numerically by Fourth order Runge– Kutta method. Numerical results for the detail of the velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles as well as heat transfer rates (Nusselt number) and mass transfer rates (Sherwood number) against various parameters are presented in graphs. The obtained results are checked against previously published work for special cases of the problem and are found to be in good agreement.
Numerical Simulation of Convection Heat Transfer in a Lid-Driven Cavity with an Open Side

In this manuscript, the LBM is applied for simulating of Mixed Convection in a Lid-Driven cavity with an open side. The cavity horizontal walls are insulated while the west Lid-driven wall is maintained at a uniform temperature higher than the ambient. Prandtl number (Pr) is fixed to 0.71 (air) while Reynolds number (Re) , Richardson number (Ri) and aspect ratio (A) of the cavity are changed in the range of 50-150 , of 0.1-10 and of 1-4 , respectively. The numerical code is validated for the standard square cavity, and then the results of an open ended cavity are presented. Result shows by increasing of aspect ratio, the average Nusselt number (Nu) on lid- driven wall decreases and with same Reynolds number (Re) by increasing of aspect ratio (A), Richardson number plays more important role in heat transfer rate.

Magnetohydrodynamic Mixed Convective Flow in a Cavity
A magnetohydrodynamic mixed convective flow in a cavity was studied in this paper. The lower surface of cavity was heated from below whereas other walls of the cavity were thermally isolated. The governing two-dimensional flow equations have been solved by using finite volume code. The effects of magnetic field were studied on flow and temperature field and heat transfer performance at a wide range of parameters, Such as Hartmann (0≤Ha≤100) and Reynolds (1≤Re≤100) numbers. The results showed that as Hartman number increases the Nusselt number, representing heat transfer from the cavity decreases.
Study on Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in Vertical Ducts with Radiation Effects

Experiments have been performed to investigate the radiation effects on mixed convection heat transfer for thermally developing airflow in vertical ducts with two differentially heated isothermal walls and two adiabatic walls. The investigation covers the Reynolds number Re = 800 to Re = 2900, heat flux varied from 256 W/m2 to 863 W/m2, hot wall temperature ranges from 27°C to 100 °C, aspect ratios 1 & 0.5 and the emissivity of internal walls are 0.05 and 0.85. In the present study, combined flow visualization was conducted to observe the flow patterns. The effect of surface temperature along the walls was studied to investigate the local Nusselt number variation within the duct. The result shows that flow condition and radiation significantly affect the total Nusselt number and tends to reduce the buoyancy condition.

Simulation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Inclined Cavity using Lattice Boltzmann Method

In this paper, Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is used to study laminar flow with mixed convection heat transfer inside a two-dimensional inclined lid-driven rectangular cavity with aspect ratio AR = 3. Bottom wall of the cavity is maintained at lower temperature than the top lid, and its vertical walls are assumed insulated. Top lid motion results in fluid motion inside the cavity. Inclination of the cavity causes horizontal and vertical components of velocity to be affected by buoyancy force. To include this effect, calculation procedure of macroscopic properties by LBM is changed and collision term of Boltzmann equation is modified. A computer program is developed to simulate this problem using BGK model of lattice Boltzmann method. The effects of the variations of Richardson number and inclination angle on the thermal and flow behavior of the fluid inside the cavity are investigated. The results are presented as velocity and temperature profiles, stream function contours and isotherms. It is concluded that LBM has good potential to simulate mixed convection heat transfer problems.

Periodic Mixed Convection of a Nanofluid in a Cavity with Top Lid Sinusoidal Motion
The periodic mixed convection of a water-copper nanofluid inside a rectangular cavity with aspect ratio of 3 is investigated numerically. The temperature of the bottom wall of the cavity is assumed greater than the temperature of the top lid which oscillates horizontally with the velocity defined as u = u0 sin (ω t). The effects of Richardson number, Ri, and volume fraction of nanoparticles on the flow and thermal behavior of the nanofluid are investigated. Velocity and temperature profiles, streamlines and isotherms are presented. It is observed that when Ri < 1, heat transfer rate is much greater than when Ri > 1. The higher value of Ri corresponds to a lower value of the amplitude of the oscillation of Num in the steady periodic state. Moreover, increasing the volume fraction of the nanoparticles increases the heat transfer rate.
Conjugate Heat transfer over an Unsteady Stretching Sheet Mixed Convection with Magnetic Effect
A conjugate heat transfer for steady two-dimensional mixed convection with magnetic hydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an incompressible quiescent fluid over an unsteady thermal forming stretching sheet has been studied. A parameter, M, which is used to represent the dominance of the magnetic effect has been presented in governing equations. The similar transformation and an implicit finite-difference method have been used to analyze the present problem. The numerical solutions of the flow velocity distributions, temperature profiles, the wall unknown values of f''(0) and '(θ (0) for calculating the heat transfer of the similar boundary-layer flow are carried out as functions of the unsteadiness parameter (S), the Prandtl number (Pr), the space-dependent parameter (A) and temperature-dependent parameter (B) for heat source/sink and the magnetic parameter (M). The effects of these parameters have also discussed. At the results, it will produce greater heat transfer effect with a larger Pr and M, S, A, B will reduce heat transfer effects. At last, conjugate heat transfer for the free convection with a larger G has a good heat transfer effect better than a smaller G=0.
Mixed Convection in a Vertical Heated Channel: Influence of the Aspect Ratio
In mechanical and environmental engineering, mixed convection is a frequently encountered thermal fluid phenomenon which exists in atmospheric environment, urban canopy flows, ocean currents, gas turbines, heat exchangers, and computer chip cooling systems etc... . This paper deals with a numerical investigation of mixed convection in a vertical heated channel. This flow results from the mixing of the up-going fluid along walls of the channel with the one issued from a flat nozzle located in its entry section. The fluiddynamic and heat-transfer characteristics of vented vertical channels are investigated for constant heat-flux boundary conditions, a Rayleigh number equal to 2.57 1010, for two jet Reynolds number Re=3 103 and 2104 and the aspect ratio in the 8-20 range. The system of governing equations is solved with a finite volumes method and an implicit scheme. The obtained results show that the turbulence and the jet-wall interaction activate the heat transfer, as does the drive of ambient air by the jet. For low Reynolds number Re=3 103, the increase of the aspect Ratio enhances the heat transfer of about 3%, however; for Re=2 104, the heat transfer enhancement is of about 12%. The numerical velocity, pressure and temperature fields are post-processed to compute the quantities of engineering interest such as the induced mass flow rate, and average Nusselt number, in terms of Rayleigh, Reynolds numbers and dimensionless geometric parameters are presented.
Mixed Convection in a 2D-channel with a Co- Flowing Fluid Injection: Influence of the Jet Position
Numerical study of a plane jet occurring in a vertical heated channel is carried out. The aim is to explore the influence of the forced flow, issued from a flat nozzle located in the entry section of a channel, on the up-going fluid along the channel walls. The Reynolds number based on the nozzle width and the jet velocity ranges between 3 103 and 2.104; whereas, the Grashof number based on the channel length and the wall temperature difference is 2.57 1010. Computations are established for a symmetrically heated channel and various nozzle positions. The system of governing equations is solved with a finite volumes method. The obtained results show that the jet-wall interactions activate the heat transfer, the position variation modifies the heat transfer especially for low Reynolds numbers: the heat transfer is enhanced for the adjacent wall; however it is decreased for the opposite one. The numerical velocity and temperature fields are post-processed to compute the quantities of engineering interest such as the induced mass flow rate, and the Nusselt number along the plates.
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