International Science Index

International Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering

212
96121
Metallurgical Analysis of Surface Defect in Telescopic Front Fork
Abstract:
Telescopic Front Fork (TFF) used in two wheelers, mainly motorcycle, is made from high strength steel, and is manufactured by high frequency induction welding process wherein hot rolled and pickled coils are used as input raw material for rolling of hollow tubes followed by heat treatment, surface treatment, cold drawing, tempering, etc. The final application demands superior quality TFF tubes w.r.t. surface finish and dimensional tolerances. This paper presents the investigation of two different types of failure of fork during operation. The investigation consists of visual inspection, chemical analysis, characterization of microstructure, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. In this paper, comprehensive investigations of two failed tube samples were investigated. In case of Sample #1, the result revealed that there was a pre-existing crack, known as hook crack, which leads to the cracking of the tube. Metallographic examination exhibited that during field operation the pre-existing hook crack was surfaced out leading to crack in the pipe. In case of Sample #2, presence of internal oxidation with decarburised grains inside the material indicates origin of the defect from slab stage.
211
96357
The Use of Building Energy Simulation Software in Case Studies: A Literature Review
Abstract:
The use of Building Energy Simulation (BES) software has increased in the last two decades, parallel to the development of increased computing power and easy to use software applications. This type of software is primarily used to simulate the energy use and the indoor environment for a building. The rapid development of these types of software has raised their level of user-friendliness, better parameter input options and the increased possibility of analysis, both for a single building component or an entire building. This, in turn, has led to many researchers utilizing BES software in their research in various degrees. The aim of this paper is to carry out a literature review concerning the use of the BES software IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE) in the scientific community. The focus of this paper will be specifically the use of the software for whole building energy simulation, number and types of articles and publications dates, the area of application, types of parameters used, the location of the studied building, type of building, type of analysis and solution methodology. Another aspect that is examined, which is of great interest, is the method of validations regarding the simulation results. The results show that there is an upgoing trend in the use of IDA ICE and that researchers use the software in their research in various degrees depending on case and aim of their research. The satisfactory level of validation of the simulations carried out in these articles varies depending on the type of article and type of analysis.
210
96370
Numerical Investigation of Indoor Environmental Quality in a Room Heated with Impinging Jet Ventilation
Abstract:
The indoor environmental quality (IEQ) is increasingly recognized as a significant factor influencing the overall level of building occupants’ health, comfort and productivity. An air-conditioning and ventilation system is normally used to create and maintain good thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Providing occupant thermal comfort and well-being with minimized use of energy is the main purpose of heating, ventilating and air conditioning system. Among different types of ventilation systems, the most widely known and used ventilation systems are mixing ventilation (MV) and displacement ventilation (DV). Impinging jet ventilation (IJV) is a promising ventilation strategy developed in the beginning of 2000s. IJV has the advantage of supplying air downwards close to the floor with high momentum and thereby delivering fresh air further out in the room compare to DV. Operating in cooling mode, IJV systems can have higher ventilation effectiveness and heat removal effectiveness compared to MV, and therefore a higher energy efficiency. However, how is the performance of IJV when operating in heating mode? This paper presents the function of IJV in a typical office room for winter conditions (heating mode). In this paper, a validated CFD model, which uses the v2-f model is used for the prediction of air flow pattern, thermal comfort and air change effectiveness. The office room under consideration has the dimensions 4.2×3.6×2.5m, which can be designed like a single-person or two-person office. A number of important factors influencing in the room with IJV are studied. The considered parameters are: heating demand, number of occupants and supplied air conditions. A total of 6 simulation cases are carried out to investigate the effects of the considered parameters. Heat load in the room is contributed by occupants, computer and lighting. The model consists of one external wall including a window. The interaction effects of heat sources, supply air flow and down draught from the window result in a complex flow phenomenon. Preliminary results indicate that IJV can be used for heating of a typical office room. The IEQ seems to be suitable in the occupied region for the studied cases.
209
94436
Construction Green Aggregates From Waste Processing
Abstract:
Nowadays construction industry is developing means to incorporate waste products in concrete to ensure sustainability. To meet the need of construction industry, a synthetic aggregate was developed using optimized technique called compression moulding press technique. The manufactured aggregate comprises mixture of plastic waste act as binder together with by-product waste act as fillers. The physical properties and microstructures of the inert materials and the manufactured aggregate were examined and compared with the conventional available aggregates. The outcomes suggest that the developed aggregate has potential to be used as substitution of conventional aggregate due to its less weight and water absorption. The microstructure analysis confirmed the efficiency of the manufacturing process where the final product has same mixture of binder and filler.
208
93048
A Modified Refined Higher Order Zigzag Theory for Stress Analysis of Hybrid Composite Laminates
Abstract:
A modified refined higher order zigzag theory has been developed in this paper in order to compute the accurate interlaminar stresses within hybrid laminates. Warping has significant effect on the mechanical behaviour of the laminates. To the best of author(s)’ knowledge the stress analysis of hybrid laminates is not reported in the published literature. The present paper aims to develop a new C0 continuous element based on the refined higher order zigzag theories considering warping effect in the formulation of hybrid laminates. The eight noded isoparametric plate bending element is used for the flexural analysis of laminated composite plates to study the performance of the proposed model. The transverse shear stresses are computed by using the differential equations of stress equilibrium in a simplified manner. A computer code has been developed using MATLAB software package. Several numerical examples are solved to assess the performance of the present finite element model based on the proposed higher order zigzag theory by comparing the present results with three-dimensional elasticity solutions. The present formulation is validated by comparing the results obtained from the relevant literature. An extensive parametric study has been carried out on the hybrid laminates with varying percentage of materials and angle of orientation of fibre content.
207
93050
Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis of Initially Stressed Hybrid Laminated Composite Structures
Abstract:
The present article deals with the free vibration analysis of hybrid laminated composite structures with initial stresses developed in the laminates. Generally initial stresses may be developed in the laminates by temperature and moisture effect. In this study, an eight noded isoparametric plate bending element has been used for the finite element analysis of composite plates. A numerical model has been developed to assess the geometric nonlinear response of composite plates based on higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT) considering the Green–Lagrange type nonlinearity. A computer code based on finite element method (FEM) has also been developed in MATLAB to perform the numerical calculations. To validate the accuracy of the proposed numerical model, the results obtained from the present study are compared with those available in published literature. Effects of the side to thickness ratio, different boundary conditions and initial stresses on the natural frequency of composite plates have been studied. The free vibration analysis of a hollow stiffened hybrid laminated panel has also been carried out considering initial stresses and presented as case study.
206
96222
Comparing Productivity of the Foreign versus Local Construction Workers Based on Their Level of Technical Training and Cultural Characteristics: Case Study of Kish Island, Iran
Abstract:
This study considers the employment of foreign workforce in Kish Free Trade and Industrial Zone and aims to investigate the productivity of foreign construction labours as compared to their local counterpart. Moreover, this study compares work skills and experience of foreign and local Iranian construction workers to optimize construction working conditions. The results and findings have been effectively applied to develop a training program to optimize and promote Iranian workforce productivity and effectiveness in construction industry in comparison with foreign workforce. It is hoped that the accumulated findings contribute to decrease demand for foreign workers and skills shortages in construction sectors. Therefore, job vacancies for local residents in Kish and other looking for job people in main lands will be increased. The method of collecting data has been conducted by distributing a questionnaire and interviewing most foreign construction workers, local Iranian construction works and the project managers of five mega projects in Kish Island including Mica mall, Basak, Persian, Damoon and Sarina mall. All data have been analyzed by SPSS and Excel software. A topic-related survey was conducted through a structured questionnaire including 54 employers, 20 contractors and 13 consultants. About 56 factors were identified. After implementing the context validity test, 52 factors were stated in 52 questions based on five major groups consist of: (1) economical, (2) social and cultural, (3) individual, (4) technical, (5) organizational, environmental and legal. Based on the quantified Relative Importance Index, the ten most important factors, ten less important factors, and three most important categories were identified. To date, there is not any comprehensive study that explores the important critical factors in mega construction projects on Kish Island to identify the major problems to decrease demand for foreign workers.
205
95750
Stability Design by Geometrical Nonlinear Analysis Using Equivalent Geometric Imperfections
Abstract:
The present article describes the research that deals with the development of equivalent geometric imperfections for the stability design of steel members considering lateral-torsional buckling. The application of these equivalent imperfections takes into account the stiffness-reducing effects due to inelasticity and residual stresses, which lead to a reduction of the load carrying capacity of slender members and structures. This allows the application of a simplified design method, that is performed in three steps. Application of equivalent geometric imperfections, determination of internal forces using geometrical non-linear analysis (GNIA) and verification of the cross-section resistance at the most unfavourable location. All three verification steps are closely related and influence the results. The derivation of the equivalent imperfections was carried out in several steps. First, reference lateral-torsional buckling resistances for various rolled I-sections, slenderness grades, load shapes and steel grades were determined. This was done either with geometric and material non-linear analysis with geometrical imperfections and residual stresses (GMNIA) or for standard cases based on the equivalent member method. With the aim of obtaining identical lateral-torsional buckling resistances as the reference resistances from the application of the design method, the required sizes for equivalent imperfections were derived. For this purpose, a program based on the FEM method has been developed. Based on these results, several proposals for the specification of equivalent geometric imperfections have been developed. These differ in the shape of the applied equivalent geometric imperfection, the model of the cross-sectional resistance and the steel grade. The proposed design methods allow a wide range of applications and a reliable calculation of the lateral-torsional buckling resistances, as comparisons between the calculated resistances and the reference resistances have shown.
204
86161
Statistical Correlation between Ply Mechanical Properties of Composite and Its Effect on Structure Reliability
Abstract:
Due to the large uncertainty on the mechanical properties of FRP (fibre reinforced plastic), the reliability evaluation of FRP structures are currently receiving much attention in industry. However, possible statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties has been so far overlooked, and they are mostly assumed to be independent random variables. In this study, the statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties of uni-directional and plain weave composite is firstly analyzed by a combination of Monte-Carlo simulation and finite element modeling of the FRP unit cell. Large linear correlation coefficients between the in-plane mechanical properties are observed, and the correlation coefficients are heavily dependent on the uncertainty of the fibre volume ratio. It is also observed that the correlation coefficients related to Poisson’s ratio are negative while others are positive. To experimentally achieve the statistical correlation coefficients between in-plane mechanical properties of FRP, all concerned in-plane mechanical properties of the same specimen needs to be known. In-plane shear modulus of FRP is experimentally derived by the approach suggested in the ASTM standard D5379M. Tensile tests are conducted using the same specimens used for the shear test, and due to non-uniform tensile deformation a modification factor is derived by a finite element modeling. Digital image correlation is adopted to characterize the specimen non-uniform deformation. The preliminary experimental results show a good agreement with the numerical analysis on the statistical correlation. Then, failure probability of laminate plates is calculated in cases considering and not considering the statistical correlation, using the Monte-Carlo and Markov Chain Monte-Carlo methods, respectively. The results highlight the importance of accounting for the statistical correlation between ply mechanical properties to achieve accurate failure probability of laminate plates. Furthermore, it is found that for the multi-layer laminate plate, the statistical correlation between the ply elastic properties significantly affects the laminate reliability while the effect of statistical correlation between the ply strength is minimal.
203
86173
Influence of Random Fibre Packing on the Compressive Strength of Fibre Reinforced Plastic
Abstract:
The longitudinal compressive strength of fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) possess a large stochastic variability, which limits efficient application of composite structures. This study aims to address how the random fibre packing affects the uncertainty of FRP compressive strength. An novel approach is proposed to generate random fibre packing status by a combination of Latin hypercube sampling and random sequential expansion. 3D nonlinear finite element model is built which incorporates both the matrix plasticity and fibre geometrical instability. The matrix is modeled by isotropic ideal elasto-plastic solid elements, and the fibres are modeled by linear-elastic rebar elements. Composite with a series of different nominal fibre volume fractions are studied. Premature fibre waviness at different magnitude and direction is introduced in the finite element model. Compressive tests on uni-directional CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced plastic) are conducted following the ASTM D6641. By a comparison of 3D FE models and compressive tests, it is clearly shown that the stochastic variation of compressive strength is partly caused by the random fibre packing, and normal or lognormal distribution tends to be a good fit the probabilistic compressive strength. Furthermore, it is also observed that different random fibre packing could trigger two different fibre micro-buckling modes while subjected to longitudinal compression: out-of-plane buckling and twisted buckling. The out-of-plane buckling mode results much larger compressive strength, and this is the major reason why the random fibre packing results a large uncertainty in the FRP compressive strength. This study would contribute to new approaches to the quality control of FRP considering higher compressive strength or lower uncertainty.
202
86184
A Numerical Investigation of Lamb Wave Damage Diagnosis for Composite Delamination Using Instantaneous Phase
Abstract:
This paper presents a study of Lamb wave damage diagnosis of composite delamination using instantaneous phase data. Numerical experiments are performed using the finite element method. Different sizes of delamination damages are modeled using finite element package ABAQUS. Lamb wave excitation and responses data are obtained using a pitch-catch configuration. Empirical mode decomposition is employed to extract the intrinsic mode functions (IMF). Hilbert–Huang Transform is applied to each of the resulting IMF to obtain the instantaneous phase information. The baseline data for healthy plates are also generated using the same procedure. The size of delamination is correlated with the instantaneous phase change for damage diagnosis. It is observed that the unwrapped instantaneous phase shows a consistent behavior with the increasing delamination size.
201
96189
Experimental Studies on Reactive Powder Concrete Containing Steel Fibre and Fly Ash
Authors:
Abstract:
Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is high performance and high strength concrete which composes of very fine powdered materials like cement, sand, silica fume and quartz powder. It also constitutes steel fibre (optional) and super-plasticizer. The present study investigates the performance of reactive powder concrete with fly ash as a replacement of cement under hot water and normal water curing conditions. The replacement of cement with fly ash is done at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. To compare the results of cement replaced RPC and traditional RPC, the performance of various mixes is evaluated by compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength and durability. The results show that with increasing percentage of fly ash, improvement in durability is observed and a slight decrease in compressive strength and flexural strength is also observed. It is observed that specimen under hot water curing showed 15 to 20 % more strength than specimens under normal water curing.
200
97277
Seismic Analysis of Structurally Hybrid Wind Mill Tower
Abstract:
The tall windmill towers are designed as monopole tower or lattice tower. In the present research 125-meter, a high hybrid tower which is a combination of lattice and monopole type is proposed. The response of hybrid tower is compared with conventional monopole tower. The towers were analyzed in Finite element method software considering nonlinear seismic time history load. The synthetic seismic time history for different soil is derived using the seismoartif software. From the present research, it is concluded that in the hybrid tower we are not getting resonance condition. The base shear is less in hybrid tower compared to monopole tower for different soil conditions.
199
91962
Rational Approach to Analysis and Construction of Curved Composite Box Girders in Bridges
Abstract:
Horizontally curved steel-concrete composite box girders are extensively used in highway bridges. They consist of reinforced concrete deck on top of prefabricated steel box section beam which exhibits a high torsional rigidity to resist torsional effects induced by the curved structural geometry. This type of structural system is often constructed in two stages. The composite section will take the tension mainly by the steel box and, the compression by the concrete deck. The steel girders are delivered in large pre-fabricated U-shaped sections that are designed for ease of construction. They are then erected on site and overlaid by cast-in-place reinforced concrete deck. The functionality of the composite section is not achieved until the closed section is formed by fully cured concrete. Since this kind of composite section is built in two stages, the erection of the open steel box presents some challenges to contractors. When the reinforced concrete slab is cast-in-place, special care should be taken on bracings that can prevent the open U-shaped steel box from global and local buckling. In the case of multiple steel boxes, the design detailing should pay enough attention to the installation requirement of the bracings connecting adjacent steel boxes to prevent the global buckling. The slope in transverse direction and grade in longitudinal direction will result in some local deformation of the steel boxes that affect the connection of the bracings. During the design phase, it is common for engineers to model the curved composite box girder using one-dimensional beam elements. This is adequate to analyze the global behavior, however, it is unable to capture the local deformation which affects the installation of the field bracing connection. The presence of the local deformation may become a critical component to control the construction tolerance, and overlooking this deformation will produce inadequate structural details that eventually cause misalignment in field and erection failure. This paper will briefly describe the construction issues we encountered in real structures, investigate the difference between beam element modeling and shell/solid element modeling, and their impact on the different construction stages. P-delta effect due to the slope and curvature of the composite box girder is analyzed, and the secondary deformation is compared to the first-order response and evaluated for its impact on installation of lateral bracings. The paper will discuss the rational approach to prepare construction documents and recommendations are made on the communications between engineers, erectors, and fabricators to smooth out construction process.
198
96937
Shaking Table Test and Seismic Performance Evaluation of Spring Viscous Damper Cable System
Abstract:
This research proposes a self-centering passive damping system consisting of a spring viscous damper linked with a preloaded tendon. The seismic performance of the spring viscous damper is evaluated by pseudo-dynamic tests, and the results are used for the formulation of an analytical model of the damper in the structural analysis program. The shaking table tests of a two-story steel frame installed with the proposed damping system are carried out using five different earthquake records. The results from the shaking table tests are verified by numerical simulation of the retrofitted structure. The results obtained from experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed damping system with self-centering capability is effective in reducing earthquake-induced displacement and member forces. This research was supported by a grant (17CTAPC132889-01) from Technology Advancement Research Program (TARP) funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean Government.
197
97374
Load Rating of Steel Railway Truss Bridges: Field Testing and Finite Element Analysis
Abstract:
For both design and evaluation, primary truss bridge members are often modeled as theoretical axial components, ignoring possible bending. However, this simplifying approach may be unconservative. The issue is addressed here in this research for steel railway truss bridges. Many of them have included collision struts that are ignored in structural analysis for design and evaluation because they are not considered primary truss members. In this investigation, 48 railway truss bridges owned by Canadian National Railway were analyzed using both truss and frame models via finite element (FE) analysis. Eight (8) of them were load tested utilizing strain gauges on various members subjected to train loads. It was found that the truss simplification causes possibly significant underestimation of load effects when ignoring bending and thus is unconservative. Based on these results, adjustment factors (AF) is proposed to be used for load rating these truss spans with collision struts. This AF was found for a number of primary truss members using 46 of the 48 bridges. They were then further verified using the remaining two bridges that were load tested and FE analyzed. The maximum differences found in this verification for the L0U1 and U1L1 members respectively were 1.1% and 3.6%. The resulting AFs are therefore proposed to improve load rating using the traditional methodology of ignoring bending.
196
80028
Practical Methods to Predict the Actual Completion Date of the Project
Abstract:
One of the most important issues for stakeholders, managers and the entire body of the project is to know the actual completion date of the project. Lack of knowledge of this subject and lack of familiarity with the techniques of estimating the actual completion date of the project, additional to the mistaken decisions made by the project managers and stakeholders, will result in financial and credibility losses for the project implementers. This paper presents some of the most practical techniques for predicting the actual completion date used in construction projects, reviewing the conditions of use, and the strengths and weaknesses of each of the techniques.
195
86851
Design Application Procedures of 15 Storied 3D Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall-Frame Structure
Abstract:
This paper presents the design application and reinforcement detailing of 15 storied reinforced concrete shear wall-frame structure based on linear static analysis. Databases are generated for section sizes based on automated structural optimization method utilizing Active-set Algorithm in MATLAB platform. The design constraints of allowable section sizes, capacity criteria and seismic provisions for static loads, combination of gravity and lateral loads are checked and determined based on ASCE 7-10 documents and ACI 318-14 design provision. The result of this study illustrates the efficiency of proposed method, and is expected to provide a useful reference in designing of RC shear wall-frame structures.
194
95557
Numerical Prediction of Width Crack of Concrete Dapped-End Beams
Abstract:
Several methods have been utilized to study the prediction of cracking of concrete structural under loading. The finite element analysis is an alternative that shows good results. The aim of this work was the numerical study of the width crack in reinforced concrete beams with dapped ends, these are frequently found in bridge girders and precast concrete construction. Properly restricting cracking is an important aspect of the design in dapped ends, it has been observed that the cracks that exceed the allowable widths are unacceptable in an aggressive environment for reinforcing steel. For simulating the crack width, the discrete crack approach was considered by means of a Cohesive Zone (CZM) Model using a function to represent the crack opening. Two cases of dapped-end were constructed and tested in the laboratory of Structures and Materials of Engineering Institute of UNAM. The first case considers a reinforcement based on hangers as well as on vertical and horizontal ring, the second case considers 50% of the vertical stirrups in the dapped end to the main part of the beam were replaced by an equivalent area (vertically projected) of diagonal bars under. The loading protocol consisted on applying symmetrical loading to reach the service load. The models were performed using the software package ANSYS v. 16.2. The concrete structure was modeled using three-dimensional solid elements SOLID65 capable of cracking in tension and crushing in compression. Drucker-Prager yield surface was used to include the plastic deformations. The reinforcement was introduced with smeared approach. Interface delamination was modeled by traditional fracture mechanics methods such as the nodal release technique adopting softening relationships between tractions and the separations, which in turn introduce a critical fracture energy that is also the energy required to break apart the interface surfaces. This technique is called CZM. The interface surfaces of the materials are represented by a contact elements Surface-to-Surface (CONTA173) with bonded (initial contact). The Mode I dominated bilinear CZM model assumes that the separation of the material interface is dominated by the displacement jump normal to the interface. Furthermore, the opening crack was taken into consideration according to the maximum normal contact stress, the contact gap at the completion of debonding, and the maximum equivalent tangential contact stress. The contact elements were placed in the crack re-entrant corner. To validate the proposed approach, the results obtained with the previous procedure are compared with experimental test. A good correlation between the experimental and numerical Load-Displacement curves was presented, the numerical models also allowed to obtain the load-crack width curves. In these two cases, the proposed model confirms the capability of predicting the maximum crack width, with an error of ± 30 %. Finally, the orientation of the crack is a fundamental for the prediction of crack width. The results regarding the crack width can be considered as good from the practical point view. Load-Displacement curve of the test and the location of the crack were able to obtain favorable results.
193
97406
Analytical Study of the Structural Response to Near-Field Earthquakes
Abstract:
Numerous earthquakes, which have taken place across the world, led to catastrophic damage and collapse of structures (e.g., 1971 San Fernando; 1995 Kobe-Japan; and 2010 Chile earthquakes). Engineers are constantly studying methods to moderate the effect this phenomenon has on structures to further reduce damage, costs, and ultimately to provide life safety to occupants. However, there are regions where structures, cities, or water reservoirs are built near fault lines. When an earthquake occurs near the fault lines, they can be categorized as near-field earthquakes. In contrary, a far-field earthquake occurs when the region is further away from the seismic source. A near-field earthquake generally has a higher initial peak resulting in a larger seismic response, when compared to a far-field earthquake ground motion. These larger responses may result in serious consequences in terms of structural damage which can result in a high risk for the public’s safety. Unfortunately, the response of structures subjected to near-field records are not properly reflected in the current building design specifications. For example, in ASCE 7-10, the design response spectrum is mostly based on the far-field design-level earthquakes. This may result in the catastrophic damage of structures that are not properly designed for near-field earthquakes. This research investigates the knowledge that the effect of near-field earthquakes has on the response of structures. To fully examine this topic, a structure was designed following the current seismic building design specifications, e.g. ASCE 7-10 and ACI 318-14, being analytically modeled, utilizing the SAP2000 software. Next, utilizing the FEMA P695 report, several near-field and far-field earthquakes were selected, and the near-field earthquake records were scaled to represent the design-level ground motions. Upon doing this, the prototype structural model, created using SAP2000, was subjected to the scaled ground motions. A Linear Time History Analysis and Pushover analysis were conducted on SAP2000 for evaluation of the structural seismic responses. On average, the structure experienced an 8% and 1% increase in story drift and absolute acceleration, respectively, when subjected to the near-field earthquake ground motions. The pushover analysis was ran to find and aid in properly defining the hinge formation in the structure when conducting the nonlinear time history analysis. A near-field ground motion is characterized by a high-energy pulse, making it unique to other earthquake ground motions. Therefore, pulse extraction methods were used in this research to estimate the maximum response of structures subjected to near-field motions. The results will be utilized in the generation of a design spectrum for the estimation of design forces for buildings subjected to NF ground motions.
192
87950
Modern Methods of Construction (MMC): The Potentials and Challenges of Using Prefabrication Technology for Building Modern Houses in Afghanistan
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to study Modern Methods of Construction (MMC); specifically, the prefabrication technology and check the applicability, suitability, and benefits of this construction technique over conventional methods for building new houses in Afghanistan. Construction industry and house building sector are a key contributor to Afghanistan’s economy. However, this sector is challenged with lack of innovation and severe impacts that it has on the environment due to huge amount of construction waste from building, demolition and or renovation activities. This paper studies the prefabrication technology, a popular MMC that is becoming more common, improving in quality and being available in a variety of budgets. Several feasibility studies worldwide have revealed that this method is the way forward in improving construction industry performance as it has been proven to reduce construction time, construction wastes and improve the environmental performance of the construction processes. In addition, this study emphasizes on 'sustainability' in-house building, since it is a common challenge in housing construction projects on a global scale. This challenge becomes more severe in the case of under-developed countries, like Afghanistan. Because, most of the houses are being built in the absence of a serious quality control mechanism and dismissive to basic requirements of sustainable houses; well-being, cost-effectiveness, minimization - prevention of wastes production during construction and use, and severe environmental impacts in view of a life cycle assessment. Methodology: A literature review and study of the conventional practices of building houses in urban areas of Afghanistan. A survey is also being completed to study the potentials and challenges of using prefabrication technology for building modern houses in the cities across the country. A residential housing project is selected for case study to determine the drawbacks of current construction methods vs. prefabrication technique for building a new house. Originality: There are little previous research available about MMC considering its specific impacts on sustainability related to house building practices. This study will be specifically of interest to a broad range of people, including planners, construction managers, builders, and house owners.
191
90378
Numerical Simulation of Precast Concrete Panels for Airfield Pavement
Abstract:
Numerical analysis software belong to the main tools for simulating the real behavior of various concrete structures and elements. In comparison with experimental tests, they offer an affordable way to study the mechanical behavior of structures under various conditions. The contribution deals with a precast element of an innovative airfield pavement system which is being developed within an ongoing scientific project. The proposed system consists a two-layer surface course of precast concrete panels positioned on a two-layer base of fiber-reinforced concrete with recycled aggregate. As the panels are supposed to be installed directly on the hardened base course, imperfections at the interface between the base course and surface course are expected. Considering such circumstances, three various behavior patterns could be established and considered when designing the precast element. Enormous costs of full-scale experiments force to simulate the behavior of the element in a numerical analysis software using finite element method. The simulation was conducted on a nonlinear model in order to obtain such results which could fully compensate results from the experiments. First, several loading schemes were considered with the aim to observe the critical one which was used for the simulation later on. The main objective of the simulation was to optimize reinforcement of the element subject to quasi-static loading from airplanes. When running the simulation several parameters were considered. Namely, it concerns geometrical imperfections, manufacturing imperfections, stress state in reinforcement, stress state in concrete and crack width. The numerical simulation revealed that the precast element should be heavily reinforced to fulfill all the demands assumed. The main cause of using high amount of reinforcement is the size of the imperfections which could occur at real structure. Improving manufacturing quality, the installation of the precast panels on a fresh base course or using a bedding layer underneath the surface course belong to the main steps how to reduce the size of imperfections and consequently lower the consumption of reinforcement.
190
95013
An Exploratory Study on Challenges of Public Private Partnership Projects in Oman
Abstract:
The limitation of the public funds for the infrastructure projects and with the deterioration of international oil prices and the negative consequences on the economies of oil producing and exporting countries, Oman has encouraged the partnership between the public and private sectors. As the private sector has a role in planning, financing, designing, operating and the maintenance of the public services. There is no doubt that, the adoption of Public Private Partnership (PPP) strategy faces many challenges which might affect the project seriously if it is not overcome in earlier time. These challenges depend on the level of understanding of the strategy, the roles and regulations and the availability of resources as well. This research aims at identifying the challenges facing the PPP infrastructure projects in Oman based on the similar previous studies supported by questionnaire survey and semi structured interviews. It also seeks to discuss the rationale for adoption in Oman and uncover the current status of PPP strategy. The identified challenges were ranked according to the importance index of each challenge. After analysis of data, it has observed that, the main challenges facing PPPs projects in Oman are high participation cost, high projects cost and regulation changes. The PPP strategy has to be adopted well and with a high level of experience in order to ensure a successful implementation of PPP projects in Oman.
189
92464
The Derivation of a Four-Strain Optimized Mohr's Circle for Use in Experimental Reinforced Concrete Research
Abstract:
One of the best ways of improving our understanding of reinforced concrete is through large-scale experimental testing. The gathered information is critical in making inferences about structural mechanics and deriving the mathematical models that are the basis for finite element analysis programs and design codes. An effective way of measuring the strains across a region of a specimen is by using a system of surface mounted Linear Variable Differential Transformers (LVDTs). While a single LVDT can only measure the linear strain in one direction, by combining several measurements at known angles a Mohr’s circle of strain can be derived for the whole region under investigation. This paper presents a method that can be used by researchers, which improves the accuracy and removes experimental bias in the calculation of the Mohr’s circle, using four rather than three independent strain measurements. Obtaining high quality strain data is essential, since knowing the angular deviation (shear strain) and the angle of principal strain in the region are important properties in characterizing the governing structural mechanics. For example, the Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT) developed at the University of Toronto, is a rotating crack model that requires knowing the direction of the principal stress and strain, and then calculates the average secant stiffness in this direction. But since LVDTs can only measure average strains across a plane (i.e., between discrete points), localized cracking and spalling that typically occur in reinforced concrete, can lead to unrealistic results. To build in redundancy and improve the quality of the data gathered, the typical experimental setup for a large-scale shell specimen has four independent directions (X, Y, H, and V) that are instrumented. The question now becomes, which three should be used? The most common approach is to simply discard one of the measurements. The problem is that this can produce drastically different answers, depending on the three strain values that are chosen. To overcome this experimental bias, and to avoid simply discarding valuable data, a more rigorous approach would be to somehow make use of all four measurements. This paper presents the derivation of a method to draw what is effectively a Mohr’s circle of 'best-fit', which optimizes the circle by using all four independent strain values. The four-strain optimized Mohr’s circle approach has been utilized to process data from recent large-scale shell tests at the University of Toronto (Ruggiero, Proestos, and Bruun), where analysis of the test data has shown that the traditional three-strain method can lead to widely different results. This paper presents the derivation of the method and shows its application in the context of two reinforced concrete shells tested in pure torsion. In general, the constitutive models and relationships that characterize reinforced concrete are only as good as the experimental data that is gathered – ensuring that a rigorous and unbiased approach exists for calculating the Mohr’s circle of strain during an experiment, is of utmost importance to the structural research community.
188
89359
Reliability Analysis of Glass Epoxy Composite Plate under Low Velocity
Abstract:
Safety assurance and failure prediction of composite material component of an offshore structure due to low velocity impact is essential for associated risk assessment. It is important to incorporate uncertainties associated with material properties and load due to an impact. Likelihood of this hazard causing a chain of failure events plays an important role in risk assessment. The material properties of composites mostly exhibit a scatter due to their in-homogeneity and anisotropic characteristics, brittleness of the matrix and fiber and manufacturing defects. In fact, the probability of occurrence of such a scenario is due to large uncertainties arising in the system. Probabilistic finite element analysis of composite plates due to low-velocity impact is carried out considering uncertainties of material properties and initial impact velocity. Impact-induced damage of composite plate is a probabilistic phenomenon due to a wide range of uncertainties arising in material and loading behavior. A typical failure crack initiates and propagates further into the interface causing de-lamination between dissimilar plies. Since individual crack in the ply is difficult to track. The progressive damage model is implemented in the FE code by a user-defined material subroutine (VUMAT) to overcome these problems. The limit state function is accordingly established while the stresses in the lamina are such that the limit state function (g(x)>0). The Gaussian process response surface method is presently adopted to determine the probability of failure. A comparative study is also carried out for different combination of impactor masses and velocities. The sensitivity based probabilistic design optimization procedure is investigated to achieve better strength and lighter weight of composite structures. Chain of failure events due to different modes of failure is considered to estimate the consequences of failure scenario. Frequencies of occurrence of specific impact hazards yield the expected risk due to economic loss.
187
91086
Uncertainty Quantification of Corrosion Anomaly Length of Oil and Gas Steel Pipelines Based on Inline Inspection and Field Data
Abstract:
The high resolution inline inspection (ILI) tool is used extensively in the pipeline industry to identify, locate, and measure metal-loss corrosion anomalies on buried oil and gas steel pipelines. Corrosion anomalies may occur singly (i.e. individual anomalies) or as clusters (i.e. a colony of corrosion anomalies). Although the ILI technology has advanced immensely, there are measurement errors associated with the sizes of corrosion anomalies reported by ILI tools due limitations of the tools and associated sizing algorithms, and detection threshold of the tools (i.e. the minimum detectable feature dimension). Quantifying the measurement error in the ILI data is crucial for corrosion management and developing maintenance strategies that satisfy the safety and economic constraints. Studies on the measurement error associated with the length of the corrosion anomalies (in the longitudinal direction of the pipeline) has been scarcely reported in the literature and will be investigated in the present study. Limitations in the ILI tool and clustering process can sometimes cause clustering error, which is defined as the error introduced during the clustering process by including or excluding a single or group of anomalies in or from a cluster. Clustering error has been found to be one of the biggest contributory factors for relatively high uncertainties associated with ILI reported anomaly length. As such, this study focuses on developing a consistent and comprehensive framework to quantify the measurement errors in the ILI-reported anomaly length by comparing the ILI data and corresponding field measurements for individual and clustered corrosion anomalies. The analysis carried out in this study is based on the ILI and field measurement data for a set of anomalies collected from two segments of a buried natural gas pipeline currently in service in Alberta, Canada. Data analyses showed that the measurement error associated with the ILI-reported length of the anomalies without clustering error, denoted as Type I anomalies is markedly less than that for anomalies with clustering error, denoted as Type II anomalies. A methodology employing data mining techniques is further proposed to classify the Type I and Type II anomalies based on the ILI-reported corrosion anomaly information.
186
96939
Multi-Criteria Bid/No Bid Decision Support Framework for General Contractors: A Case of Pakistan
Abstract:
In construction industry, adequate and effective decision-making can mean the difference between success and failure. Bidding is the most important element of construction business since it is a mean by which contractors obtain work. This is probably the only option for any contractor firm to sustain in market and achieve its objective of earning the profits by winning tenders. The capability to select most appropriate ventures not only defines the success and wellbeing of contractor firms, but also their survival and sustainability in the industry. The construction practitioners are usually on their own when it comes to deciding for bidding for a project or not. Usually, experience based solutions are offered where a lot of subjectivity is involved. This research has been opted considering the local construction industry of Pakistan in order to examine the critical success factors from contractors’ perspective while making bidding decisions, listing and evaluating critical factors in order of their importance, categorization of these factors into decision support & decision oppose groups and to develop a framework to help contractors in decision-making process. Literature review, questionnaires and structured interviews are used for identification and quantification of factors affecting bid/no bid decision-making. Statistical methods of ranking analysis and analytical hierarchy process of multi-criteria decision making method are used for analysis. It is found that profitability, need for work and financial health of client are the most decisive factors in bid/no bid decision-making while project size, project type, fulfilling the tender conditions imposed by the client and relationship, identity & reputation of client are least impact factors in bid/no bid decision-making. Further, to verify the developed framework, case studies have been conducted to evaluate the bid/no bid decision-making in building procurement. This is the first of its nature study in the context of local construction industry and recommends using a holistic decision-making framework for such business-critical deliberations.
185
97001
The Effect of Critical Activity on Critical Path and Project Duration in Precedence Diagram Method
Abstract:
The additional relationships, i.e., start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish, between activity in Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) provides more flexible schedule than traditional Critical Path Method (CPM). But, changing the duration of critical activities in PDM network will have anomalous effect on critical path and the project completion date. In this study, we classified the critical activities in two groups, i.e., 1. activity on single critical path and 2. activity on multi-critical paths, and six classes, i.e., normal, reverse, neutral, perverse, decrease-reverse and increase-normal, based on their effects on project duration in PDM. Furthermore, we determined the maximum float of time by which the duration each type of critical activities can be changed without effecting on project duration. This study would help the project manager to clearly understand the behavior of each critical activity on critical path, and he/she would be able to change the project duration by shortening or lengthening activities based on project budget and project deadline.
184
93473
Comparison of the Existing Damage Indices in Steel Moment-Resisting Frame Structures
Abstract:
Assessment of seismic behavior of frame structures is just done for evaluating life and financial damages or lost. The new structural seismic behavior assessment methods have been proposed, so it is necessary to define a formulation as a damage index, which the damage amount has been quantified and qualified. In this paper, four new steel moment-resisting frames with intermediate ductility and different height (2, 5, 8, and 12-story) with regular geometry and simple rectangular plan were supposed and designed. The three existing groups’ damage indices were studied, each group consisting of local index (Drift, Maximum Roof Displacement, Banon Failure, Kinematic, Banon Normalized Cumulative Rotation, Cumulative Plastic Rotation and Ductility), global index (Roufaiel and Meyer, Papadopoulos, Sozen, Rosenblueth, Ductility and Base Shear), and story (Banon Failure and Inter-story Rotation). The necessary parameters for these damage indices have been calculated under the effect of far-fault ground motion records by Non-linear Dynamic Time History Analysis. Finally, prioritization of damage indices is defined based on more conservative values in terms of more damageability rate. The results show that the selected damage index has an important effect on estimation of the damage state. Also, failure, drift, and Rosenblueth damage indices are more conservative indices respectively for local, story and global damage indices.
183
89497
Analysing Implementation of Best Practices in Construction Contracts for Dispute Avoidance
Abstract:
Disputes and litigation are becoming inherent to the construction industry in India, and despite construction being one of the major drivers of growth, there have not been many reforms in the government construction contracts. Many of the disputes arising from the government contracts, can be avoided by the proper drafting of contracts and their administration. This study aims to 1) identify the best practices in the construction contract as reviewed from the research papers and additional literature on contract management, 2) obtain perspectives from the industry experts on the implementation of these best practices with regards to likely challenges and relative benefits for implementing the best practices in construction contracts. The best practices for disputes arising due to delay events have been identified through extensive literature survey. The industry perspective is gathered by way of a questionnaire survey to understand the applicability of the identified best practices, the benefits that are likely to be obtained and the challenges that are likely to be faced in the implementation of these practices. The study concludes with the recommended best practices that can be implemented based on the perspectives obtained from the survey. The findings of the study can be used by the industry professionals while drafting construction contracts with a view to avoid disputes related to delay events.