International Science Index

International Journal of Urban and Civil Engineering

The Plight of the Rohingyas: Design Guidelines to Accommodate Displaced People in Bangladesh
The sensitive issue of a large-scale entry of Rohingya refugees to Bangladesh has arisen again since August of 2017. Incited by ethnic and religious conflict, the Rohingyas—an ethnic group concentrated in the north-west state of Rakhine in Myanmar—have been fleeing to what is now Bangladesh from as early as the late 1700s in four main exoduses. This long-standing persecution has recently escalated, and accommodating the recent wave of exodus has been especially challenging due to the sheer volume of a million refugees concentrated in refugee camps in two small administrative units (upazilas) in the south-east of the country: the host area. This drastic change in the host area’s social fabric is putting a lot of strain on the country’s economic, demographic and environmental stability, and security. Although Bangladesh’s long-term experience with disaster management has enabled it to respond rapidly to the crisis, the government is failing to cope with this enormous problem and has taken insufficient steps towards improving the living conditions to inhibit the inflow of more refugees. On top of that, the absence of a comprehensive national refugee policy, and the density of the structures of the camps are constricting the upgrading of the shelters to international standards. As of December 2016, the combined number of internally displaced persons (IDPs) due to conflict and violence (stock), and new displacements due to disasters (flow) in Bangladesh had exceeded 1 million. These numbers have increased dramatically in the last few months. Moreover, by 2050, Bangladesh will have as much as 25 million climate refugees just from its coastal districts. To enhance the resilience of the vulnerable, it is crucial to methodically factorize further interventions between Disaster Risk Reduction for Resilience (DRR) and the concept of Building Back Better (BBB) in the rehabilitation-reconstruction period. Considering these points, this paper provides a palette of options for design guidelines related to the living spaces and infrastructures for refugees. This will encourage the development of national standards for refugee camps, and the national and local level rehabilitation-reconstruction practices. Unhygienic living conditions, vulnerability, and the general lack of control over life are pervasive throughout the camps. This paper, therefore, proposes site-specific strategic and physical planning and design for shelters for refugees in Bangladesh that will lead to sustainable living environments through the following: a) site survey of existing two registered and one makeshift unregistered refugee camps to document and study their physical conditions, b) questionnaires and semi-structured focus group discussions carried out among the refugees and stakeholders to understand what the lived experiences and needs are; and c) combining the findings with international minimum standards for shelter and settlement from International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent (IFRC), Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). These proposals include temporary shelter solutions that balance between lived spaces and regimented, repetitive plans using readily available and cheap materials, erosion control and slope stabilization strategies, and most importantly, coping mechanisms for the refugees to be self-reliant and resilient.
A Meaning-Making Approach to Understand the Relationship between the Physical Built Environment of the Heritage Sites including the Intangible Values and the Design Development of the Public Open Spaces: Case Study Liverpool Pier Head
Heritage-led regeneration developments have been considered as one of the cornerstones of the economic and social revival of historic towns and cities in the UK. However, this approach has proved its deficiency within the development of Liverpool World Heritage site. This is due to the conflict between sustaining the tangible and intangible values as well as achieving the aimed economic developments. Accordingly, the development of such areas is influenced by a top-down approach which considers heritage as consumable experience and urban regeneration as the economic development for it. This neglects the heritage sites characteristics and values as well as the design criteria for public open spaces that overlap with the heritage sites. Currently, knowledge regarding the relationship between the physical built environment of the heritage sites including the intangible values and the design development of the public open spaces is limited. Public open spaces have been studied from different perspectives such as increasing walkability, a source of social cohesion, provide a good quality of life as well as understanding users’ perception. While heritage sites have been discussed heavily on how to maintain the physical environment, understanding the courses of threats and how to be protected. In addition to users’ experiences and motivations of visiting such areas. Furthermore, new approaches tried to overcome the gap such as the historic urban landscape approach. This approach is focusing on the entire human environment with all its tangible and intangible qualities. However, this research aims to understand the relationship between the heritage sites and public open spaces and how the overlap of the design and development of both could be used as a quality to enhance the heritage sites and improve users’ experience. A meaning-making approach will be used in order to understand and articulate how the development of Liverpool World Heritage site and its value could influence and shape the design of public open space Pier Head in order to attract a different level of tourists to be used as a tool for economic development. Consequently, this will help in bridging the gap between the planning and conservation areas’ policies through an understanding of how flexible is the system in order to adopt alternative approaches for the design and development strategies for those areas.
A Needs-Based Top-Down Approach for Tailor Made Smart City Roadmap
All megacities are not only under the pressure of common urbanization and growth problems but also dealing with different challenges according to their specific circumstances. However, the majority of cities focuses mainly on popular smart city projects, which are usually driven by strong private sector, regardless of their characteristics, each city needs to develop customized projects within a tailor-made smart city roadmap to be able to solve its own challenges. Smart city manifest, helps citizens to feel the action better than good reading smart city vision statements, which consists of five elements; namely purpose, values, mission, vision, and strategy. This study designs a methodology for smart city roadmap based on a top-down approach, breaking down of smart city manifest to feasible projects for a systematic smart city transformation. This methodology was implemented in Istanbul smart city transformation program which includes smart city literature review, current state analysis, roadmap, and architecture projects, respectively. Istanbul smart city roadmap project followed an extensive literature review of certain leading smart cities around the world and benchmarking of the city’s current state using well known smart city indices. In the project, needs of citizens and service providers of the city were identified via stakeholder, persona and social media analysis. The project aimed to develop smart city projects targeting fulfilling related needs by implementing a gap analysis between current state and foreseen plans. As a result, in 11 smart city domains and enablers; 24 strategic objectives, 50 programs, and 101 projects were developed with the support of 183 smart city stakeholder entities and based on 125 citizen persona profiles and last one-year social media analysis. In conclusion, the followed methodology helps cities to identify and prioritize their needs and plan for long-term sustainable development, despite limited resources.
An Investigation into the Impact of the Relocation of Tannery Industry on Water Quality Parameters of Urban River Buriganga
The study deals with an investigation into the impact of the relocation of tannery industry on water quality parameters of Buriganga. For this purpose, previous records have been collected from authentic data resources and for the attainment of present values, several samples were collected from three major locations of the Buriganga River during summer and winter seasons in 2018 to determine the distribution and variation of water quality parameters. Samples were collected six ft below the river water surface. Analysis indicates slightly acidic to slightly alkaline (6.8-7.49) in nature. Bio-Chemical Oxygen Demand, Total Dissolved Solids, TS & TSS has been found greater in summer. On the other hand, Dissolved Oxygen is found greater in rainy seasons. Relocation shows improvement in water quality parameters. Though the improvement related to the relocation of tannery industry is not adequate to turn the water body to be an inhabitable place for aquatic lives.
Numerical Investigation of Wave Run-Up on Curved Dikes
Due to the climatic change and the usage of coastal areas, there is an increasing risk of dike failures along the coast worldwide. Wave run-up plays a key role in planning and design of a coastal structure. The coastal dike lines are bent either due to geological characteristics or due to influence of anthropogenic activities. The effect of the curvature of coastal dikes on wave run-up and overtopping is not yet investigated. The scope of this research is to find the effects of the dike curvature on wave run-up by employing numerical model studies for various dike opening angles. Numerical simulation is carried out using DualSPHysics, a meshless method, and OpenFOAM, a mesh-based method. The numerical results of the wave run-up on a curved dike and the wave transformation process for various opening angles, wave attacks, and wave parameters will be compared and discussed. This research aims to contribute a more precise analysis and understanding the influence of the curvature in the dike line and thus ensuring a higher level of protection in the future development of coastal structures.
In Search of Seaplanes in Andhra Pradesh: In View of UDAN
The present situation in India envisages that because of the surge in population and the economy, cities are expected to spill over to hinterland areas. The consumption-led factors such as land, labor, etc. will be boosted. Hence, the need for regional connectivity becomes obligatory. But, there is enormous pressure upon the land; proving itself through rising traffic congestion, roads, and railway accidents. Air transport is practical, but due to decreasing availability of land, this will not be a wise solution. What with the introduction of seaplanes in the country which was once the vital asset in the world prior to Second World War. Maldives has proved it. Seaplanes offer natural landing site and are time and cost-efficient. Seaplanes in accordance with UDAN can prove to be the solution in linking various regions with other states. This research paper aims to offer the feasibility analysis along with site justification of the potential areas in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India; for the operation of seaplanes. The standards are taken from the US Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration for the analysis. The conflation of Seaplanes with UDAN will offer an alternate mode of air connectivity, strengthen the transport network by simulation of connectivity to unserved and under-served areas and boost the nation's economy.
The Dialogue between Heritage Conservation and Urban Redevelopment in the City Centre of Developing Countries
Urban development triggers a tipping point of major changes in terms of economy and society. In particular, the land value of city centres where the majority of existing historical areas are located has inevitably soared. Moreover, historical areas of most cities have significant issues caused by the urbanisation, such as the high population density, the traffic congestion, and poor housing conditions, etc. To some extent, these issues are more serious in the developing world. Therefore, the governments of most developing countries have redeveloped their historical areas to maximise economic benefits in the short term and meet the needs of modern life. Obviously, there is a dilemma to balance between redevelopment and conservation in historical areas of the city centre. China is one of the world's fastest-growing economies since the turn of the century, but it is still under the economic and population pressures. As a country with a long history, a large number of historical areas located in the city centre have been faced with the dilemma of how to fulfil an effective dialogue between the heritage conservation and urban redevelopment, to maximise economic benefits and inherit the urban context at the same times. This paper adopts the case study to discuss the real-life phenomenon in detail and the ethnography to explore social-economic activities in different cases. In this paper, four historical sites were chosen, respectively FAW Block in Changchun, Pingjiang Street in Suzhou, Xintiandi Block in Shanghai and Yihe Mansion in Nanjing. These heritage sites located in the centre of different cities. According to the classification of the China City Level, these four cities have been ranked the first three levels (a total of six levels), which includes three municipalities or provincial capitals and one upgrading city. Additionally, these four historical areas are significant heritage sites in the world or China because of their values. Through the in-depth analyses of cases, redevelopment projects in these heritage sites demonstrate four conservation models, which means they reveal the different relationship between heritage redevelopment and urban design in the city centre. To some extent, they could be seen as four dialogues between heritage conservation and urban redevelopment, generalised in China or even in the world. Finally, this paper states that the heritage sites could be seen as the place containing the urban context and socio-economic activities. The paper proposes Placemaking, the urban design concept and approach used in these heritage sites, to shape them into good places, ultimately to realise an effective dialogue between heritage conservation and urban redevelopment for the future.
Different Goals and Strategies of Smart Cities: Comparative Study between European and Asian Countries
In this paper, different goals and the ways to reach smart cities shown in many countries during planning and implementation processes will be discussed. Each country dealt with technologies which have been embedded into space as development of ICTs (information and communication technologies) for their own purposes and by their own ways. For example, European countries tried to adapt technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emission to overcome global warming while US-based global companies focused on the way of life using ICTs such as EasyLiving of Microsoft™ and CoolTown of Hewlett-Packard™ during last decade of 20th century. In the North-East Asian countries, urban space with ICTs were developed in large scale on the viewpoint of capitalism. Ubiquitous city, first introduced in Korea which named after Marc Weiser’s concept of ubiquitous computing pursued new urban development with advanced technologies and high-tech infrastructure including wired and wireless network. Japan has developed smart cities as comprehensive and technology intensive cities which will lead other industries of the nation in the future. Not only the goals and strategies but also new directions to which smart cities are oriented also suggested at the end of the paper. Like a Finnish smart community whose slogan is ‘one more hour a day for citizens,’ recent trend is forwarding everyday lives and cultures of human beings, not capital gains nor physical urban spaces.
From Modelled Design to Reality through Material and Machinery Lab and Field Tests: Porous Concrete Carparks at the Wanda Metropolitano Stadium in Madrid
The first-ever game in the Wanda Metropolitano Stadium, the new home of the Club Atletico de Madrid, was played on September 16, 2017, thanks to the work of a multidisciplinary team that made it possible to combine urban development with sustainability goals. The new football ground sits on a 1.2 km² land owned by the city of Madrid. Its construction has dramatically increased the sealed area of the site (transforming the runoff coefficient from 0.35 to 0.9), and the surrounding sewer network has no capacity for that extra flow. As an alternative to enlarge the existing 2.5 m diameter pipes, it was decided to detain runoff on site by means of an integrated and durable infrastructure that would not blow up the construction cost nor represent a burden on the municipality’s maintenance tasks. Instead of the more conventional option of building a large concrete detention tank, the decision was taken on the use of pervious pavement on the 3013 car parking spaces for sub-surface water storage, a solution aligned with the city water ordinance and the Madrid + Natural project. Making the idea a reality, in only five months and during the summer season (which forced to pour the porous concrete only overnight), was a challenge never faced before in Spain, that required of innovation both at the material as well as the machinery side. The process consisted on: a) defining the characteristics required for the porous concrete (compressive strength of 15 N/mm2 and 20% voids); b) testing of different porous concrete dosages at the construction company laboratory; c) stablishing the cross section in order to provide structural strength and sufficient water detention capacity (20 cm porous concrete over a 5 cm 5/10 gravel, that sits on a 50 cm coarse 40/50 aggregate sub-base separated by a virgin fiber polypropylene geotextile fabric); d) hydraulic computer modelling (using the Full Hydrograph Method based on the Wallingford Procedure) to estimate design peak flows decrease (an average of 69% at the three car parking lots); e) use of a variety of machinery for the application of the porous concrete to achieve both structural strength and permeable surface (including an inverse rotating rolling imported from USA, and the so-called CMI, a sliding concrete paver used in the construction of motorways with rigid pavements); f) full-scale pilots and final construction testing by an accredited laboratory (pavement compressive strength average value of 15 N/mm2 and 0,0032 m/s permeability). The continuous testing and innovating construction process explained in detail within this article, allowed for a growing performance with time, finally proving the use of the CMI valid also for large porous car park applications. All this process resulted in a successful story that converts the Wanda Metropolitano Stadium into a great demonstration site that will help the application of the Spanish Royal Decree 638/2016 (it also counts with rainwater harvesting for grass irrigation).
Subjective Mapping Methodologies: Mapping Local Perceptions with Geographic Information Systems
Participatory GIS (geographic information systems) are designed for community mapping exercises in order to produce spatial representations of local knowledge. Ideally, participatory GIS caters to public participation through the use of spatial data in order to increase community-led policy-and decision-making. Having defined a spatial object, such as a neighborhood, subjective mapping involves attaining a description of the spatial, physical, social and psychological characteristics of that spatial object. This paper highlights an emerging appreciation of the subjective component, particularly in spatial analyses. The beliefs, feelings, and behaviors associated with an urban area reflect its sense of place for an individual or a group. It is important therefore to understand what types of beliefs, emotions, and behavioral patterns are relevant to particular resident, groups and urban scales. In this sense, resident’s emotional attachment to their urban areas motivates civic engagement and facilitates awareness of its strengths and its problems. Similarly, subjective perceptions act in complex ways to influence the formation and maintenance of social identity and quality of life. This paper reports on findings from a case study of immigrant population in Norwegian cities, their residential conditions and their relationship to quality of urban life. Cognitive mapping methodologies are used in this study to understand local perceptions of urban qualities. Thus, measures to alleviate disadvantages and improve quality of urban life are more likely to be effective when they are informed by an understanding of a place as constructed by those who live in it, meaning their subjective perceptions about it.
Analyzing Urban Dynamics of Dire Dawa City, Ethiopia by Using Remote Sensing and Zonal Metrics
To understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and up-to-date representation on urban dynamics is critical for urban planners and policy makers. This research is aimed at studying the spatiotemporal patterns and processes of urban growth of Dire Dawa City’s, Eastern Ethiopia was investigated from 2006 to 2018 by using satellite remote sensing images and zonal metrics. The change detection and zonal metrics were used to determine the land-use land-cover change and characterize the urban sprawl. Multi-temporal multi-sensor satellite images, spot 5 and sentinel 2 for the years of 2006 and 2018, respectively, were used in this study. In order to optimize spatial resolutions, the nearest-neighbor algorithm was used to resemble all the reflectance bands of Sentinel 2 images to the spatial resolution of the 5m image. The land use and land cover types are classified from the satellite images using support vector machine classifier by ENVI 5.1 software. Changes in land-use land-cover and spatial pattern of urban expansion were analyzed by post-classification change detection and zonal metrics, respectively. The result revealed that the built-up area had increased by 61.7% between 2006 and 2018 with an average rate of 70ha per annum, whereas, during the same change periods, vegetation and barren lands decreased by about 10.7% and 26.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the zonal metrics result showed that between 2006 -2018, urban growth was mainly along the northeastern and northern axes following the existing transport network, whereas growth in the southern, southeastern and southwestern was small as compared to other direction. This unprecedented built-up expansion has resulted in an increasingly faster alteration in the landscape composition, causing to structural complexity, which has brought the devastating challenge to planners and policy makers due to lack of time series geospatial information. The result can aid planners, stakeholders, and other interested groups to make the best possible choices regarding spatial resources to achieve an economically prosperous and environmentally sustainable future.
Estimation of the Parameters of Muskingum Methods for the Prediction of the Flood Depth in the Moudjar River Catchment
The objective of the study was based on the hydrological routing modelling for the continuous monitoring of the hydrological situation in the Moudjar River catchment, especially during floods with Hydrologic Engineering Center–Hydrologic Modelling Systems (HEC-HMS). The HEC-GeoHMS was used to transform data from GIS (geographic information system) to HEC-HMS for delineating and modelling the catchment river in order to estimate the runoff volume, which is used as inputs to the hydrological routing model. Two hydrological routing models were used namely Muskingum and Muskingum routing models for conducting this study. In this study, a comparison between the parameters of the Muskingum and Muskingum-Cunge routing models in HEC-HMS were used for modelling flood routing in the Moudjar Rriver catchment and determining the relationship between these parameters and the physical characteristics of the river. The results indicate that the effects of input parameters such as the weighting factor 'X' and travel time 'K' on the output results are more significant, where the Muskingum routing model was more sensitive to input parameters than the Muskingum-Cunge routing model. This study can contribute to understand and improve the knowledge of the mechanisms of river floods, especially in ungauged river catchments.
Transient Performance Evaluation and Control Measures for Oum Azza Pumping Station Case Study
This work presents a case study of water-hammer analysis and control for the Oum Azza pumping station project in the coastal area of Rabat to Casablanca from the dam Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah (SMBA). This is a typical pumping system with a long penstock and is currently at design and executions stages. Since there is no ideal location for construction of protection devices, the protection devices were provisionally designed to protect the whole conveying pipeline. The simulation results for the transient conditions caused by a sudden pumping stopping without including any protection devices, show that there is a negative beyond 1300m to the station 5725m near the arrival of the reservoir, therefore; there is a need for the protection devices to protect the conveying pipeline. To achieve the goal behind the transient flow analysis which is to protect the conveying pipeline system, four scenarios had been investigated in this case study with two types of protecting devices (pressure relief valve and desurging tank with automatic air control). The four scenarios are conceders as with pressure relief valve, with pressure relief valve and a desurging tank with automatic air control, with pressure relief valve and tow desurging tanks with automatic air control and with pressure relief valve and three desurging tanks with automatic air control. The simulation result for the first scenario shows that overpressure corresponding to an instant pumping stopping is reduced from 263m to 240m, and the minimum hydraulic grad line for the length approximately from station 1300m to station 5725m is still below the pipeline profile which means that the pipe must be equipped with another a protective devices for smoothing depressions. The simulation results for the second scenario show that the minimum and maximum pressures envelopes are decreases especially in the depression phase but not effectively protects the conduct in this case study. The minimum pressure increased from -77.7m for the previous scenario to -65.9m for the current scenario. Therefore the pipeline is still requiring additional protective devices; another desurging tank with automatic air control is installed at station2575.84m. The simulation results for the third scenario show that the minimum and maximum pressures envelopes are decreases but not effectively protects the conduct in this case study since the depression is still exist and varies from -0.6m to– 12m. Therefore the pipeline is still requiring additional protective devices; another desurging tank with automatic air control is installed at station 5670.32 m. Examination of the envelope curves of the minimum pressuresresults for the fourth scenario, we noticed that the piezometric pressure along the pipe remains positive over the entire length of the pipe. We can, therefore, conclude that such scenario can provide effective protection for the pipeline.
Seismic Behavior Of Masonry Reinforced Concrete Composite Columns
To provide tall unreinforced brick masonry walls of a century-old existing building with sufficient resistance against earthquake loading actions, additional reinforced concrete columns were integrated into the building at some designated locations and jointed to the existing masonry walls through dowel shear steel bars, resulting in composite structural elements. As conditions at the interface between the existing masonry and newly added reinforced concrete parts were not well grasped and the behavior of such composite elements would be complex, the experimental investigation was carried out. Three relatively large specimens were tested to investigate the overall behavior of brick masonry-reinforced concrete composite elements under lateral cyclic loadings. Confining the brick walls on only one side or on two opposite sides, as well as providing different amounts of dowel shear steel bars at the interface were the main parameters of the investigation. Test results showed that such strengthening provide a good seismic performance even at very large lateral drifts and the investigated amount of shear dowel lead to a good performance level that would result in a considerable cost reduction of the strengthening.
A Systematic Literature Review of Urban Freight Network Design and Distribution Innovations
The traditional network structure of urban freight commonly comprises two types: single-tier and two-tier. In the recent decade, urban development and technological innovations have radically influenced the freight network structure in cities. The private corporations and local authorities have developed numerous network design schemes and emerging logistics concepts to adapt these exogenous alternations. They intend to design a flexible and sustainable freight network to promote the sustainable and livable city. However, these strategies have exploited based on the traditional urban freight network. Also, the urban population growth and city sprawl have led to these structures are unsustainable and inflexible. It has increased the external freight cost and to exacerbating operational pressure of companies. Due to lack of a comprehensive consideration of the network design and the exploration of emerging logistics concepts, the urban freight research appears highly fragmented. Therefore, this paper aims to systematical review the emerging network schemes and distribution innovations in cities, and propose a network structure of urban freight from the future perspective. This paper presents a systematic literature review (SLR), which covers the papers and research works published from the past five years. The articles corpus is associated with the innovative schemes of freight network design and the emerging delivery concepts in cities. According to the analysis of related articles, the most significant research contribution on city logistics network design and exploitation of distribution innovations are detected. Based on these result, we propose and define the 2.5-tier Urban Freight System and Mobile Terminal/Warehouse. These can enhance the flexibility and adaptability of the urban freight system to cope with dynamic freight demands. Finally, we have discussed the future direction for further research.
Mapping the Urban Catalytic Trajectory for 'Convention and Exhibition' Projects: A Case of India International Convention and Expo Centre, New Delhi
Great civic projects contribute integrally to a city, and every city undergoes a recurring cycle of urban transformations and regeneration by their insertion. The M.I.C.E. (Meetings, Incentives, Convention and Exhibitions) industry is the forbearer of one category of such catalytic civic projects. Through a specific focus on M.I.C.E. destinations, this paper illustrates the multifarious dimensions that urban catalysts impact the city on S.P.U.R. (Seed. Profile. Urbane. Reflections), the theoretical framework of this paper aims to unearth these dimensions in the realm of the COEX (Convention & Exhibition) biosphere. The ‘COEX Biosphere’ is the filter of such catalysts being ecosystems unto themselves. Like a ripple in water, the impact of these strategic interventions focusing on art, culture, trade, and promotion expands right from the trigger; the immediate context to the region and subsequently impacts the global scale. These ripples are known to bring about significant economic, social, and political and network changes. The COEX inventory in the Asian context has one such prominent addition; the proposed India International Convention and Exhibition Centre (IICC) at New Delhi. It is envisioned to be the largest facility in Asia currently and would position India on the global M.I.C.E map. With the first phase of the project scheduled to open for use in the end of 2019, this flagship project of the Government of India is projected to cater to a peak daily footfall of 3,20,000 visitors and estimated to generate 5,00,000 jobs. While the economic benefits are yet to manifest in real time and ‘Good design is good business’ holds true, for the urban transformation to be meaningful, the benefits have to go beyond just a balance sheet for the city’s exchequer. This aspect has been found relatively unexplored in research on these developments. The methodology for investigation will comprise of two steps. The first will be establishing an inventory of the global success stories and associated benefits of COEX projects over the past decade. The rationale for capping the timeframe is the significant paradigm shift that has been observed in their recent conceptualization; for instance ‘Innovation Districts’ conceptualised in the city of Albuquerque that converges into the global economy. The second step would entail a comparative benchmarking of the projected transformations by IICC through a toolkit of parameters. This is posited to yield a matrix that can form the test bed for mapping the catalytic trajectory for projects in the pipeline globally. As a ready reckoner, it purports to be a catalyst to substantiate decision making in the planning stage itself for future projects in similar contexts.
Migration, Labour Market, Capital Formation, and Social Security: A Study of Livelihoods of the Urban Poor in two Different Cities of West Bengal in India
Most of the cities in the developing countries like Siliguri Municipal Corporation Area (SMCA) and Raiganj Municipality (RM) in West Bengal, India are changing typically in terms of demographic, economic and social relationship due to rapid pace of urbanization. The mushrooming growth of slums in SMCA and RM is the direct consequence of urbanization and migration due to regional imbalance, unbalanced growth process which is posing a serious threat to sustainable development of the country. Almost all the slums happen to be a breeding ground for poverty, negligence, and disease. Unpredictable growth of slums and poverty alleviation has now become a serious challenge to the global and national policy makers for the development of the slum dwellers. The ethical dimension of the poor in the cities like SMCA and RM stands on equal opportunities, inclusive and harmonious living without discrimination of any kind. But, the migrant slum dwellers in SMCA and RM do not possess high skill or education to enable them to find well paid employment in the formal sector and the surplus urban labour force is compelled to generate its own means of employment and survival in the informal sector. The survey data of the households has been analysedin terms of percentage, descriptive statistics which includes mean, Standard Deviation (SD), ANOVA (Mean Difference) etc., to analyse the socio economic variables of the households. The study shows that the migrant labour forces living in the slums are derived from the social security measures in both the municipal areas of SMCA and RM. The urban poor in the cities of SMCA and RM rely heavily on social capital amongst all the capital assets to help them ‘get by’ and ‘get ahead’. Despite, the slum dwellers in the study areas are vulnerable with respect to other determinants of capital assets. It is noteworthy that Indian plans of anti-poverty programmes was in a proper place even after the neo-liberal regime, where the basic idea behind the massive shift of various welfare and service oriented strategy to poverty reduction strategy for the benefit of the urban poor with the trickle down effects. But, the overall impact of the trickledown effect was unsatisfactory. The objective of the Paper is to assess the magnitude of migration and absorption in the urban labour market. Issues relating to capital formation, social security measures and the support of the Welfare State in order to meet 'Sustainable Development Goals'. This study also highlights the quality of life of urban poor migrants in terms of capital formation and livelihoods.
Spatial Patterns of Urban Expansion in Kuwait City between 1989 and 2001
Urbanization is a complex phenomenon that occurs during the city’s development from one form to another. In other words, it is the process when the activities in the land use/land cover change from rural to urban. Since the oil exploration, Kuwait City has been growing rapidly due to its urbanization and population growth by both natural growth and inward immigration. The main objective of this study is to detect changes in urban land use/land cover and to examine the changing spatial patterns of urban growth in and around Kuwait City between 1989 and 2001. In addition, this study also evaluates the spatial patterns of the changes detected and how they can be related to the spatial configuration of the city. Recently, the use of remote sensing and geographic information systems became very useful and important tools in urban studies because of the integration of them can allow and provide the analysts and planners to detect, monitor and analyze the urban growth in a region effectively. Moreover, both planners and users can predict the trends of the growth in urban areas in the future with remotely sensed and GIS data because they can be effectively updated with required precision levels. In order to identify the new urban areas between 1989 and 2001, the study uses satellite images of the study area and remote sensing technology for classifying these images. Unsupervised classification method was applied to classify images to land use and land cover data layers. After finishing the unsupervised classification method, GIS overlay function was applied to the classified images for detecting the locations and patterns of the new urban areas that developed during the study period. GIS was also utilized to evaluate the distribution of the spatial patterns. For example, Moran’s index was applied for all data inputs to examine the urban growth distribution. Furthermore, this study assesses if the spatial patterns and process of these changes take place in a random fashion or with certain identifiable trends. During the study period, the result of this study indicates that the urban growth has occurred and expanded 10% from 32.4% in 1989 to 42.4% in 2001. Also, the results revealed that the largest increase of the urban area occurred between the major highways after the forth ring road from the center of Kuwait City. Moreover, the spatial distribution of urban growth occurred in cluster manners.
The Local Centers' Development of Berlin: Analyzing Different Cultural Influences with Impact on Urban Changes
The aim of the research evaluates the local centers' development of Berlin, the capital of Germany. There are included studies of their potential, considers the possibility of applying different cultural influences and the issue of the current demographic transformation of Europe. The solution utilizes the analysis of historical, cultural, political and sociological changes after 2nd World War; the exploration of historical as well as strategic maps and personal evaluation of the current condition of selected boroughs – Berlin Neuköln, Kreuzberg and Wedding, where more than 30% of the inhabitants have a migration background. The research provides an example of the likely development of centers in urban agglomerations. It examines the issue of local centers with an inhumane scale in contrast to small-scale centering sites, mostly located in areas largely with immigrant communities. The research results enable a better understanding of the influence of different cultures and lifestyles on the appearance of the city and its local centers. We can use it as an inspiration for the new design of the Berlin centers. The results will be used for further research on urban space development in the cultural environment of Europe and the Middle East as well.
Effects of T-Walls on Quality of Life and Anti-Terror Design Concept in Kabul, Afghanistan
Afghanistan has been at war for almost 40 years. After the attacks on the world trade center in New York City on 11th September 2001, within two months the United States (U.S) and its allies invaded Afghanistan and effectively removed the Taliban from operational power, but the war continued. Taliban and other terrorist groups started a new way to fight like suicide attacks and attacks on Afghan government and international institutions, this led to creating fear and terror for everyone. The governmental, non-governmental organizations and even important government’s employees surrounded their office buildings and homes with concrete blast walls to protect themselves from suicide attacks. These walls are also called T-walls due to the cross-sectional shape resembling an inverted letter “T”. It was first used in Iraq by U.S troops. T-Walls are steel reinforced concrete walls with a height of 3 to 7 meters with the width of 1.4 meters at the bottom, the T-walls used in Kabul are mostly with 7 meters height. These T-Walls are put outside the boundary wall mostly on footpath and streets, to absorb the initial impacts of explosions. In addition to, creating a bad landscape, militarized look to the city, it also led to traffic jam and encroaching the public spaces. Based on Kabul citizens complain over the media, we started a research. The research contains two parts; first, Questionnaire was developed and was asked from Kabul citizens on how the T-Walls has affected their quality of life, what problem it created for them and how they feel by seeing the T-Walls. Questionnaires were also distributed to employees who work in an Area which is surrounded by T-Walls and they were asked if the existing and increasing of T-walls give them secure feeling. In addition, a few numbers of Ministry of Urban development and Kabul Municipality employees were interviewed, it was done to find out that if any initiative is done by the government to stop the increasing of T-Walls. Secondly, a literature review is done comparing different cities around the world on how they designed the city against terrorism threat without turning the cities in to lock down. The finding of research revealed that citizens of Kabul want security but not at expense of public realm and creating the architecture of fear, it also indicates that increasing the T-walls do not give secure feeling but instead, it increases terror and hatred. Urban aesthetics has not been considered while creating the Kabul security plan, Especially the newly developed security plan called as “Zarghun Belt”. At the end a series of recommendation is suggested on issue as below: -Creating a commission in which urban planners and architects should also be involved along with the representatives from Ministry of Defense, ministry of interior and National Directorate of Security, this commission should provide guidance for better planning; -Educating local urban planners on security planning;- Decentralization of Kabul city; -Encouraging Plantation and moral painting on the T-Walls.
Net-Zero Housing Communities: Adaptive Reuse and Sustainable Architecture for Social Housing in South Africa
South Africa’s need for the provision of housing within its major city centres, in this instance, Gauteng Province (GP) is a major concern. Initiatives of converting misused or unused buildings to suitable housing for residents who work in the city as well as prospective citizens are currently underway. One aspect that is needed currently, is the re-possession of these buildings for them to be repurposed into housing communities for quality low cost mixed density housing. Additionally, for this process to have minimal additional strain on existing infrastructures like energy, emission reduction, waste management etc. Unfortunately, there are instances in Johannesburg, the country’s economic capital, with 2017 estimates claiming that as much as 700 buildings in the inner city are unused or misused due to several reasons, these then become hubs for illegal activity and are an unacceptable form of shelter. To give the reader some brief insight, the abovementioned reasons range from simple abandonment by owner and consequent vandalism, to hijacking, a major issue which will be further elaborated upon later in this text. Currently, one can argue that the provision of inner-city social housing is lacking in Johannesburg’s inner-city areas, where it is very much needed. But not due to the unavailability of funding or usable land and buildings, but that these valuable assets are not being used appropriately nor to their full potential, the primary cause is mismanagement of these assets. Currently, the GP municipality has mandated the re-purposing of all buildings that meet their criteria (structural stability, feasibility, adaptability, etc) with the intention of allowing interested parties to propose conversions of the buildings into densified social housing. The municipality has deployed groups which will go to such buildings and assess their state and be able to judge whether the municipality have the legal right to take repossession of them with immediate effect, and this has been the case in many instances. As a result, where possible, illegal occupants of the building (usually all the occupants) are evicted from the premises, and those who are eligible are granted temporary shelter off site until renovation of the building is complete, if the building is to be converted to a residential building. Going forward, the proposed focus shall be on creating social housing communities within these existing buildings which may be retrofitted with sustainable technologies, green design strategies and principles with the aim of the completed buildings achieving ‘Net- Zero/Positive’ status. A Net-Zero/Positive building, in the South African context, according to The Green Building Council of South Africa (GBCSA) is a building which manages to produce resources it needs to function, and reduces wastage, emissions and demand of these resources during its lifespan. The categories which GBCSA includes are carbon, water, waste and ecology, this may include material selection, construction methods, etc. The conclusion of this study shall be in the proposal of a system or design which will bear the qualities and characteristics of a building or community which innovatively demonstrates sustainable principles that constitute a Net-Zero/Positive rating.
Characterization of the Physicochemical Properties of Raw and Calcined Kaolinitic Clays Using Analytical Techniques
The present work focuses on the characterization of the physicochemical properties of kaolinitic clays in both raw and calcined (i.e., dehydroxylated) states. The properties investigated included the dehydroxylation temperature, chemical composition and crystalline phases, band types, kaolinite content, vitreous phase, and reactive and unreactive silica and alumina. The thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffractometry and infrared spectroscopy results suggest that full dehydroxylation takes place at 639°C, converting kaolinite to reactive metakaolinite (Si₂Al₂O₇). Application of higher temperatures up to 800 °C leads to complete decarbonation of the calcite phase, and the kaolinite converts to mullite at temperatures exceeding 957 °C. Calcination at 639°C was found to cause a 50% increase in the vitreous content of kaolin. Statistically meaningful increases in the reactivity of silica, alumina, calcite and sodium carbonate in kaolin were detected as a result of such thermal treatment. Such increases were found to be 11%, 47%, 240% and 10%, respectively. The ferrite phase, however, showed a 36% decline in reactivity. The proposed approach can be used as an analytical method to determine the viability of the source of kaolinite and proper physical and chemical modifications needed to enhance its suitability for geopolymer production.
Neighborhood-Scape as a Methodology for Enhancing Gulf Region Cities' Quality of Life: Case of Doha, Qatar
Sustainability is increasingly being considered as a critical aspect in shaping the urban environment. It works as an invention development basis for global urban growth. Currently, different models and structures impact the means of interpreting the criteria that would be included in defining a sustainable city. There is a collective need to improve the growth path to an extremely durable path by presenting different suggestions regarding multi-scale initiatives. The global rise in urbanization has led to increased demand and pressure for better urban planning choice and scenarios for a better sustainable urban alternative. The need for an assessment tool at the urban scale was prompted due to the trend of developing increasingly sustainable urban development (SUD). The neighborhood scale is being managed by a growing research committee since it seems to be a pertinent scale through which economic, environmental, and social impacts could be addressed. Although neighborhood design is a comparatively old practice, it is in the initial years of the 21st century when environmentalists and planners started developing sustainable assessment at the neighborhood level. Through this, urban reality can be considered at a larger scale whereby themes which are beyond the size of a single building can be addressed, while it still stays small enough that concrete measures could be analyzed. The neighborhood assessment tool has a crucial role in helping neighborhood sustainability to perform approach and fulfill objectives through a set of themes and criteria. These devices are also known as neighborhood assessment tool, district assessment tool, and sustainable community rating tool. The primary focus of research has been on sustainability from the economic and environmental aspect, whereas the social, cultural issue is rarely focused. Therefore, this research is based on Doha, Qatar, the current urban conditions of the neighborhoods is discussed in this study. The research problem focuses on the spatial features in relation to the socio-cultural aspects. This study is outlined in three parts; the first section comprises of review of the latest use of wellbeing assessment methods to enhance decision process of retrofitting physical features of the neighborhood. The second section discusses the urban settlement development, regulations and the process of decision-making rule. An analysis of urban development policy with reference to neighborhood development is also discussed in this section. Moreover, it includes a historical review of the urban growth of the neighborhoods as an atom of the city system present in Doha. Last part involves developing quantified indicators regarding subjective well-being through a participatory approach. Additionally, applying GIS will be utilized as a visualizing tool for the apparent Quality of Life (QoL) that need to develop in the neighborhood area as an assessment approach. Envisaging the present QoL situation in Doha neighborhoods is a process to improve current condition neighborhood function involves many days to day activities of the residents, due to which areas are considered dynamic.
Comparison Of Data Mining Models To Predict Future Bridge Conditions
Highway and bridge agencies, such as the Ministry of Transportation in Ontario, use the Bridge Condition Index (BCI) which is defined as the weighted condition of all bridge elements to determine the rehabilitation priorities for its bridges. Therefore, accurate forecasting of BCI is essential for bridge rehabilitation budgeting planning. The large amount of data available in regard to bridge conditions for several years dictate utilizing traditional mathematical models as infeasible analysis methods. This research study focuses on investigating different classification models that are developed to predict the bridge condition index in the province of Ontario, Canada based on the publicly available data for 2800 bridges over a period of more than 10 years. The data preparation is a key factor to develop acceptable classification models even with the simplest one, the k-NN model. All the models were tested, compared and statistically validated via cross validation and t-test. A simple k-NN model showed reasonable results (within 0.5% relative error) when predicting the bridge condition in an incoming year.
Influence of Gusset Plate Stiffeners on the Seismic Performance of Concentrically Braced Frame
Inelastic deformation of the brace in Special Concentrically Braced Frame (SCBF) creates inelastic damages on gusset plate connections such as buckling at edges. In this study, to improve the seismic performance of SCBFs connections, an analytical study was undertaken. Using edge’s stiffeners is one of the main solutions of this study to improve the gusset plate connections' behavior. For this purpose, in order to examine edge’s stiffeners effect on gusset plate connections, two groups of modeling with and without considering edge’s stiffener and different types of braces were modeled using ABAQUS software. The results show that considering the edge’s stiffener reduces the equivalent plastic strain values at a connection region of gusset plate with beam and column, which can improve the seismic performance of gusset plate. Furthermore, considering the edge’s stiffeners significantly decreases the strain concentration at regions which gusset plates have been connected to beam and column. Moreover, considering 2tpl distance cause reduction in the plastic strain.
Sustainability through Resilience: How Emergency Responders Cope with Stressors
Striving for sustainability brings a lot of challenges for different fields of interest, e. g. security or health concerns. In Germany, civil protection is predominantly carried out by emergency responders who perform essential tasks of civil protection. Based on theoretical concepts of different psychological stress theories this contribution focuses on the question, how the resilience of emergency responders can be improved. The goal is to identify resources and successful coping strategies that help to prevent and reduce negative outcomes during or after stressful events. The paper will present results from a qualitative analysis of semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 emergency responders. These results provide insights into the complexity of coping processes (e. g. controlling the situation, downplaying perceived personal threats through humor) and show the diversity of stressors (like complexity of the disastrous situation, intrusive press and media, or lack of social support within the organization). Self-efficacy expectation was a very important resource for coping with stressful situations. The results served as a starting point for a quantitative survey (that was conducted in March 2017), the development of education and training tools for emergency responders and the improvement of critical incident stress management processes. First results from the quantitative study with more than 700 participants show that, e. g., the emergency responders use social coping within their private social network and also within their aid organization and that both are correlated to resilience. Moreover, missing information, bureaucratic problems and social conflicts within the organization are events that the majority of the participants considered very onerous. Further results from regression analysis will be presented. The proposed paper will combine findings from the qualitative study with the quantitative results, illustrating figures and correlations with respective statements from the interviews. At the end, suggestions for the improvement of the emergency responder’s resilience are given and it is discussed how this can make a contribution to strive for civil security and furthermore a sustainable development.
Feasibility Study of Women’s Participation in the Renovation of the Worn out Texture Case Study: Investigation of Worn out Texture of Tehran Helal-Ahmar Region
The issue of the worn out textures is one of the urban community challenges in which, undoubtedly, the intervention is impossible without the social involvement. Some believe that in the worn out areas the most important intervention challenge is the social issues, and the most important social issue, in the intervention in the worn out areas, is how to attract public participation. Participation by itself has a widespread literature and despite relative acceptance, it should be said that planners, managers and designers are not always successful in attracting public participation. If participation means the intervention of all the residents in the neighborhood, women’s community forms half of these residents, but they are neglected in the participatory planning. It is important to know that to what extent the presence of women’s community in the related participation to the worn out textures affects the success of the projects. The present study hypotheses emphasize the effectiveness of women than men in involvement of the renovation and reforming projects. A case study was selected to investigate this hypothesis in order to test it through doing a questionnaire and visiting the place. Tehran Helal Ahmar region located in district 11 has 2740 households in which 51% are men and 49% women. The statistical population consists of 150 men and women of this area selected randomly. In the present study, interview technique with the executives was used as well as questionnaire along collecting the related research. The hypothesis analysis was carried out through SPSS and Excel software, in which two tests ‘Man-Whitney’ and ‘chi-square’ were used. The results indicate that women are empowered in the participation and renovation of the area, but it is necessary to rectify men’s attitude towards women’s ability in terms of women participation.
Effects of Moisture on Fatigue Behavior of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures Using Four-Point Bending Test
Moisture damage is the continuous deterioration of asphalt concrete mixtures by the loss of adhesive bond between the asphalt binder and aggregates, or loss of cohesive bonds within the asphalt binder in the presence of moisture. Moisture has been known to either cause or exacerbates distresses in asphalt concrete pavements. Since moisture would often retain for a relatively long duration at the bottom of asphalt concrete layer, the movement of traffic loading in this saturated condition would cause excess stresses or strains within the mixture. This would accelerate the degradation of the adhesion and cohesion within the mixture and likely to contribute the development of fatigue cracking in asphalt concrete pavements. In view of this, it is important to investigate the effect of moisture on the fatigue behavior of asphalt concrete mixtures. In this study, changes in fatigue characteristics after moisture conditioning were evaluated by conducting four-point beam fatigue tests on dry and moisture conditioned specimens. For this purpose, mixtures with two different types of binders were prepared and saturated with moisture using 700 mm Hg vacuum. Beam specimens, in this way, were taken to a saturation level of 65-75 percent. After preconditioning specimens in this degree of saturation and 60°C for a period of 24 hours, they were subjected to four point beam fatigue tests in strain-controlled mode with a strain amplitude of 400 microstrain. The results were then compared with the fatigue test results obtained with beam specimens that were not subjected to moisture conditioning. Test results show that the conditioning reduces both fatigue life and initial flexural stiffness of specimen significantly. The moisture conditioning was also found to increase the rate of reduction of flexural stiffness. Moreover, it was observed that the fatigue life ratio (FLR), the ratio of the fatigue life of the moisture conditioned sample to that of the dry sample, is significantly lower than the flexural stiffness ratio (FSR). The study indicates that four-point bending test is an appropriate tool with FLR and FSR as the potential parameters for moisture-sensitivity evaluation.
Characterization of Waste Thermocol Modified Bitumen by Spectroscopy, Microscopic Technique, and Dynamic Shear Rheometer
The global production of thermocol increasing day by day, due to vast applications of the use of thermocole in many sectors. Thermocol being non-biodegradable and more toxic than plastic leads towards a number of problems like its management into value-added products, environmental damage and landfill problems due to weight to volume ratio. Utilization of waste thermocol for modification of bitumen binders resulted in waste thermocol modified bitumen (WTMB) used in road construction and maintenance technology. Modification of bituminous mixes through incorporating thermocol into bituminous mixes through a dry process is one of the new options besides recycling process which consumes lots of waste thermocol. This process leads towards waste management and remedies against thermocol waste disposal. The present challenge is to dispose the thermocol waste under different forms in road infrastructure, either through the dry process or wet process to be developed in future. This paper focuses on the use of thermocol wastes which is mixed with VG 10 bitumen in proportions of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% by weight of bitumen. The physical properties of neat bitumen are evaluated and compared with modified VG 10 bitumen having thermocol. Empirical characterization like penetration, softening, and viscosity of bitumen has been carried out. Thermocol and waste thermocol modified bitumen (WTMB) were further analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR).
Strategic Thinking to Enhance Critical Transport Infrastructure and Build Resilience
Gaps in strategic thinking and planning lead to critical transport infrastructure resilience. These gaps in strategic transport and land use development planning have an impact on communities and cities. Natural and man-induced disasters can be catastrophic to communities. After a disaster, many types of critical infrastructure, including transport infrastructure gets un-usable or gets damaged. This paper examines strategic thinking behind the resilience and protection of Critical Transport Infrastructure (CI) within transport networks by investigating the impact of disasters such as bushfires, hurricanes and earthquakes. A detailed analysis of three case studies have been conducted to identify the gaps in strategic transport planning and strategic decision making processes required to mitigate the impacts of disasters. Case studies will be analysed to identify existing gaps in road design, transport planning and decision making. This paper examines the effect of road designing, transport corridors and decision making during transport planning stages and how it impacts transport infrastructure as well as community resilience. A set of recommendations to overcome the shortcomings of existing strategic planning and designing process are presented. This research paper reviews transport infrastructure planning issues and presents the common approach suitable for future strategic thinking and planning which could be adopted in practices.