International Science Index

International Journal of Transport and Vehicle Engineering

Investigating the Effective Parameters in Determining the Type of Traffic Congestion Pricing Schemes in Urban Streets
Traffic congestion pricing – as a strategy in travel demand management in urban areas to reduce traffic congestion, air pollution, and noise pollution – has drawn many attentions towards itself. Unlike the satisfying findings in this method, there are still problems in determining the best functional congestion pricing scheme with regard to the situation. The so-called problems in this process will result in further complications and even the scheme failure. That is why having proper knowledge of the significance of congestion pricing schemes and the effective factors in choosing them can lead to the success of this strategy. In this study, first, a variety of traffic congestion pricing schemes and their components are introduced; then, their functional usage is discussed. Next, by analyzing and comparing the barriers, limitations, and advantages, the selection criteria of pricing schemes are described. The results, accordingly, show that the selection of the best scheme depends on various parameters. Finally, based on examining the effective parameters, it is concluded that the implementation of area-based schemes (cordon and zonal) have been more successful in non-diversion of traffic. That is considering the topology of the cities and the fact that traffic congestion is often created in the city centers, area-based schemes would be notably functional and appropriate. Traffic congestion pricing – as a strategy in travel demand management in urban areas to reduce traffic congestion, air pollution, and noise pollution – has drawn many attentions towards itself. Unlike the satisfying findings in this method, there are still problems in determining the best functional congestion pricing scheme with regard to the situation. The so-called problems in this process will result in further complications and even the scheme failure. That is why having proper knowledge of the significance of congestion pricing schemes and the effective factors in choosing them can lead to the success of this strategy. In this study, first, a variety of traffic congestion pricing schemes and their components are introduced; then, their functional usage is discussed. Next, by analyzing and comparing the barriers, limitations, and advantages, the selection criteria of pricing schemes are described. The results, accordingly, show that the selection of the best scheme depends on various parameters. Finally, based on examining the effective parameters, it is concluded that the implementation of area-based schemes (cordon and zonal) have been more successful in non-diversion of traffic. That is considering the topology of the cities and the fact that traffic congestion is often created in the city centers, area-based schemes would be notably functional and appropriate.
Analysis and Evaluation of the Public Responses to Traffic Congestion Pricing Schemes in Urban Streets
Traffic congestion pricing in urban streets is one of the most suitable options for solving the traffic problems and environment pollutions in the cities of the country. Unlike its acceptable outcomes, there are problems concerning the necessity to pay by the mass. Regarding the fact that public response in order to succeed in this strategy is so influential, studying their response and behavior to get the feedback and improve the strategies is of great importance. In this study, a questionnaire was used to examine the public reactions to the traffic congestion pricing schemes at the center of Tehran metropolis and the factors involved in people’s decision making in accepting or rejecting the congestion pricing schemes were assessed based on the data obtained from the questionnaire as well as the international experiences. Then, by analyzing and comparing the schemes, guidelines to reduce public objections to them are discussed. The results of reviewing and evaluating the public reactions show that all the pros and cons must be considered to guarantee the success of these projects. Consequently, with targeted public education and consciousness-raising advertisements, prior to initiating a scheme and ensuring the mechanism of the implementation after the start of the project, the initial opposition is reduced and, with the gradual emergence of the real and tangible benefits of its implementation, users’ satisfaction will increase.
Mitigating the Cost of Empty Container Repositioning through the Virtual Container Yard: An Appraisal of Industry Perception
The empty container repositioning is a fundamental problem faced by the shipping industry. The virtual container yard is a novel strategy underpinning the container interchange between carriers that could substantially reduce this ever-increasing shipping cost. This paper evaluates the shipping industry perception for virtual container yard using the Chi-Square Tests. It examines whether selected independent variables namely, Culture; Organization; Decision; Marketing; Attitudes; Legal; Independent; Complexity; and Stakeholders of carriers have an impact efficiency and benefits of the virtual container yard. There are two major findings of the research. Firstly, carriers view that Complexity, Attitudes, and Stakeholders may impact the effectiveness of container interchange and may influence the perceived benefits of virtual container yard. Secondly, three factors namely, Legal, Organization, and Decision may influence only the perceived benefits of virtual container yard. the virtual container yard. Accordingly, the implementation of virtual container yard will be influenced by six key factors namely, complexity, attitudes, stakeholders, legal, organization and decision. Since the virtual container yard could reduce the shipping cost it is vital to examine the industry perception of this concept.
Impact of an Onboard Fire for the Evacuation of a Rolling Stock
This study highlights the impact of an onboard fire for the evacuation of a rolling stock. Two fires models are achieved. The first one is a zone model realized with the CFAST software. Then, this fire is imported in a building EXODUS model in order to determine the evacuation time with effects of fire effluents (temperature, smoke opacity, smoke toxicity) on passengers. The second fire is achieved with Fire Dynamics Simulator software. The fire defined is directly imported in the FDS+Evac model which will permit to determine the evacuation time and effects of fire effluents on passengers. These effects will be compared with tenability criteria defined in some standards in order to see if the situation is acceptable. Different power of fire will be underlined to see from what power source the hazard become unacceptable.
Energy Benefits of Urban Platooning with Self-Driving Vehicles
The prime focus of this paper is the generation of energy-optimal speed trajectories for vehicle platoons in urban driving conditions. In order to precisely execute the generated optimal speed trajectory, a computer needs to drive the vehicle, i.e., self-driving vehicles appear to be a prime candidate for implementing this concept. However, two practical problems arise: (i) optimal speed trajectories would be hard to execute if only a small portion of vehicles is self-driving and (ii) optimal speed profiles depend on the vehicle characteristics. Both of these problems are addressed by exploring the concept of urban platooning of self-driving vehicles. In particular, a consensus approach for self-driving vehicles in dedicated lanes is taken, which allows for the determination of an optimal speed profile for a heterogeneous mix of platoon vehicles. Common optimal speed profiles for a given platoon configuration are explored via simulations and analyzed with respect to their transportation energy efficiency. One of the most relevant results of this research is the fact that the use of an optimal platoon trajectory and the use of individually optimized trajectories for each vehicle often makes little difference in the attainable energy savings. These can be as large as 35% depending on segment length, average speed, constraints, and vehicle mix. The optimal platoon speed trajectory corresponds to a virtual vehicle that is the ‘average vehicle in the platoon’ in rolling resistance, air drag coefficient, cross-sectional area, and mass. Practical considerations for implementing such a self-organizing scheme for self-driving cars are also discussed.
Road Systems as Environmental Barriers: An Overview of Roadways in their Function as Fences for Wildlife Movement
Roadways have a significant impact on the environment in so far as they function as barriers to wildlife movement, both through road mortality and through resultant road avoidance. Roads have an im-mense presence worldwide, and it is predicted to increase substantially in the next thirty years. As roadways become even more common, it is important to consider their environmental impact, and to mitigate the negative effects which they have on wildlife and wildlife mobility. In a thorough analysis of several related studies, a common conclusion was that roads cause habitat fragmentation, which can lead split populations to evolve differently, for better or for worse. Though some populations adapted positively to roadways, becoming more resistant to road mortality, and more tolerant to noise and chemical contamination, many others experienced maladaptation, either due to chemical contamination in and around their environment, or because of genetic mutations from inbreeding when their population was fragmented too substantially to support a large enough group for healthy genetic exchange. Large mammals were especially susceptible to maladaptation from inbreed-ing, as they require larger areas to roam and therefore require even more space to sustain a healthy population. Regardless of whether a species evolved positively or negatively as a result of their proximity to a road, animals tended to avoid roads, making the genetic diversity from habitat fragmentation an exceedingly prevalent issue in the larger discussion of road ecology. Additionally, the consideration of solu-tions, such as overpasses and underpasses, is crucial to ensuring the long term survival of many wildlife populations. In studies addressing the effectiveness of overpasses and underpasses, it seemed as though animals adjusted well to these sorts of solutions, but strategic place-ment, as well as proper sizing, proper height, shelter from road noise, and other considerations were important in construction. When an underpass or overpass was well-built and well-shielded from human activity, animals’ usage of the structure increased significantly throughout its first five years, thus reconnecting previously divided populations. Still, these structures are costly and they are often unable to fully address certain issues such as light, noise, and contaminants from vehicles. Therefore, the need for further discussion of new, crea-tive solutions remains paramount. Roads are one of the most consistent and prominent features of today’s landscape, but their environmental impacts are largely overlooked. While roads are useful for connecting people, they divide landscapes and animal habitats. Therefore, further research and investment in possible solutions is necessary to mitigate the negative effects which roads have on wildlife mobility and to pre-vent issues from resultant habitat fragmentation.
Toward the Decarbonisation of EU Transport Sector: Impacts and Challenges of the Diffusion of Electric Vehicles
In order to achieve the targeted emission reductions for the decarbonisation of the European economy by 2050, fundamental contributions are required from both energy and transport sectors. The objective of this paper is to analyse the impacts of a largescale diffusion of e-vehicles, either battery-based or fuel cells, together with the implementation of transport policies aiming at decreasing the use of motorised private modes in order to achieve greenhouse gas emission reduction goals, in the context of a future high share of renewable energy. The analysis of the impacts and challenges of future scenarios on transport sector is performed with the ASTRA (ASsessment of TRAnsport Strategies) model. ASTRA is a strategic system-dynamic model at European scale (EU28 countries, Switzerland and Norway), consisting of different sub-modules related to specific aspects: the transport system (e.g. passenger trips, tonnes moved), the vehicle fleet (composition and evolution of technologies), the demographic system, the economic system, the environmental system (energy consumption, emissions). A key feature of ASTRA is that the modules are linked together: changes in one system are transmitted to other systems and can feed-back to the original source of variation. Thanks to its multidimensional structure, ASTRA is capable to simulate a wide range of impacts stemming from the application of transport policy measures: the model addresses direct impacts as well as second-level and third-level impacts. The simulation of the different scenarios is performed within the REFLEX project, where the ASTRA model is employed in combination with several energy models in a comprehensive Modelling System. From the transport sector perspective, some of the impacts are driven by the trend of electricity price estimated from the energy modelling system. Nevertheless, the major drivers to a low carbon transport sector are policies related to increased fuel efficiency of conventional drivetrain technologies, improvement of demand management (e.g. increase of public transport and car sharing services/usage) and diffusion of environmentally friendly vehicles (e.g. electric vehicles). The final modelling results of the REFLEX project will be available from October 2018. The analysis of the impacts and challenges of future scenarios is performed in terms of transport, environmental and social indicators. The diffusion of e-vehicles produces a consistent reduction of future greenhouse gas emissions, although the decarbonisation target can be achieved only with the contribution of complementary transport policies on demand management and supporting the deployment of low-emission alternative energy for non-road transport modes. The paper explores the implications through time of transport policy measures on mobility and environment, underlying to what extent they can contribute to a decarbonisation of the transport sector. Acknowledgements: The results refer to the REFLEX project which has received grants from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Grant Agreement No. 691685.
Optimizing Schedule of Trains in Context of a Large Railway Network
The Train Timetabling Problem (TTP) is a complex problem where the objective is to find a conflict-free schedule for trains on a given railway network satisfying some operational constraints and maximize the efficiency of infrastructure usage. We deal with a railway network at the scale of a large national railway. With about a 70,000 Km route, a weekly schedule with 20,000 passenger trains and many more freight trains with thousands of control points, such large-scale railway problems pose a grand computational challenge for finding an optimal schedule. We present two heuristics based on a Mixed Integer Program (MIP) formulation for local optimization to improve infrastructure utilization. These methods provide flexibility in scheduling new trains with varying speed and delays at each section line on the route. The two methods provide a robust solution with hundreds of trains being scheduled over a portion of the railway network yielding 100% improvement in throughput, reaching within two-thirds of a theoretical upper bound, without significant increases in delay. We additionally present methods, based on linear programming to validate this nominal schedule over global correlated variations in travel times (satisfying linear constraints) without making any probabilistic assumptions. The global validity, based on linear programming, takes the order of a few minutes for a portion of the network and is computationally efficient to handle the entire network.
Environmental and Economic Analysis of Absorption Air Conditioning Unit Onboard Marine Vehicles: Case Study of Passenger Vessel
One of the most important equipment that affects the performance of passenger ships is the air conditioning system, which in turn consumes considerable electric loads. In this paper, the waste heat energies of exhaust gases and jacket cooling water of marine diesel engines for these ships are analyzed to be used as heat sources for absorption refrigeration unit (ARU). Economic and environmental analysis of the absorption refrigeration cycle operated with the two heat sources that use lithium bromide as absorbent is carried out. In addition, environmental and economic analysis for the absorption cycle is performed. As a case study, high-speed passenger vessel operating in the Red Sea area has been investigated. The results show that a considerable specific economic benefit could be achieved in case of applying absorption air condition that operates by water cooling system over that operates by main engine exhaust gases. Environmentally, applying ARU machine during cruise will reduce total ship’s fuel consumption by about 104 ton per year. This will result in reducing NOₓ, SOₓ, and CO₂ emissions with cost-effectiveness of 6.99 $/kg, 18.44 $/kg, and 0.117 $/kg, respectively.
European Hinterland and Foreland: Impact of Accessibility, Connectivity, Inter-Port Competition on Containerization
In this paper, we investigate the relationship between ports and their hinterland and foreland environments and the competitive relationship between the ports themselves. These two environments are changing, evolving and introducing new challenges for commercial and economic development at the regional, national and international levels. Because of the rise of the containerization phenomenon, shipping costs and port handling costs have considerably decreased due to economies of scale. The volume of maritime trade has increased substantially and the markets served by the ports have expanded. On these bases, overlapping hinterlands can give rise to the phenomenon of competition between ports. Our main contribution comparing to the existing literature on this issue, is to build a set of hinterland, foreland and competition indicators. Using these indicators? we investigate the effect of hinterland accessibility, foreland connectivity and inter-ports competition on containerized traffic of Europeans ports. For this, we have a 10-year panel database from 2004 to 2014. Our hinterland indicators are given by two indicators of accessibility; they describe the market potential of a port and are calculated using information on population and wealth (GDP). We then calculate population and wealth for different neighborhoods within a distance from a port ranging from 100 to 1000km. For the foreland, we produce two indicators: port connectivity and number of partners for each port. Finally, we compute the two indicators of inter-port competition and a market concentration indicator (Hirshmann-Herfindhal) for different neighborhood-distances around the port. We then apply a fixed-effect model to test the relationship above. Again, with a fixed effects model, we do a sensitivity analysis for each of these indicators to support the results obtained. The econometric results of the general model given by the regression of the accessibility indicators, the LSCI for port i, and the inter-port competition indicator on the containerized traffic of European ports show a positive and significant effect for accessibility to wealth and not to the population. The results are positive and significant for the two indicators of connectivity and competition as well. One of the main results of this research is that the port development given here by the increase of its containerized traffic is strongly related to the development of its hinterland and foreland environment. In addition, it is the market potential, given by the wealth of the hinterland that has an impact on the containerized traffic of a port. However, accessibility to a large population pool is not important for understanding the dynamics of containerized port traffic. Furthermore, in order to continue to develop, a port must penetrate its hinterland at a deep level exceeding 100 km around the port and seek markets beyond this perimeter. The port authorities could focus their marketing efforts on the immediate hinterland, which can, as the results shows, not be captive and thus engage new approaches of port governance to make it more attractive.
Waterborne Platooning: Cost and Logistic Analysis of Vessel Trains
Recent years have seen extensive technological advancement in truck platooning, as reflected in the literature. Its main benefits are the improvement of traffic stability and the reduction of air drag, resulting in less fuel consumption, in comparison to using individual trucks. Platooning is now being adapted to the waterborne transport sector in the NOVIMAR project through the development of a Vessel Train (VT) concept. The main focus of VT’s, as opposed to the truck platoons, is the decrease in manning on board, ultimately working towards autonomous vessel operations. This crew reduction can prove to be an important selling point in achieving economic competitiveness of the waterborne approach when compared to alternative modes of transport. This paper discusses the expected benefits and drawbacks of the VT concept, in terms of the technical logistic performance and generalized costs. More specifically, VT’s can provide flexibility in destination choices for shippers but also add complexity when performing special manoeuvres in VT formation. In order to quantify the cost and performances, a model is developed and simulations are carried out for various case studies. These compare the application of VT’s in the short sea and inland water transport, with specific sailing regimes and technologies installed on board to allow different levels of autonomy. The results enable the identification of the most important boundary conditions for the successful operation of the waterborne platooning concept. These findings serve as a framework for future business applications of the VT.
Efficiency of Maritime Simulator Training in Oil Spill Response Competence Development
Marine oil spill response operation requires extensive vessel maneuvering and navigation skills. At-sea oil containment and recovery include both single vessel and multi-vessel operations. Towing long oil containment booms that are several hundreds of meters in length, is a challenge in itself. Boom deployment and towing in multi-vessel configurations is an added challenge that requires precise coordination and control of the vessels. Efficient communication, as a prerequisite for shared situational awareness, is needed in order to execute the response task effectively. To gain and maintain adequate maritime skills, practical training is needed. Field exercises are the most effective way of learning, but especially the related vessel operations are resource-intensive and costly. Field exercises may also be affected by environmental limitations such as high sea-state or other adverse weather conditions. In Finland, the seasonal ice-coverage also limits the training period to summer seasons only. In addition, environmental sensitiveness of the sea area restricts the use of real oil or other target substances. This paper examines, whether maritime simulator training can offer a complementary method to overcome the training challenges related to field exercises. The objective is to assess the efficiency and the learning impact of simulator training, and the specific skills that can be trained most effectively in simulators. This paper provides an overview of learning results from two oil spill response pilot courses, in which maritime navigational bridge simulators were used to train the oil spill response authorities. The simulators were equipped with an oil spill functionality module. The courses were targeted at coastal Fire and Rescue Services responsible for near shore oil spill response in Finland. The competence levels of the participants were surveyed before and after the course in order to measure potential shifts in competencies due to the simulator training. In addition to the quantitative analysis, the efficiency of the simulator training is evaluated qualitatively through feedback from the participants. The results indicate that simulator training is a valid and effective method for developing marine oil spill response competencies that complement traditional field exercises. Simulator training provides a safe environment for assessing various oil containment and recovery tactics. One of the main benefits of the simulator training was found to be the immediate feedback the spill modelling software provides on the oil spill behaviour as a reaction to response measures.
Assessing the Efficiency of Traffic Calming Measures in Terms of Energy, Safety and Travel Time
Most accidents occur in urban areas, and most related casualties are vulnerable road users (pedestrians and cyclists). The traffic calming measures (TCMs) are widely used and considered to be successful in reducing speed and traffic volume. However, TCMs create unwanted effects include: noise, emissions, energy consumption, vehicle delays and response time for emergency vehicles. Different vertical and horizontal TCMs have been already applied with different impacts. It is a big challenge among traffic engineers, planners and policy-makers to choose and priorities the best TCMs to be implemented. This study will assess the existing guidelines for TCMs internationally and Sweden, and develop a matrix to determine the effect of TCMs on energy, safety and delay time. The expected results will save significant amount of energy, lives, time, and money on, particularly Swedish roads. The study will also investigate new technologies, e.g. (IT communication between vehicle to infrastructure, besides 3D illusion painting on roads that alert drivers to slow down).
Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of University of the Philippines-Philippine General Hospital Resident Doctors on the Use of Seatbelt
Background: The swelling number of road traffic crashes is gaining much attention as a major public health concern. The resulting injuries and deaths continue to be a significant challenge particularly in a developing country with scarce economic and health resources like the Philippines. A recommended mitigating measure to reduce the impact of crashes is the use of seat belt. Objective: The objective of this study is to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practices of resident doctors at the University of the Philippines - Philippine General Hospital towards the use of seatbelt. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted over 2 months from October to November 2017 with survey questionnaires distributed among all doctors of the clinical departments at UP-PGH. Only drivers were included in the final analysis and data was analyzed using STATA v12. Results: A total number of 384 residents with mean age of 28.6 answered the survey. Only 241 were drivers with a mean age is 28.9 and 54% were involved in road traffic crashes. Reasons reported were falling asleep, driving under the influence of alcohol, poor road design, texting, and poor attention to the road, wet road, not following the traffic lights, starting to learn how to drive, sudden deceleration of the vehicle in front, and bumped by another vehicle. Seventy-five percent have adequate knowledge, 74% have positive attitude and 66% practice using seat belt. Significant associations were noted on the residence and knowledge of seat belt use (p = 0.048). The seat belt use practice were also significantly associated to residence (p = 0.016), current year level (p = 0.034), knowledge (p = 0.003), and attitude (p = 0.006). Conclusion: The driver resident doctors in UP-PGH have adequate overall knowledge, positive attitude, and good practices on seat belt use. Their knowledge and attitude are significantly associated with the practice of using seat belt. It is therefore recommended to consider results of the study in the formulation of future policies in road safety particularly in the use of seat belt.
Assessment of the Road Safety Performance in National Scale
The Assessment of the road safety performance is a challengeable issue. This is not only because of the ineffective and unreliability of road and traffic crash data system but also because of its systematic character. Recent strategic plans and interventions implemented in some of the developed countries where a significant decline in the rate of traffic and road crashes considers that the road safety is a system. This system consists of four main elements which are: road user, road infrastructure, vehicles and speed in addition to other supporting elements such as the institutional framework and post-crash care system. To assess the performance of a system, it is required to assess all its elements. To present an understandable results of the assessment, it is required to present a unique term representing the performance of the overall system. This paper aims to develop an overall performance indicator which may be used to assess the road safety system. The variables of this indicators are the main elements of the road safety system. The data regarding these variables will be collected from the World Health Organization report. Multi-criteria analysis method is used to aggregate the four sub-indicators for the four variables. Two weighting methods will be assumed, equal weights and different weights. For the different weights method, the factor analysis method is used. The weights then will be converting to scores. The total score will be the overall indicator for the road safety performance in a national scale. This indicator will be used to compare and rank countries according to their road safety performance indicator. The country with the higher score is the country which provides most sustainable and effective interventions for successful road safety system. These indicator will be tested by comparing them with the aggregate real crash rate for each country.
Analysis of User Complaints and Preferences by Conducting User Surveys to Ascertain the Need for Change in Current Design of Helmets
In the largely populated city of New Delhi, India, there are a lot of people that travel by two-wheelers. Majority of the people wear helmets while traveling and know how important it is to wear helmets for their safety. Still, the number of deaths because of road accidents involving two-wheelers is significant. We had conducted a survey by traveling within and in the outskirts of Delhi so as to see the variation in data and in the opinion of people towards helmet being a safety device rather than to escape the traffic police. We conducted a survey at traffic junctions and crossings of all the stakeholders and collected feedback on the Helmet scenario in India. According to the survey, the possible reason for these deaths is that the people, being unaware of helmet safety standards (ISI standards for helmets), buy helmets with fake ISI mark from unauthorized helmet sellers for a cheap price. Also, for the people who do not wear a helmet at all or wear a helmet just because it is a law, the reasons that they do not want to wear a helmet is heavyweight, lack of ventilation, inconvenience due to a strap, and hair problems. To address all these problems, we are designing a helmet with reduced weight and also working on the Helmet’s retention system and ventilation. We plan to provide this product at a cheap cost whilst maintaining the ISI standards so that a larger section of the population would be able to afford the helmet.
Public Bus Transport Passenger Safety Evaluations in Ghana: A Phenomenological Constructivist Exploration
Notwithstanding the growing body of literature that recognises the importance of personal safety to public transport (PT) users, it remains unclear what PT users consider regarding their safety. In this study, we explore the criteria PT users in Ghana use to assess bus safety. This knowledge will afford a better understanding of PT users’ risk perceptions and assessments which may contribute to theoretical models of PT risk perceptions. We utilised phenomenological research methodology, with data drawn from 61 purposively sampled participants. Data collection (through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews) and analyses were done concurrently to the point of saturation. Our inductive data coding and analyses through the constant comparison and content analytic techniques resulted in 4 code categories (conceptual dimensions), 27 codes (safety items/criteria), and 100 quotations (data segments). Of the number of safety criteria participants use to assess bus safety, vehicle condition, driver’s marital status, and transport operator’s safety records were the most considered. With each criterion, participants rightly demonstrated its respective relevance to bus safety. These findings imply that investment in and maintenance of safer vehicles, and responsible and safety-conscious drivers, and prioritization of passengers’ safety are key-targets for public bus/minibus operators in Ghana.
Scoring Approach to Identify High-Risk Corridors for Winter Safety Measures ‎in the Iranian Roads Network
From the managerial perspective, it is important to devise an operational plan based on top priorities due to limited resources, diversity of measures and high costs needed to improve safety in infrastructure. Dealing with the high-risk corridors across Iran, this study prioritized the corridors according to statistical data on accidents involving fatalities, injury or damage over three consecutive years. In collaboration with the Iranian Police Department, data were collected and modified. Then, the prioritization criteria were specified based on the expertise opinions and international standards. In this study, the prioritization criteria included accident severity and accident density. Finally, the criteria were standardized and weighted (equal weights) to score each high-risk corridor. The prioritization phase involved the scoring and weighting procedure. The high-risk corridors were divided into twelve groups out of 50. The results of data analysis for a three-year span suggested that the first three groups (150 corridors) along with a quarter of Iranian road network length account for nearly 60% of traffic accidents. In the next step, according to variables including weather conditions particular roads for the purpose of winter safety measures were extracted from the abovementioned categories. According to the results ranking, ‎‏9‏‎ roads with the overall ‎length of about ‎‎‏1000‏‎ Km of high-risk corridors are considered as preferences of ‎safety measures‎.
In-Depth Investigations on the Sequences of Accidents of Powered Two Wheelers Based on Police Crash Reports of Medan, North Sumatera Province Indonesia, Using Decision Aiding Processes
This paper seeks the incoherencies in cognitive process during an accident of Powered Two Wheelers (PTW) by understanding the factual sequences of events and causal relations for each case of accident. The principle of this approach is undertaking in-depth investigations on case per case of PTW accidents based on elaborate data acquisitions on accident sites that officially stamped in Police Crash Report (PCRs) 2012 of Medan with criteria, involved at least one PTW and resulted in serious injury and fatalities. The analysis takes into account four modules: accident chronologies, perpetrator, and victims, injury surveillance, vehicles and road infrastructures, comprising of traffic facilities, road geometry, road alignments and weather. The proposal for improvement could have provided a favorable influence on the chain of functional processes and events leading to collision. Decision Aiding Processes (DAP) assists in structuring different entities at different decisional levels, as each of these entities has its own objectives and constraints. The entities (A) are classified into 6 groups of accidents: solo PTW accidents; PTW vs. PTW; PTW vs. pedestrian; PTW vs. motor-trishaw; and PTW vs. other vehicles and consecutive crashes. The entities are also distinguished into 4 decisional levels: level of road users and street systems; operational level (crash-attended police officers or CAPO and road engineers), tactical level (Regional Traffic Police, Department of Transportation, and Department of Public Work), and strategic level (Traffic Police Headquarters (TCPHI)), parliament, Ministry of Transportation and Ministry of Public Work). These classifications will lead to conceptualization of Problem Situations (P) and Problem Formulations (I) in DAP context. The DAP concerns the sequences process of the incidents until the time the accident occurs, which can be modelled in terms of five activities of procedural rationality: identification on initial human features (IHF), investigation on proponents attributes (PrAT), on Injury Surveillance (IS), on the interaction between IHF and PrAt and IS (intercorrelation), then unravel the sequences of incidents; filtering and disclosure, which include: what needs to activate, modify or change or remove, what is new and what is priority. These can relate to the activation or modification or new establishment of law. The PrAt encompasses the problems of environmental, road infrastructure, road and traffic facilities, and road geometry. The evaluation model (MP) is generated to bridge P and I since MP is produced by the intercorrelations among IHF, PrAT and IS extracted from the PCRs 2012 of Medan. There are 7 findings of incoherences: lack of knowledge and awareness on the traffic regulations and the risks of accidents, especially when riding between 0 < x < 10 km from house, riding between 22 p.m.–05.30 a.m.; lack of engagements on procurement of IHF Data by CAPO; lack of competency of CAPO on data procurement in accident-sites; no intercorrelation among IHF and PrAt and IS in the database systems of PCRs; lack of maintenance and supervision on the availabilities and the capacities of traffic facilities and road infrastructure; instrumental bias with wash-back impacts towards the TCPHI; technical robustness with wash-back impacts towards the CAPO and TCPHI.
A Systematic Categorization of Arguments against the Vision Zero Goal: A Literature Review
The Vision Zero is a long-term goal of preventing all road traffic fatalities and serious injuries which was first adopted in Sweden in 1997. It is based on the assumption that death and serious injury in the road system is morally unacceptable. In order to approach this end, vision zero has put in place strategies that are radically different from the traditional safety work. The vision zero, for instance, promoted the adoption of the best available technology to promote safety, and placed the ultimate responsibility for traffic safety on system designers. Despite Vision Zero’s moral appeal and its expansion to different safety areas and also parts of the world, important philosophical concerns related to the adoption and implementation of the vision zero remain to be addressed. Moreover, the vision zero goal has been criticized on different grounds. The aim of this paper is to identify and systematically categorize criticisms that have been put forward against vision zero. The findings of the paper are solely based on a critical analysis of secondary sources and snowball method is employed to identify the relevant philosophical and empirical literatures. Two general categories of criticisms on the vision zero goal are identified. The first category consists of criticisms that target the setting of vision zero as a ‘goal’ and some of the basic assumptions upon which the goal is based. Among others, the goal of achieving zero fatalities and serious injuries, together with vision zero’s lexicographical prioritization of safety has been criticized as unrealistic. The second category consists of criticisms that target the strategies put in place to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries. For instance, Vision zero’s responsibility ascription for road safety and its rejection of cost-benefit analysis in the formulation and adoption of safety measures has both been criticized as counterproductive. In this category also falls the criticism that Vision Zero safety measures tend to be too paternalistic. Significant improvements have been recorded in road safety work since the adoption of vision zero, however, for the vision zero to even succeed more, it is important that issues and criticisms of philosophical nature associated with it are identified and critically dealt with.
Modelling the Effect of Physical Environmental Factors on Child Pedestrian Severity Collisions in Malaysia: A Multinomial Logistic Regression Analysis
Children are at the greater risk to be involved in road traffic collisions due to the complex interaction of various elements in our transportation system. It encompasses interactions between the elements of children and driver behaviour along with physical and social environmental factors. The present study examined the effect of the collisions' severity and physical environmental factors on child pedestrian collisions. The severity of collisions is categorized into four injury outcomes: fatal, serious injury, slight injury, and damage. The sample size comprised of 2795 cases of child pedestrian-vehicle collisions in which children aged 7 to 12 years old was involved in Malaysia for the years 2006-2015. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to establish the effect between severity levels and physical environmental factors. The results showed that nine contributing factors influence the probability of fatal injury: road surface material, road geometry, road marking, type of traffic control, traffic system, type of area, posted speed limit, lighting condition, and type of location. Understanding the effect of physical environmental factors may contribute to the improvement of physical environment design and decrease the collision involvement.
Evaluating Accessibility to Bangkok Mass Transit System: Case Study of Saphan Taksin Bangkok Mass Transit System Station
Access to the mass transit system, including rapid elevated and underground transport has become an outstanding issue for many cities. The mass transit access development should be a focus on behavioral responses of the different passenger groups and the appearance of intent-oriented action related accessibility that was explored from user’s satisfaction and attitudes related to services quality. Therefore understanding the passenger’s attitudes about mass transit accessibility. This study aims to evaluate mass transit accessibility from passenger’s satisfaction. The study area of this research is Bangkok Mass Transit system (BTS Skytrain) at Saphan Taksin station. 200 passengers at Saphan Taksin station were asked to rate the questionnaires survey that considers accessibility aspects of convenience, safety, feeder connectivity, and other dimensions. The survey was to find out the passenger attitudes and satisfaction for access to the BTS station, the result shows several factors that influence the passenger choice of using the BTS as a public transportation mode and passenger’s opinion that need to concern for the development mass transit system and accessibility performance.
Using Google Distance Matrix Application Programming Interface to Reveal and Handle Urban Road Congestion Hot Spots: A Case Study from Budapest
In recent years, a growing body of literature emphasizes the increasingly negative impacts of urban road congestion in the everyday life of citizens. Although there are different responses from the public sector to decrease traffic congestion in urban regions, the most effective public intervention is using congestion charges. Because travel is an economic asset, its consumption can be controlled by extra taxes or prices effectively, but this demand-side intervention is often unpopular. Measuring traffic flows with the help of different methods has a long history in transport sciences, but until recently, there was not enough sufficient data for evaluating road traffic flow patterns on the scale of an entire road system of a larger urban area. European cities (e.g., London, Stockholm, Milan), in which congestion charges have already been introduced, designated a particular zone in their downtown for paying, but it protects only the users and inhabitants of the CBD (Central Business District) area. Through the use of Google Maps data as a resource for revealing urban road traffic flow patterns, this paper aims to provide a solution for a fairer and smarter congestion pricing method in cities. The case study area of the research contains three bordering districts of Budapest which are linked by one main road. The first district (5th) is the original downtown that is affected by the congestion charge plans of the city. The second district (13th) lies in the transition zone, and it has recently been transformed into a new CBD containing the biggest office zone in Budapest. The third district (4th) is a mainly residential type of area on the outskirts of the city. The raw data of the research was collected with the help of Google’s Distance Matrix API (Application Programming Interface) which provides future estimated traffic data via travel times between freely fixed coordinate pairs. From the difference of free flow and congested travel time data, the daily congestion patterns and hot spots are detectable in all measured roads within the area. The results suggest that the distribution of congestion peak times and hot spots are uneven in the examined area; however, there are frequently congested areas which lie outside the downtown and their inhabitants also need some protection. The conclusion of this case study is that cities can develop a real-time and place-based congestion charge system that forces car users to avoid frequently congested roads by changing their routes or travel modes. This would be a fairer solution for decreasing the negative environmental effects of the urban road transportation instead of protecting a very limited downtown area.
The Electric Car Wheel Hub Motor Work Analysis with the Use of 2D FEM Electromagnetic Method and 3D CFD Thermal Simulations
The article is concerned with the design of an electric in wheel hub motor installed in an electric car with two-wheel drive. It presents the construction of the motor on the 3D cross-section model. Work simulation of the motor (applicated to Fiat Panda car) and selected driving parameters such as driving on the road with a slope of 20%, driving at maximum speed, maximum acceleration of the car from 0 to 100 km/h are considered by the authors in the article. The demand for the drive power taking into account the resistance to movement was determined for selected driving conditions. The parameters of the motor operation and the power losses in its individual elements, calculated using the FEM 2D method, are presented for the selected car driving parameters. The calculated power losses are used in 3D models for thermal calculations using the CFD method. Detailed construction of thermal models with materials data, boundary conditions and losses calculated using the FEM 2D method are presented in the article. The article presents and describes calculated temperature distributions in individual motor components such as winding, permanent magnets, magnetic core, body, cooling system components. Generated losses in individual motor components and their impact on the limitation of its operating parameters are described by authors. Attention is paid to the losses generated in permanent magnets, which are a source of heat as the removal of which from inside the motor is difficult. Presented results of calculations show how individual motor power losses, generated in different load conditions while driving, affect its thermal state.
Modeling User Departure Time Choice for Work Trips in High Traffic Suburban Roads
Modeling users’ decisions on departure time choice is the main motivation for this research. In particular, it examines the impact of social-demographic features, household, job characteristics and trip qualities on individuals’ departure time choice. Departure time alternatives are presented as adjacent discrete time periods. The choice between these alternatives is done using a discrete choice model. Since a great deal of early morning trips and traffic congestion at that time of the day comprise work trips, the focus of this study is on the work trip over the entire day. Therefore, this study by using the users’ stated preference in questionnaire models users’ departure time choice affected by congestion pricing schemes in high traffic suburban entrance roads of Tehran. The results demonstrate efficient social-demographic impact on work trips’ departure time. These findings have substantial outcomes for the analysis of transportation planning. Particularly, the analysis shows that ignoring the effects of these variables could result in erroneous information and consequently decisions in the field of transportation planning and air quality would fail and cause financial resources loss.
Understanding the Factors That Enable Logistics Integration in the ‎Port Sector: Evidence from Iranian Seaport Sector
The main purpose of this research is to propose a conceptual framework to analyze port logistics integration in general and for the Iranian port sector in particular, including consideration of the challenges, outcomes, and opportunities in implementing port logistics integration. First, a literature review of studies on logistics integration in seaports and terminals is conducted. Second, a new conceptual framework for port logistics integration is proposed to incorporate the role of the new variables emerging from the recent developments in the global business environment. The literature review has found the logistics process and operations, information integration, value-added services, and logistics practices, organizational activities, resource sharing and institutional support being influential to logistics integration. The study used survey method to test the proposed conceptual framework. Both online and self-administrative survey have been used to collect data from ‎port official staffs in Iranian seaports and their associations (internal port ‎stakeholders) as well ‎as other experts in various actors. In the study, the questionnaire was first validated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and then by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results of the EFA and CFA confirmed the finding from the literature review. Research results and conceptual framework shed the lights on port logistics integration concept and suggest guidelines and procedures improve port logistics integration.
Subway Ridership Estimation at a Station-Level: Focus on the Impact of Bus Demand, Commercial Business Characteristics, and Network Topology
The primary purpose of this study is to develop a methodological framework to predict daily subway ridership at a station-level and to examine the association between subway ridership and bus demand incorporating commercial business facility in the vicinity of each subway station. The socio-economic characteristics, land-use, and built environment as factors may have an impact on subway ridership. However, it should be considered not only the endogenous relationship between bus and subway demand but also the characteristics of commercial business within a subway station’s sphere of influence, and integrated transit network topology. Regarding a statistical approach to estimate subway ridership at a station level, therefore it should be considered endogeneity and heteroscedastic issues which might have in the subway ridership prediction model. This study focused on both discovering the impacts of bus demand, commercial business characteristics, and network topology on subway ridership and developing more precise subway ridership estimation accounting for its statistical bias. The spatial scope of the study covers entire Seoul city in South Korea and includes 243 stations with the temporal scope set at twenty-four hours with one-hour interval time panels each. The data for subway and bus ridership was collected Seoul Smart Card data from 2015 and 2016. Three-Stage Least Square(3SLS) approach was applied to develop daily subway ridership model as capturing the endogeneity and heteroscedasticity between bus and subway demand. Independent variables incorporating in the modeling process were commercial business characteristics, social-economic characteristics, safety index, transit facility attributes, and dummies for seasons and time zone. As a result, it was found that bus ridership and subway ridership were endogenous each other and they had a significantly positive sign of coefficients which means one transit mode could increase another transportation mode’s ridership. In other words, two transit modes of subway and bus have a mutual relationship instead of the competitive relationship. The commercial business characteristics are the most critical dimension among the independent variables. The variables of commercial business facility rate in the paper containing six types; medical, educational, recreational, financial, food service, and shopping. From the model result, a higher rate in medical, financial buildings, shopping, and food service facility lead to increment of subway ridership at a station, while recreational and educational facility shows lower subway ridership. The complex network theory was applied for estimating integrated network topology measures that cover the entire Seoul transit network system, and a framework for seeking an impact on subway ridership. The centrality measures were found to be significant and showed a positive sign indicating higher centrality led to more subway ridership at a station level. The results of model accuracy tests by out of samples provided that 3SLS model has less mean square error rather than OLS and showed the methodological approach for the 3SLS model was plausible to estimate more accurate subway ridership. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (2017R1C1B2010175).
From Circular Road to Infinite Lane: Stability Results for Microscopic Optimal Velocity Models
Microscopic optimal velocity models are a popular tool to understand and predict vehicular dynamics. For analytical and numerical convenience, a common approach is to study these models under periodic boundary conditions, corresponding to a circular road of a certain circumference. However, in this setting, it is possible that the indirect recurrence of information causes unwanted effects that do not occur in a system of infinitely many cars on a straight road. Thus it is natural to ask in which sense this infinite lane system can be seen as a limit of circular roads of increasing length. This is done first for the standard linear stability analysis of quasistationary solutions by application of the theory of Toeplitz matrices and operators. For the distinction between convective and absolute instability, the usage of exponential weights is adapted from PDE theory. A potential generalisation to the circular road is discussed. The interplay between both settings is also considered in the nonlinear case, where the connection between Hopf periodic solutions and piecewise quasistationary solutions with jumps is investigated.
Kinesthetic and Haptic Influence Parameters in Simulated Vehicular Environments
To ensure safety and usability of innovative input and interaction developments in car cockpits while driving (e.g. contact-free gesture control), it is important to prospectively evaluate these human-machine systems during early stages of development. In order to achieve this goal, valid evaluation methods need to be developed. So far, these so-called dual-task scenarios are predominantly evaluated by using driving simulator environments. Unfortunately, realism and presence experience is often reduced in driving simulators for both, the primary task (driving) and the secondary task (interaction with prototypes). Therefore, the validity of the results within driving simulator environments is often reduced. Data are valid if a transfer to a real (driving) situation is possible. Real car driving studies offer, on the other hand, maximal closeness to reality, but they are harder to control, manipulate, replicate, and standardize as well as more time consuming and costly. This work follows an economizing approach, with the aim to collect valid data within a driving simulator environment in order to minimize the gap between studies in real driving environments and driving simulators. For this purpose, the tactile-kinesthetic parameters, as an immersive component, were varied and analyzed with regard to the validity of driver-behavior in order to create more realistic driving simulator environments. Therefore, the model IG-FaSi (immersive design parameters in driving simulators) were used to analyze objective (e.g. eye tracking) and subjective (e.g. presence experience) variables regarding driver behavioral validity in a driving simulator user study. Objective and subjective data show advantages regarding behavioral and perceptional user experience within simulated vehicular driving environments which map with kinesthetic and haptic parameters from the real car driving studies.
Comparing Objective Driving Behaviour and Subjective Driver Ratings in a Driving Simulator
In terms of progressive development of advanced vehicle technologies, an efficient human-machine interaction plays an important role and guarantees safety. Therefore, an evaluation of the intelligent vehicles and their interaction with the driver is required at the outset of the developments. In this context, driving simulators can be used as an evaluation method in order to be able to draw valid conclusions about human behaviour in a simulated vehicular environment. Consequently, it is important to make a connection between the objectively recorded driving data and the subjectively reported assessment. The goal of the study is to guarantee valid conclusions in a simulated vehicular environment as close as possible to real car studies and data. Therefore, kinesthetic and haptic parameters were implemented and analyzed regarding objective driving behaviour and subjective driver ratings. The study consists of four experimental conditions in which kinesthetic and haptic parameters were varied: 0%, 40%, 70%, and 100%. Objective variables were collected by using the standardized and highly validated Lane Change Task (LCT; ISO, 2008) as a measurement for driver distraction while completing a secondary task. The LCT consists of a sequence of lane change maneuvers which have to be completed while driving with a predefined speed of 60 km/h on a three-lane road. Hereby, the mean deviation has been extracted from the LCT for analyzing the results. It describes the deviation of the driven lane from an individual predefined reference lane (normative model) and shows how distracted the driver is caused by the secondary task. Subjective driver ratings were collected by a questionnaire and focused on e.g. keeping lane, speed and distance. By referring to the driving performance, it can be seen that the participants described their driving performance significantly lower when the driving environment is more immersive and more kinesthetic influence parameters were included (70% and 100%). According to that, objective driving data showed positive effects when more immersive (kinesthetic and haptic) parameters were used. The driving performance was the lowest when no kinesthetic and haptic feedback (0%) was given. The findings can support data from previous real car driving studies. Objective and subjective data show advantages regarding behavioral and perceptional user experience when performing within simulated vehicular driving environments with kinesthetic and haptic parameters.