Investigating the Accessibility of Physically Disabled Individuals in Corporate Offices: A Case of Dhaka City
The purpose of this study is to bring light to the current state of the working environments in the corporate environment and other such institutions with a particular focus on the Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) and its guidelines for accommodating the physically disabled. Data were collected via semi-formal interviews, site visits and focus groups conducted using a preset questionnaire as the guidelines. After conducting surveys at corporate offices of 20 organizations from major commercial sectors in Dhaka city, the auditing showed many inadequacies, as aside from the larger corporate offices, the offices have little to no accessibility for the physically disabled. This study hopes to shed light on the fact that the existing BNBCs lack of emphasis on ensuring the accessibility of the handicapped in corporate buildings in the hope that, in the future, the physically disabled will have greater opportunities at being productive members of the workforce.
Investigation of Seismic T-Resisting Frame with Shear and Flexural Yield of Horizontal Plate Girders
There are some limitations in common structural systems, such as providing appropriate lateral stiffness, adequate ductility, and architectural openings at the same time. Consequently, the concept of T-Resisting Frame (TRF) has been introduced to overcome all these deficiencies. The configuration of TRF in this study is a Vertical Plate Girder (VPG) which is placed within the span and two Horizontal Plate Girders (HPGs) connect VPG to side columns at each story level by the use of rigid connections. System performance is improved by utilizing rigid connections in side columns base joint. Shear yield of HPGs causes energy dissipation in TRF; therefore, high plastic deformation in web of HPGs and VPG affects the ductility of system. Moreover, in order to prevent shear buckling in web of TRF’s members and appropriate criteria for placement of web stiffeners are applied. In this paper, an experimental study is conducted by applying cyclic loading and using finite element models and numerical studies such as push over method are assessed on shear and flexural yielding of HPGs. As a result, seismic parameters indicate adequate lateral stiffness, and high ductility factor of 6.73, and HPGs’ shear yielding achieved as a proof of TRF’s better performance.
The Effect of Cracking on Stiffness of Shear Walls under Lateral Loads
The lateral stiffness of buildings is one of the most important properties which define resistance to displacements under lateral loads. Moreover, it has a great impact on the natural period of the structures. Different stiffness’s values can ultimately affect the behavior of the structure under the seismic load and the lateral forces that will be applied to it. In this study the effect of cracking is studied on 2D shell thin cantilever shear wall by using ETABS. Multi linear elastic analysis is conducted with the ACI stiffness modifiers for each analysis step. The results showed that the cracks affect the value of the drift especially at the top of the high rise buildings and this will change the lateral stiffness and so change the fundamental period of the structures which lead to change in the applied shear force that comes from the earthquake. Finally, this study emphasizes that the finite element method can be considered as a good tool to predict the tensile stresses in the elements.
Effect of Shear Wall Openings on the Fundamental Period of Shear Wall Structures
A common approach in resisting lateral forces is the use of reinforced concrete shear walls in buildings. These walls represent the main elements to resist the lateral forces due to their large strength and stiffness. However, such walls may contain many openings due to functional requirements, and this may largely affect the overall lateral stiffness of them. It is thus of prime importance to quantify the effect of openings on the dynamic performance of the shear walls. SAP2000 structural analysis program is used as a main source after verifying the results. This study is made by using linear elastic analysis. The results are compared to ASCE7-16 code empirical equations for estimating the fundamental period of shear wall structures. Finally, statistical regression is used to fit an equation for estimating the increase in the fundamental period of shear-walled regular structures due to windows openings in the walls.
, earthquake-resistant design
, finite element
, fundamental period
, lateral stiffness
, linear analysis
, modal analysis
, shear wall
FEM Study of Different Methods of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer Strengthening of a High Strength Concrete Beam-Column Connection
In reinforced concrete (RC) structures, beam-column connection region has a considerable effect on the behavior of structures. Using fiber reinforcement polymer (FRP) for the strengthening of connections in RC structures can be one of the solutions to retrofitting this zone which result in the enhanced behavior of structure. In this paper, these changes in behavior by using FRP for high strength concrete beam-column connection have been studied by finite element modeling. The concrete damage plasticity (CDP) model has been used to analyze the RC. The results illustrated a considerable development in load-bearing capacity but also a noticeable reduction in ductility. The study also assesses these qualities for several modes of strengthening and suggests the most effective mode of strengthening. Using FRP in flexural zone and FRP with 45-degree oriented fibers in shear zone of joint showed the most significant change in behavior.
Introduce Applicability of Multi-Layer Perceptron to Predict the Behaviour of Semi-Interlocking Masonry Panel
The Semi Interlocking Masonry (SIM) system has been developed in Masonry Research Group at the University of Newcastle, Australia. The main purpose of this system is to enhance the seismic resistance of framed structures with masonry panels. In this system, SIM panels dissipate energy through the sliding friction between rows of SIM units during earthquake excitation. This paper aimed to find the applicability of artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the displacement behaviour of the SIM panel under out-of-plane loading. The general concept of ANN needs to be trained by related force-displacement data of SIM panel. The overall data to train and test the network are 70 increments of force-displacement from three tests, which comprise of none input nodes. The input data contain height and length of panels, height, length and width of the brick and friction and geometry angle of brick along the compressive strength of the brick with the lateral load applied to the panel. The aim of designed network is prediction displacement of the SIM panel by Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP). The mean square error (MSE) of network was 0.00042 and the coefficient of determination (R2) values showed the 0.91. The result revealed that the ANN has significant agreement to predict the SIM panel behaviour.
The Design of Safe Spaces in Healthcare Facilities Vulnerable to Tornado Impact in Central US
In the wake of recent disasters happening around the world such as earthquake in Italy (January, 2017); hurricanes in the United States (US) (September 2016 and September 2017); and compounding disasters in Haiti (September 2010 and September 2016); to our best knowledge, never has the world seen the need to work on preemptive rather than reactionary measures to salvage this situation than now. Tornadoes are natural hazards that mostly affect mid-western and central states in the US. Tornadoes, like all natural hazards such as hurricanes, earthquakes, floods and others, are very destructive and result in massive destruction to homes, cause billions of dollars in damage and claims many lives. Healthcare facilities in general are vulnerable to disasters, and therefore, the safety of patients, health workers and those who come in to seek shelter should be a priority. The focus of this study is to assess disaster management measures instituted by healthcare facilities. Thus, the sole aim of the study is to examine the vulnerabilities and the design of safe spaces in healthcare facilities in Central US. Objectives that guide the study are to primarily identify the impacts of tornadoes in hospitals and to assess the structural design or specifications of safe spaces. St. John’s Regional Medical Center, now Mercy Hospital in Joplin, is used as a case study. Preliminary results show that the lateral base shear of the proposed design to be 684.24 ton (1508.49kip) for the safe space. Findings from this work will be used to make recommendations about the design of safe spaces for health care facilities in Central US.
Evaluating the Appropriateness of Passive Techniques Used in Achieving Thermal Comfort in Buildings: A Case of Lautech College of Health Sciences, Ogbomoso
Architectural design is a complex process especially when the issue of user’s comfort, building sustainability and energy efficiency needs to be addressed. The current energy challenge and the seek for an environment where users will have a more physiological and psychological comfort in this part of the world have led various researchers to constantly explore the concept of passive design techniques. Passive techniques are design strategies used in regulating building indoor climates and improving users comfort without the use of energy driven devices. This paper describes and analyses the significance of passive techniques on indoor climates and their impact on thermal comfort of building users using LAUTECH College of health sciences Ogbomoso as a case study. The study aims at assessing the appropriateness of the passive strategies used in achieving comfort in their buildings with a view to evaluate their adequacy and effectiveness and suggesting how comfortable their building users are. This assessment was carried out through field survey and questionnaires and findings revealed that strategies such as Orientation, Spacing, Courtyards, window positioning and choice of landscape adopted are inadequate while only fins and roof overhangs are adequate. The finding also revealed that 72% of building occupants feel hot discomfort in their various spaces and hence have the urge to get fresh air from outside during work hours. The Mahoney table was used to provide appropriate architectural design recommendations to guide future designers in the study area.
Digital Geomatics Trends for Production and Updating Topographic Map by Using Digital Generalization Procedures
An accuracy digital map must satisfy the users for two main requirements, first, map must be visually readable and second, all the map elements must be in a good representation. These two requirements hold especially true for map generalization which aims at simplifying the representation of cartographic data. Different scales of maps are very important for any decision in any maps with different scales such as master plan and all the infrastructures maps in civil engineering. Cartographer cannot project the data onto a piece of paper, but he has to worry about its readability. The map layout of any geodatabase is very important, this layout is help to read, analyze or extract information from the map. There are many principles and guidelines of generalization that can be find in the cartographic literature. A manual reduction method for generalization depends on experience of map maker and therefore produces incompatible results. Digital generalization, rooted from conventional cartography, has become an increasing concern in both Geographic Information System (GIS) and mapping fields. This project is intended to review the state of the art of the new technology and help to understand the needs and plans for the implementation of digital generalization capability as well as increase the knowledge of production topographic maps.
Evaluating Urban Land Expansion Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing in Kabul City, Afghanistan
With massive population expansion and fast economic development in last decade, urban land has increasingly expanded and formed high informal development territory in Kabul city. This paper investigates integrated urbanization trends in Kabul city since the formation of the basic structure of the present city using GIS and remote sensing. This study explores the spatial and temporal difference of urban land expansion and land use categories among different time intervals, 1964-1978 and 1978-2008 from 1964 to 2008 in Kabul city. Furthermore, the goal of this paper is to understand the extent of urban land expansion and the factors driving urban land expansion in Kabul city. Many factors like population expansion, the return of refugees from neighboring countries and significant economic growth of the city affected urban land expansion. Across all the study area urban land expansion rate, population expansion rate and economic growth rate have been compared to analyze the relationship of driving forces with urban land expansion. Based on urban land change data detected by interpreting land use maps, it was found that in the entire study area the urban territory has been expanded by 14 times between 1964 and 2008.
A Note on Metallurgy at Khanak: An Indus Site in Tosham Mining Area, Haryana
Recent discoveries of Bronze Age artefacts, tin slag, furnaces and crucibles, together with new geological evidence on tin deposits in Tosham area of Bhiwani district in Haryana (India) provide the opportunity to survey the evidence for possible sources of tin and the use of bronze in the Harappan sites of north western India. Earlier, Afghanistan emerged as the most promising eastern source of tin utilized by Indus Civilization copper-smiths. Our excavations conducted at Khanak near Tosham mining area during 2014 and 2016 revealed ample evidence of metallurgical activities as attested by the occurrence of slag, ores and evidences of ashes and fragments of furnaces in addition to the bronze objects. We have conducted petrological, XRD, EDAX, TEM, SEM and metallography on the slag, ores, crucible fragments and bronze objects samples recovered from Khanak excavations. This has given positive indication of mining and metallurgy of poly-mettalic Tin at the site; however, it can only be ascertained after the detailed scientific examination of the materials which is underway. In view of the importance of site, we intend to excavate the site horizontally in future so as to obtain more samples for scientific studies.
Heterogeneous-Resolution and Multi-Source Terrain Builder for CesiumJS WebGL Virtual Globe
The increasing availability of information about earth
surface elevation (Digital Elevation Models DEM) generated from
different sources (remote sensing, Aerial Images, Lidar) poses the
question about how to integrate and make available to the most than
possible audience this huge amount of data. In order to exploit the potential of 3D elevation representation the
quality of data management plays a fundamental role. Due to the high
acquisition costs and the huge amount of generated data, highresolution
terrain surveys tend to be small or medium sized and
available on limited portion of earth. Here comes the need to merge
large-scale height maps that typically are made available for free at
worldwide level, with very specific high resolute datasets. One the
other hand, the third dimension increases the user experience and the
data representation quality, unlocking new possibilities in data
analysis for civil protection, real estate, urban planning, environment
monitoring, etc. The open-source 3D virtual globes, which are
trending topics in Geovisual Analytics, aim at improving the
visualization of geographical data provided by standard web services
or with proprietary formats. Typically, 3D Virtual globes like do not
offer an open-source tool that allows the generation of a terrain
elevation data structure starting from heterogeneous-resolution terrain
datasets. This paper describes a technological solution aimed to set
up a so-called “Terrain Builder”. This tool is able to merge
heterogeneous-resolution datasets, and to provide a multi-resolution
worldwide terrain services fully compatible with CesiumJS and
therefore accessible via web using traditional browser without any
Examining the Change of Power Transmission Line in Urban Regeneration with Geographical Information System
In this study, spatial differences of Power Transmission Line (PTL) and effects of the situation before and after the urban regeneration are studied by using Geographical Information System (GIS). In addition, a questionable and analyzable structure is acquired by developed system. In the study area many parcels on the PTL were analyzed. The amount of the parcels, which are affected by the negativity of PTL is clearly seen with the aid of generated maps. Some kind of changes are exhibited in the system, which are created by GIS, for instance before urban regeneration PTL was very close to people’s private properties and huge parts of PTL were among the buildings, however; after urban regeneration electricity lines were changed their locations to the underground. According to the results, GIS can be used as a device in planning and managing of PTL in urban regeneration projects and can be used for analyses. By the help of GIS technology, necessary investigations should be carried out in urban regeneration applications for creating sustainable cities.
Selection of Solid Waste Landfill Site Using Geographical Information System (GIS)
Rapid population growth, urbanization and
industrialization are known as the most important factors of
environment problems. Elimination and management of solid wastes
are also within the most important environment problems. One of the
main problems in solid waste management is the selection of the best
site for elimination of solid wastes. Lately, Geographical Information
System (GIS) has been used for easing selection of landfill area. GIS
has the ability of imitating necessary economic, environmental and
political limitations. They play an important role for the site selection
of landfill area as a decision support tool. In this study; map layers will be studied for minimum effect of
environmental, social and cultural factors and maximum effect for
engineering/economic factors for site selection of landfill areas and
using GIS for a decision support mechanism in solid waste landfill
areas site selection will be presented in Aksaray/Turkey city,
Güzelyurt district practice.
Influence of Replacement Used Reference Coordinate System for Georeferencing of the Old Map of Europe
The article describes the effect of the replacement of
the used reference coordinate system in the georeferencing of an old
map of Europe. The map was georeferenced into three types of
projection – the equal-area conic (original cartographic projection),
cylindrical Plate Carrée and cylindrical Mercator map projection. The
map was georeferenced by means of the affine and the second-order
polynomial transformation. The resulting georeferenced raster
datasets from the Plate Carrée and Mercator projection were
projected into the equal-area conic projection by means of projection
equations. The output is the comparison of drawn graphics, the
magnitude of standard deviations for individual projections and types
Building an Interactive Web-Based GIS System for Planning of Geological Survey Works
The planning of geological survey works is an
iterative process which involves planner, geologist, civil engineer and
other stakeholders, who perform different roles and have different
points of view. Traditionally, the team used paper maps or CAD
drawings to present the proposal which is not an efficient way to
present and share idea on the site investigation proposal such as
sitting of borehole location or seismic survey lines. This paper
focuses on how a GIS approach can be utilised to develop a webbased
system to support decision making process in the planning of
geological survey works and also to plan site activities carried out by
Singapore Geological Office (SGO). The authors design a framework
of building an interactive web-based GIS system, and develop a
prototype, which enables the users to obtain rapidly existing
geological information and also to plan interactively borehole
locations and seismic survey lines via a web browser. This prototype
system is used daily by SGO and has shown to be effective in
increasing efficiency and productivity as the time taken in the
planning of geological survey works is shortened. The prototype
system has been developed using the ESRI ArcGIS API 3.7 for Flex
which is based on the ArcGIS 10.2.1 platform.
The Effect of Land Cover on Movement of Vehicles in the Terrain
This article deals with geographical conditions in
terrain and their effect on the movement of vehicles, their effect on
speed and safety of movement of people and vehicles. Finding of the
optimal routes outside the communication is studied in the Army
environment, but it occur in civilian as well, primarily in crisis
situation, or by the provision of assistance when natural disasters
such as floods, fires, storms etc., have happened. These movements
require the optimization of routes when effects of geographical
factors should be included. The most important factor is the surface
of a terrain. It is based on several geographical factors as are slopes,
soil conditions, micro-relief, a type of surface and meteorological
conditions. Their mutual impact has been given by coefficient of
deceleration. This coefficient can be used for the commander`s
decision. New approaches and methods of terrain testing,
mathematical computing, mathematical statistics or cartometric
investigation are necessary parts of this evaluation.
Use of Recycled PVB as a Protection against Carbonation
The paper is focused on testing of the poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) layer which had the function of a CO2 insulating protection against concrete and mortar carbonation. The barrier efficiency of PVB was verified by the measurement of diffusion characteristics. Two different types of PVB were tested; original extruded PVB sheet and PVB sheet made from PVB dispersion which was obtained from recycled windshields. The work deals with the testing CO2 diffusion when polymer sheets were exposed to a CO2 atmosphere (10% v/v CO2) with 0% RH. The excellent barrier capability against CO2 permeability of original and also recycled types of PVB layers was observed. This application of PVB waste can bring advantageous use in civil engineering and significant environmental contribution.
A Simple Electronic Curvy Length Measurement System: Application to Geography
This article describes an interesting and inexpensive laboratory experiment for undergraduate students of electronics, geography and related disciplines. The objective of the proposed experiment is to improve the students’ exposure on the basic principles of instrumentation and to demonstrate an electronic measurement system. A simple electronic curvy length measurement system is presented here. Such a system can be used to measure curvy lengths e.g. length of a river, road or railway line etc. from topographical map. The proposed system is composed of simple functional blocks which are usually demonstrated in laboratory or in theory course of electronics at the undergraduate level. The experiment is assigned to a group of students and it is found that the experiment can fulfill its objectives with high degree of satisfaction.
A Novel GNSS Integrity Augmentation System for Civil and Military Aircraft
This paper presents a novel Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Avionics Based Integrity Augmentation (ABIA) system architecture suitable for civil and military air platforms, including Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). Taking the move from previous research on high-accuracy Differential GNSS (DGNSS) systems design, integration and experimental flight test activities conducted at the Italian Air Force Flight Test Centre (CSV-RSV), our research focused on the development of a novel approach to the problem of GNSS ABIA for mission- and safety-critical air vehicle applications and for multi-sensor avionics architectures based on GNSS. Detailed mathematical models were developed to describe the main causes of GNSS signal outages and degradation in flight, namely: antenna obscuration, multipath, fading due to adverse geometry and Doppler shift. Adopting these models in association with suitable integrity thresholds and guidance algorithms, the ABIA system is able to generate integrity cautions (predictive flags) and warnings (reactive flags), as well as providing steering information to the pilot and electronic commands to the aircraft/UAS flight control systems. These features allow real-time avoidance of safety-critical flight conditions and fast recovery of the required navigation performance in case of GNSS data losses. In other words, this novel ABIA system addresses all three cornerstones of GNSS integrity augmentation in mission- and safety-critical applications: prediction (caution flags), reaction (warning flags) and correction (alternate flight path computation).
Application of a Dual Satellite Geolocation System on Locating Sweeping Interference
This paper describes an application of a dual satellite
geolocation (DSG) system on identifying and locating the unknown
source of uplink sweeping interference. The geolocation system
integrates the method of joint time difference of arrival (TDOA) and
frequency difference of arrival (FDOA) with ephemeris correction
technique which successfully demonstrated high accuracy in
interference source location. The factors affecting the location error
were also discussed.
Simulation of Non-Linear Behavior of Shear Wall under Seismic Loading
The seismic response of steel shear wall system considering nonlinearity effects using finite element method is investigated in this paper. The non-linear finite element analysis has potential as usable and reliable means for analyzing of civil structures with the availability of computer technology. In this research the large displacements and materially nonlinear behavior of shear wall is presented with developing of finite element code. A numerical model based on the finite element method for the seismic analysis of shear wall is presented with developing of finite element code in this research. To develop the finite element code, the standard Galerkin weighted residual formulation is used. Two-dimensional plane stress model and total Lagrangian formulation was carried out to present the shear wall response and the Newton-Raphson method is applied for the solution of nonlinear transient equations. The presented model in this paper can be developed for analysis of civil engineering structures with different material behavior and complicated geometry.
The Study of using Public Participation Geographic Information System in Indigenous Mapping
Current practice of indigenous Mapping production based on GIS, are mostly produced by professional GIS personnel. Given such persons maintain control over data collection and authoring, it is possible to conceive errors due to misrepresentation or cognitive misunderstanding, causing map production inconsistencies. In order to avoid such issues, this research into tribal GIS interface focuses not on customizing interfaces for individual tribes, but rather generalizing the interface and features based on indigenous tribal user needs. The methods employed differs from the traditional expert top-down approach, and instead gaining deeper understanding into indigenous Mappings and user needs, prior to applying mapping techniques and feature development.
Using the Geographic Information System (GIS) in the Sustainable Transportation
The significance of emissions from the road transport
sector (such as air pollution, noise, etc) has grown considerably in
recent years. In Australia, 14.3% of national greenhouse gas
emissions in 2000 were the transport sector-s share which 12.9% of
net national emissions were related to a road transport alone.
Considering the growing attention to the green house gas(GHG)
emissions, this paper attempts to provide air pollution modeling
aspects of environmental consequences of the road transport by using
one of the best computer based tools including the Geographic
Information System (GIS). In other word, in this study, GIS and its
applications is explained, models which are used to model air
pollution and GHG emissions from vehicles are described and GIS is
applied in real case study that attempts to forecast GHG emission
from people who travel to work by car in 2031 in Melbourne for
analysing results as thematic maps.
Soil Improvement using Cement Dust Mixture
Day by day technology increases and problems
associated with this technology also increase. Several researches
were carried out to investigate the deployment of such material safely
in geotechnical engineering in particular and civil engineering in
general. However, different types of waste material have such as
cement duct, fly ash and slag been proven to be suitable in several
applications. In this research cement dust mixed with different
percentages of sand will be used in some civil engineering
application as will be explained later in this paper throughout filed
and laboratory test. The used mixer (waste material with sand) prove
high performance, durability to environmental condition, low cost
and high benefits. At higher cement dust ratio, small cement ratio is
valuable for compressive strength and permeability. Also at small
cement dust ratio higher cement ratio is valuable for compressive
Spatial Distribution and Risk Assessment of As, Hg, Co and Cr in Kaveh Industrial City, using Geostatistic and GIS
The concentrations of As, Hg, Co, Cr and Cd were
tested for each soil sample, and their spatial patterns were analyzed
by the semivariogram approach of geostatistics and geographical
information system technology. Multivariate statistic approaches
(principal component analysis and cluster analysis) were used to
identify heavy metal sources and their spatial pattern. Principal
component analysis coupled with correlation between heavy metals
showed that primary inputs of As, Hg and Cd were due to
anthropogenic while, Co, and Cr were associated with pedogenic
factors. Ordinary kriging was carried out to map the spatial patters of
heavy metals. The high pollution sources evaluated was related with
usage of urban and industrial wastewater. The results of this study
helpful for risk assessment of environmental pollution for decision
making for industrial adjustment and remedy soil pollution.
Application of Geographic Information Systems(GIS) in the History of Cartography
This paper discusses applications of a revolutionary
information technology, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), in
the field of the history of cartography by examples, including
assessing accuracy of early maps, establishing a database of places
and historical administrative units in history, integrating early maps
in GIS or digital images, and analyzing social, political, and
economic information related to production of early maps. GIS
provides a new mean to evaluate the accuracy of early maps. Four
basic steps using GIS for this type of study are discussed. In addition,
several historical geographical information systems are introduced.
These include China Historical Geographic Information Systems
(CHGIS), the United States National Historical Geographic
Information System (NHGIS), and the Great Britain Historical
Geographical Information System. GIS also provides digital means to
display and analyze the spatial information on the early maps or to
layer them with modern spatial data. How GIS relational data
structure may be used to analyze social, political, and economic
information related to production of early maps is also discussed in
this paper. Through discussion on these examples, this paper reveals
value of GIS applications in this field.
A Study of Geographic Information System Combining with GPS and 3G for Parking Guidance and Information System
With the increase of economic behavior and the upgrade
of living standar, the ratio for people in Taiwan who own automobiles
and motorcycles have recently increased with multiples. Therefore,
parking issues will be a big challenge to facilitate traffic network and
ensure urban life quality. The Parking Guidance and Information
System is one of important systems for Advanced Traveler Information
Services (ATIS). This research proposes a parking guidance and
information system which integrates GPS and 3G network for a map on
the Geographic Information System to solution inadequate of roadside
information kanban. The system proposed in this study mainly includes
Parking Host, Parking Guidance and Information Server, Geographic
Map and Information System as well as Parking Guidance and
Information Browser. The study results show this system can increase
driver-s efficiency to find parking space and efficiently enhance
parking convenience in comparison with roadside kanban system.
Geostatistical Analysis and Mapping of Groundlevel Ozone in a Medium Sized Urban Area
Ground-level tropospheric ozone is one of the air
pollutants of most concern. It is mainly produced by photochemical
processes involving nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds
in the lower parts of the atmosphere. Ozone levels become
particularly high in regions close to high ozone precursor emissions
and during summer, when stagnant meteorological conditions with
high insolation and high temperatures are common.
In this work, some results of a study about urban ozone
distribution patterns in the city of Badajoz, which is the largest and
most industrialized city in Extremadura region (southwest Spain) are
shown. Fourteen sampling campaigns, at least one per month, were
carried out to measure ambient air ozone concentrations, during
periods that were selected according to favourable conditions to
ozone production, using an automatic portable analyzer.
Later, to evaluate the ozone distribution at the city, the measured
ozone data were analyzed using geostatistical techniques. Thus, first,
during the exploratory analysis of data, it was revealed that they were
distributed normally, which is a desirable property for the subsequent
stages of the geostatistical study. Secondly, during the structural
analysis of data, theoretical spherical models provided the best fit for
all monthly experimental variograms. The parameters of these
variograms (sill, range and nugget) revealed that the maximum
distance of spatial dependence is between 302-790 m and the
variable, air ozone concentration, is not evenly distributed in reduced
distances. Finally, predictive ozone maps were derived for all points
of the experimental study area, by use of geostatistical algorithms
(kriging). High prediction accuracy was obtained in all cases as
cross-validation showed. Useful information for hazard assessment
was also provided when probability maps, based on kriging
interpolation and kriging standard deviation, were produced.
Static Single Point Positioning Using The Extended Kalman Filter
Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is widely used today in the areas of geodesy and topography as well as in aeronautics mainly for military purposes. Due to the military usage of GPS, full access and use of this technology is being denied to the civilian user who must then work with a less accurate version. In this paper we focus on the estimation of the receiver coordinates ( X, Y, Z ) and its clock bias ( δtr ) of a fixed point based on pseudorange measurements of a single GPS receiver. Utilizing the instantaneous coordinates of just 4 satellites and their clock offsets, by taking into account the atmospheric delays, we are able to derive a set of pseudorange equations. The estimation of the four unknowns ( X, Y, Z , δtr ) is achieved by introducing an extended Kalman filter that processes, off-line, all the data collected from the receiver. Higher performance of position accuracy is attained by appropriate tuning of the filter noise parameters and by including other forms of biases.