International Science Index

International Journal of Physical and Mathematical Sciences

Mechanically Strong and Highly Thermal Conductive Polymer Composites Enabled by Three-Dimensional Interconnected Graphite Network
Three-dimensional (3D) network structure has been recognized as an effective approach to enhance the mechanical and thermal conductive properties of polymeric composites. However, it has not been applied in energetic materials. In this work, a fluoropolymer based composite with vertically oriented and interconnected 3D graphite network was fabricated for polymer bonded explosives (PBXs). Here, the graphite and graphene oxide platelets were mixed, and self-assembled via rapid freezing and using crystallized ice as the template. The 3D structure was finally obtained by freezing-dry and infiltrating with the polymer. With the increasing of filler fraction and cooling rate, the thermal conductivity of the polymer composite was significantly improved to 2.15 W m⁻¹ K⁻¹ by 1094% than that of pure polymer. Moreover, the mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and elastic modulus, were enhanced by 82% and 310%, respectively, when the highly ordered structure was embedded in the polymer. We attribute the increased thermal and mechanical properties to this 3D network, which is beneficial to the effective heat conduction and force transfer. This study supports a desirable way to fabricate the strong and thermal conductive fluoropolymer composites used for the high-performance polymer bonded explosives (PBXs).
Rare-Earth Ions Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals: Luminescence and Raman Spectroscopy
Lithium Niobate (LN) is one of the widely used ferroelectrics having a wide number of applications such as phase-conjugation, holographic storage, frequency doubling, SAW sensors. Furthermore, the possibility of doping with rare-earth ions leads to new laser applications. Ho and Tm dopants seem interesting due to laser emission obtained at around 2 µm. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful spectroscopic technique providing a possibility to obtain a number of information about physicochemical and also optical properties of a given material. Polarized Raman measurements were carried out on Ho and Tm doped LN crystals with excitation wavelengths of 532nm and 785nm. In obtained Raman anti-Stokes spectra, we detect expected modes according to Raman selection rules. In contrast, Raman Stokes spectra are significantly different compared to what is expected by selection rules. Additional forbidden lines are detected. These lines have quite high intensity and are well defined. Moreover, the intensity of mentioned additional lines increases with an increase of Ho or Tm concentrations in the crystal. These additional lines are attributed to emission lines reflecting the photoluminescence spectra of these crystals. It means that in our case we were able to detect, within a very good resolution, in the same Stokes spectrum, the transitions between the electronic states, and the vibrational states as well. The analysis of these data is reported as a function of Ho and Tm content, for different polarizations and wavelengths, of the incident laser beam. Results also highlight additional information about π and σ polarizations of crystals under study.
Effect of Segment Length Modification on Localized Modes in Cantor Bar Microstrip Lines
Many attentions of researchers have been attracted to the photonic band gaps and the localization of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals and metamaterials both in the view point of pure and applied physics. Recently, the photonic gaps and localized modes in a one-dimensional fractal called Cantor bars was studied by our group. It was revealed that there exist extremely low transparency regions corresponding to the photonic gaps and sharp transmission peaks to the localized modes in the stage 3 Cantor bar. It was also found that the central segment of bar undertakes a role of a defect in the photonic crystal. In the present study, the changes of the propagation properties of the microwaves by modification of the segment lengths was investigated. The Cantor bar is formed by extracting the center segment from three equivalent segments obtained by dividing an initial bar and repeating this process on the two remaining segments. The structure fabricated from the nth process is called the stage n Cantor bar. The modified Cantor bar were fabricated using microstrip lines. Copper foil is bonded on surfaces of the dielectric substrate made of polyphenylen oxide. The bottom surface is the conductor for the ground plane. The upper surface has the microstrip line structure. The characteristic impedance and the effective dielectric constant of microstrip line are easily controlled by modulating its line width. The impedance is estimated in terms of the width and thickness of the line and thickness of the substrate. The microstrip lines with modulated self-similar effective dielectric constants were fabricated by modification of either the lengths of central segment or those of the second segment of both sides. The transmission amplitude and phase shift spectra were measured with a vector network analyzer and simulated with the method of moments to investigate the effect of bar length modifications on the characteristics of the localized modes. The spatial distributions of the current density of the localized modes were simulated to investigate the propagation characteristics of the electromagnetic waves in the Cantor bar. The results and conclusions obtained are as follows: (1) The electrical current charts show that there are two types of localized modes where the electromagnetic waves localized either on the central segment area or on the right and left side areas. (2) The modifications of the central and the second segments give frequency shift of the localized modes and hardly influence the band regions. (3) The localized mode frequency is tuned as one’s wish by changing the length of segment where the mode is localized. (4) The localized modes having large Q factor tend to gather in vicinity of fractal pattern generally.
Hand-Held X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Pre-Diagnostic Studies in Conservation, and Limitations
This paper outlines interferences and analytical errors which are encountered in the qualification and quantification of archaeological and ethnographic artifacts, by means of handheld x-ray fluorescence. These shortcomings were evaluated through case studies carried out on metallic artifacts related to various periods and cultures around Anatolia. An Innov-X Delta Standard 2000 handheld x-ray fluorescence spectrometer was used to collect data from 1361 artifacts, through 6789 measurements and 70 hours’ tube usage, in between 2013-2017. Spectrum processing was done by Delta Advanced PC Software. Qualitative and quantitative results screened by the device were compared with the spectrum graphs, and major discrepancies associated with physical and analytical interferences were clarified in this paper.
Numerical Investigations of Unstable Pressure Fluctuations Behavior in a Side Channel Pump
The side channel pump has distinctive hydraulic performance characteristics over other vane pumps because of its generation of high pressure heads in only one impeller revolution. Hence, there is soaring utilization and application in the fields of petrochemical, food processing fields, automotive and aerospace fuel pumping where high heads are required at low flows. The side channel pump is characterized by unstable flow because after fluid flows into the impeller passage, it moves into the side channel and comes back to the impeller again and then moves to the next circulation. Consequently, the flow leaves the side channel pump following a helical path. However, the pressure fluctuation exhibited in the flow greatly contributes to the unwanted noise and vibration which is associated with the flow. In this paper, a side channel pump prototype was examined thoroughly through numerical calculations based on SST k-ω turbulence model to ascertain the pressure fluctuation behavior. The pressure fluctuation intensity of the 3D unstable flow dynamics were carefully investigated under different working conditions 0.8QBEP, 1.0 QBEP and 1.2QBEP. The results showed that the pressure fluctuation distribution around the pressure side of the blade is greater than the suction side at the impeller and side channel interface (z=0) for all three operating conditions. Part-load condition 0.8QBEP recorded the highest pressure fluctuation distribution because of the high circulation velocity thus causing an intense exchanged flow between the impeller and side channel. Time and frequency domains spectra of the pressure fluctuation patterns in the impeller and the side channel were also analyzed under the best efficiency point value, QBEP using the solution from the numerical calculations. It was observed from the time-domain analysis that the pressure fluctuation characteristics in the impeller flow passage increased steadily until the flow reached the interrupter which separates low-pressure at the inflow from high pressure at the outflow. The pressure fluctuation amplitudes in the frequency domain spectrum at the different monitoring points depicted a gentle decreasing trend of the pressure amplitudes which was common among the operating conditions. The frequency domain also revealed that the main excitation frequencies occurred at 600Hz, 1200Hz, and 1800Hz and continued in the integers of the rotating shaft frequency. Also, the mass flow exchange plots indicated that the side channel pump is characterized with many vortex flows. Operating conditions 0.8QBEP, 1.0 QBEP depicted less and similar vortex flow while 1.2Q recorded many vortex flows around the inflow, middle and outflow regions. The results of the numerical calculations were finally verified experimentally. The performance characteristics curves from the simulated results showed that 0.8QBEP working condition recorded a head increase of 43.03% and efficiency decrease of 6.73% compared to 1.0QBEP. It can be concluded that for industrial applications where the high heads are mostly required, the side channel pump can be designed to operate at part-load conditions. This paper can serve as a source of information in order to optimize a reliable performance and widen the applications of the side channel pumps.
Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Applications of Ag-Doped-SnO₂ Nanoparticles by Sol-Gel Method
In recent years, photocatalytic degradation of various kinds of organic and inorganic pollutants using semiconductor powders as photocatalysts has been extensively studied. Owing to its relatively high photocatalytic activity, biological and chemical stability, low cost, nonpoisonous and long stable life, Tin oxide materials have been widely used as catalysts in chemical reactions, including synthesis of vinyl ketone, oxidation of methanol and so on. Tin oxide (SnO₂), with a rutile-type crystalline structure, is an n-type wide band gap (3.6 eV) semiconductor that presents a proper combination of chemical, electronic and optical properties that make it advantageous in several applications. In the present work, SnO₂ nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature by the sol-gel process and thermohydrolysis of SnCl₂ in isopropanol by controlling the crystallite size through calculations. The synthesized nanoparticles were identified by using XRD analysis, TEM, FT-IR, and Uv-Visible spectroscopic techniques. The crystalline structure and grain size of the synthesized samples were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and the XRD patterns confirmed the presence of tetragonal phase SnO₂. In this study, Methylene blue degradation was tested by using SnO₂ nanoparticles (at different calculations temperatures) as a photocatalyst under sunlight as a source of irradiation. The results showed that the highest percentage of degradation of Methylene blue dye was obtained by using SnO₂ photocatalyst at calculations temperature 800 ᵒC. The operational parameters were investigated to be optimized to the best conditions which result in complete removal of organic pollutants from aqueous solution. It was found that the degradation of dyes depends on several parameters such as irradiation time, initial dye concentration, the dose of the catalyst and the presence of metals such as silver as a dopant and its concentration. Percent degradation was increased with irradiation time. The degradation efficiency decreased as the initial concentration of the dye increased. The degradation efficiency increased as the dose of the catalyst increased to a certain level and by further increasing the SnO₂ photocatalyst dose, the degradation efficiency is decreased. The best degradation efficiency on which obtained from pure SnO₂ compared with SnO₂ which doped by different percentage of Ag.
Measurement of Kilowatt Peak Power Using Wideband Photonic-Assisted Field-Probing Receiver
The growing complexity of electronics for both military and commercial applications is resulting in the emissions of more pulsed signals. The time‐varying magnetic and electric fields are two fundamental quantities in pulsed radiation environments. Reliable magnetic field measurements are readily available with B‐dot probes. Unfortunately, electric field of narrow pulsed signal is difficult to detect and even more difficult to properly characterize since it should cover a broad frequency range. There are various techniques for the pulsed signal measurement. Among them, the wideband pulse measurement method can be used when the majority of the RF pulse is within the bandwidth of the receiver. However, the disadvantage of the wideband method is the lower limit of measurable pulse widths. In contrast, narrow pulse widths can be measured using band-limited measurement technique. But, this technique has also limitation of dynamic-range degradation as a function of the duty cycle. To address these disadvantages of two prior measurement methods, the photonic-assisted measurements of pulsed electric field is presented in this paper. To verify the performance of a proposed photonic-assisted field-probing method, an active phased-array transmitter with operating frequency range from 6 GHz to 18 GHz has been developed. In this paper, a field-probing receiver that can be used to measure radiating fields from the phased-array transmitter which generates 1-kW peak pulsed output is presented. It consists of polarization controller, optical circulator, optical amplifier, photodiode, low-noise amplifier, distributed feedback laser diode, and optical power meter. The probe consists of an optical interferometric waveguide on a lithium niobate electro-optic (EO) substrate in the folded Mach-Zehnder (MZ) style. On the waveguide, multi-electrode array is fabricated to enhance the EO modulation depth of the MZ scheme. The electrodes serve as a micro-dipole antenna which electrically induces an electric field onto the optical waveguide. The probe is fairly transparent to electromagnetic fields to minimize the level of field invasiveness, and it is fabricated with compact dimensions of 10 mm × 3 mm × 1 mm. The proposed electric probe has been experimentally validated by electric field measurements on a phase-array transmitter with a sensitivity enhancement of about 14 dB in 12 GHz compared to a commercial electric probe.
Propagation of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays through Extragalactic Magnetic Fields: An Exploratory Study of the Distance Amplification from Rectilinear Propagation
The comprehension of features on the energy spectra, the chemical compositions, and the origins of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) - mainly atomic nuclei with energies above ~1.0 EeV (exa-electron volts) - are intrinsically linked to the problem of determining the magnitude of their deflections in cosmic magnetic fields on cosmological scales. In addition, as they propagate from the source to the observer, modifications are expected in their original energy spectra, anisotropy, and the chemical compositions due to interactions with low energy photons and matter. This means that any consistent interpretation of the nature and origin of UHECRs has to include the detailed knowledge of their propagation in a three-dimensional environment, taking into account the magnetic deflections and energy losses. The parameter space range for the magnetic fields in the universe is very large because the field strength and especially their orientation have big uncertainties. Particularly, the strength and morphology of the Extragalactic Magnetic Fields (EGMFs) remain largely unknown, because of the intrinsic difficulty of observing them. Monte Carlo simulations of charged particles traveling through a simulated magnetized universe is the straightforward way to study the influence of extragalactic magnetic fields on UHECRs propagation. However, this brings two major difficulties: an accurate numerical modeling of charged particles diffusion in magnetic fields, and an accurate numerical modeling of the magnetized Universe. Since magnetic fields do not cause energy losses, it is important to impose that the particle tracking method conserve the particle’s total energy and that the energy changes are results of the interactions with background photons only. Hence, special attention should be paid to computational effects. Additionally, because of the number of particles necessary to obtain a relevant statistical sample, the particle tracking method must be computationally efficient. In this work, we present an analysis of the propagation of ultra-high energy charged particles in the intergalactic medium. The EGMFs are considered to be coherent within cells of 1 Mpc (mega parsec) diameter, wherein they have uniform intensities of 1 nG (nano Gauss). Moreover, each cell has its field orientation randomly chosen, and a border region is defined such that at distances beyond 95% of the cell radius from the cell center smooth transitions have been applied in order to avoid discontinuities. The smooth transitions are simulated by weighting the magnetic field orientation by the particle's distance to the two nearby cells. The energy losses have been treated in the continuous approximation parameterizing the mean energy loss per unit path length by the energy loss length. We have shown, for a particle with the typical energy of interest the integration method performance in the relative error of Larmor radius, without energy losses and the relative error of energy. Additionally, we plotted the distance amplification from rectilinear propagation as a function of the traveled distance, particle's magnetic rigidity, without energy losses, and particle's energy, with energy losses, to study the influence of particle's species on these calculations. The results clearly show when it is necessary to use a full three-dimensional simulation.
Hypergeometric Solutions to Linear Nonhomogeneous Fractional Equations with Spherical Bessel Functions of the First Kind
The use of fractional derivatives to different problems in Engineering and Physics has been increasing in the last decade. For this reason, we have here considered partial derivatives when the integral is a spherical Bessel function of the first kind in both regular and modified ones simple initial conditions have been also considered. In this way, the solution has been found as a combination of hypergeometric functions. The case of a general rational value for α of the fractional derivative α has been solved in a general way for alpha between zero and two. The modified spherical Bessel functions of the first kind have been also considered and how to go from the regular case to the modified one will be also shown.
Nonhomogeneous Linear Fractional Differential Equations Will Bessel Functions of the First Kind Giving Hypergeometric Functions Solutions
Fractional derivatives have become very important in several areas of Engineering, however, the solutions of simple differential equations are not known. Here we are considering the simplest first order nonhomogeneous differential equations with Bessel regular functions of the first kind, in this way the solutions have been found which are hypergeometric solutions for any fractional derivative of order α, where α is rational number α=m/p, between zero and one. The way to find this result is by using Laplace transform and the Caputo definitions of fractional derivatives. This method is for values longer than one. However for α entire number the hypergeometric functions are Kumer type, no integer values of alpha, the hypergeometric function is more complicated is type ₂F₃(a,b,c, t2/2). The argument of the hypergeometric changes sign when we go from the regular Bessel functions to the modified Bessel functions of the first kind, however it integer seems that using precise values of α and considering no integers values of α, a solution can be obtained in terms of two hypergeometric functions. Further research is required for future papers in order to obtain the general solution for any rational value of α.
Linear fractional differential equations for second kind modified Bessel functions
Fractional derivatives have been considered recently as a way to solve different problems in Engineering. In this way, second kind modified Bessel functions are considered here. The order α fractional differential equations of second kind Bessel functions, Kᵥ(x), are studied with simple initial conditions. The Laplace transform and Caputo definition of fractional derivatives are considered. Solutions have been found for ν=1/3, 1/2, 2/3, -1/3, -1/2 and (-2/3). In these cases, the solutions are the sum of two hypergeometric functions. The α fractional derivatives have been for α=1/3, 1/2 and 2/3, and the above values of ν. No convergence has been found for the integer values of ν Furthermore when α has been considered as a rational found m/p, no general solution has been found. Clearly, this case is more difficult to treat than those of first kind Bessel Function.
High Efficiency Ultraviolet Light Dielectric Metasurfaces
Metasurfaces comprise of ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) metal/dielectric phase shifters with subwavelength planar structures. It can precisely control the propagation of incoming optical wavefront to enable users’ independence of propagation effect in contrast to heavy dependence of conventional bulky optical elements. Metasurfaces excels at tailoring their the amplitude and phase responses via rigorous design and optimization, which have demonstrated various intriguing light manipulations, such as incident beams wavefronts engineering, optical imaging encoding, tunable optical components, beam focusing and steering, polarization conversion and orbital angular momentum generation. In the context of photonic miniaturization, metasurfaces not only scales down to ultracompact components but also demonstrate comparable performance or even beyond traditional bulky optical items, which has been a rapidly growing research fields in recent years. Comparing with plasmonic metasurfaces of low efficiency limited by absorption losses across a wide spectrum, low loss dielectrics metasurfaces have been demonstrated to overcome the bottleneck of efficiency. Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) and silicon (amorphous, poly- and single-crystalline) have been overwhelmingly employed to in the visible and near-infrared regimes respectively due to their intrinsic low absorption loss. Recently, high aspect-ratio nano-pillars without resonances of unit cells have been demonstrated to achieve high efficiency above 80% in the transmission mode. Dielectric metasurfaces as an emerging field of artificially engineered surfaces have opened up a multitude of intriguing opportunities for manipulation and control of light in a very precise manner. The drive to make highly efficient dielectric metasurfaces has been the mandatory prerequisite for the futuristic development of planar metadevices and systems. Hitherto, high-efficiency ultraviolet light metasurfaces have not been demonstrated yet for exploitation of the essential optical domain of ultraviolet (UV) light. Extinction coefficient of dielectrics such as TiO₂ and silicon becomes relatively remarkable in the UV spectrum, indicating that their absorption loss cannot be neglected. To address it, the latest achievement will be introduced in this paper on nanostructured semiconductor metasurfaces, which exhibits high transmission efficiency comparable to commercial optical lens in the UV range. This semiconductor exhibits higher band gap energy than titanium dioxide to enable a wider transmission window. We leverage the advanced super-resolution nanofabrication beyond the diffraction limit to make high aspect ratio nanobricks on quartz substrate. After proper design of metasurfaces unit elements, the pattern was transferred into resist to form subwavelength cavities via electron beam lithography. Subsequently, atomic layer deposition (ALD) was applied to grow dielectrics into the cavities till they were fully covered. After that, the excess dielectric film was removed via dry etching process to open the window of resist, which was etched away by oxygen plasma. Eventually, nanobricks of dielectric were realized with an aspect ratio of > 6. About ~60% total transmission efficiency was acquired under illumination of incidence beam of 355 nm wavelength, which is comparable to the leading brand objective lens. Our work facilitates metasurfaces to find applications in optical nanolithography and anti-counterfeiting and extend the operating wavelength of metasurfaces from infrared, visible to the UV regime.
Polyethylenimine-Ethoxylated Dual Interfacial Layers for High-Efficient Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Diodes
We controlled the electron injection rate in inverted quantum dot light-emitting diode (QLED) by inserting PEIE layer between ZnO electron transport layer(ETL) and quantum dots(QDs) layer and successfully demonstrated high efficiency of QLEDs. The inverted QLED has the layer structure of ITO(cathode)/ ZnO NPs/PEIE/QDs/PEIE/P-TPD/MoO3/Al(anode). The PEIE between poly-TPD hole transport layer (HTL) and quantum dot emitting layer protects QD EML during HTL coating process and improves the surface morphology. In addition, the hole injection barrier is reduced by upshifting the valence band maximum (VBM) of QDs. An additional layer of PEIE was introduced between ZnO and QD to balance charge within QD emissive layer in device, which serves as an effective electron blocking layer without changing device operating condition such as turn-on voltage and emissive spectra. As a result, the optimized QLED with 5nm PEIE shows a ~36% improved current efficiency and external quantum efficiency (EQE) compared to the QLED without PEIE.(maximum current efficiency, and EQE are achieved 70cd/A and 17.3%, respectively). In particular, the maximum brightness of the optimized QLED dramatically improved by a factor of 2.3 relative to the QLED without PEIE. The main reasons for these QLED performance improvement are due to the suppressing the leakage current across the device and well confined exciton by inserting PEIE layers.
Lead Chalcogenide Quantum Dots for Use in Radiation Detectors
We synthesized lead chalcogenide-based (PbS, PbSe and PbTe) quantum dots (QDs) for the purpose of using them in radiation detectors. Pb based materials have long been of interest for gamma and x-ray detection due to its high absorption cross section and Z number. The emphasis of our studies was on exploring how to control charge carrier transport within thin films containing the QDs. The properties of QDs itself can be altered by changing the size, shape, composition, and surface chemistry of the dots, while the properties of carrier transport within QD films are affected by post-deposition treatment of the films. The QDs were synthesized using colloidal synthesis methods and films were grown using multiple film coating techniques, such as spin coating and doctor blading. Current QD radiation detectors are based on the QD acting as fluorophores in a scintillation detector. We explored the viability of using QDs in solid state radiation detectors, for which the incident detectable radiation causes a direct electronic response within the QD film. Achieving high sensitivity and accurate energy quantification in QD radiation detectors requires large carrier mobility and diffusion lengths in the QD films. We synthesized Pb chalcogenides-based QDs with both traditional oleic acid ligands as well as more weakly binding oleylamine ligands, allowing for in-solution ligand exchange allowing for the deposition of thick films in a single step. The PbS and PbSe QDs showed better air stability than PbTe. After precipitation the QDs passivated with the shorter ligand are dispersed in 2,6-difloupyridine resulting in colloidal solutions with concentrations anywhere from 10-100 mg/mL for film processing application, More concentrated colloidal solutions produce thicker films during spin-coating, while an extremely concentrated solution (100 mg/mL) can be used to produce several micrometer thick films using doctor blading. Film thicknesses of micrometer or even millimeters are needed for radiation detector for high-energy gamma rays, which are of interest for astrophysics or nuclear security, in order to provide sufficient stopping power.
An Efficient Automated Radiation Measuring System for Plasma Monopole Antenna
This experimental study is aimed to examine the radiation characteristics of different plasma structures of a surface wave-driven plasma antenna by an automated measuring system. In this study, a 30 cm long plasma column of argon gas with a diameter of 3 cm is excited by surface wave discharge mechanism operating at 13.56 MHz with RF power level up to 100 Watts and gas pressure between 0.01 to 0.05 mb. The study reveals that a single structured plasma monopole can be modified into an array of plasma antenna elements by forming multiple striations or plasma blobs inside the discharge tube by altering the values of plasma properties such as working pressure, operating frequency, input RF power, discharge tube dimensions, i.e., length, radius, and thickness. It is also reported that plasma length, electron density, and conductivity are functions of operating plasma parameters and controlled by changing working pressure and input power. To investigate the antenna radiation efficiency for the far-field region, an automation-based radiation measuring system has been fabricated and presented in detail. This developed automated system involves a combined setup of controller, dc servo motors, vector network analyzer, and computing device to evaluate the radiation intensity, directivity, gain and efficiency of plasma antenna. In this system, the controller is connected to multiple motors for moving aluminum shafts in both elevation and azimuthal plane whereas radiation from plasma monopole antenna is measured by a Vector Network Analyser (VNA) which is further wired up with the computing device to display radiations in polar plot forms. Here, the radiation characteristics of both continuous and array plasma monopole antenna have been studied for various working plasma parameters. The experimental results clearly indicate that the plasma antenna is as efficient as a metallic antenna. The radiation from plasma monopole antenna is significantly influenced by plasma properties which provides a wider range in radiation pattern where desired radiation parameters like beam-width, the direction of radiation, radiation intensity, antenna efficiency, etc. can be achieved in a single monopole. Due to its wide range of selectivity in radiation pattern; this can meet the demands of wider bandwidth to get high data speed in communication systems. Moreover, this developed system provides an efficient and cost-effective solution for measuring the radiation pattern in far-field zone for any kind of antenna system.
Gas Systems of the Amadeus Basin, Australia
The origins of natural gases in the Amadeus Basin have been assessed using molecular and stable isotope (C, H, N, He) systematics. A dominant end-member thermogenic, oil-associated gas is considered for the Ordovician Pacoota−Stairway sandstones of the Mereenie gas and oil field. In addition, an abiogenic end-member is identified in the latest Proterozoic lower Arumbera Sandstone of the Dingo gasfield, being most likely associated with radiolysis of methane with polymerisation to wet gases. The latter source assignment is based on a similar geochemical fingerprint derived from the laboratory gamma irradiation experiments on methane. A mixed gas source is considered for the Palm Valley gasfield in the Ordovician Pacoota Sandstone. Gas wetness (%∑C₂−C₅/∑C₁−C₅) decreases in the order Mereenie (19.1%) > Palm Valley (9.4%) > Dingo (4.1%). Non-produced gases at Magee-1 (23.5%; Late Proterozoic Heavitree Quartzite) and Mount Kitty-1 (18.9%; Paleo-Mesoproterozoic fractured granitoid basement) are very wet. Methane thermometry based on clumped isotopes of methane (¹³CDH₃) is consistent with the abiogenic origin for the Dingo gas field with methane formation temperature of 254ᵒC. However, the low methane formation temperature of 57°C for the Mereenie gas suggests either a mixed thermogenic-biogenic methane source or there is no thermodynamic equilibrium between the methane isotopomers. The shallow reservoir depth and present-day formation temperature below 80ᵒC would support microbial methanogenesis, but there is no accompanying alteration of the C- and H-isotopes of the wet gases and CO₂ that is typically associated with biodegradation. The Amadeus Basin gases show low to extremely high inorganic gas contents. Carbon dioxide is low in abundance (< 1% CO₂) and becomes increasing depleted in ¹³C from the Palm Valley (av. δ¹³C 0‰) to the Mereenie (av. δ¹³C -6.6‰) and Dingo (av. δ¹³C -14.3‰) gas fields. Although the wide range in carbon isotopes for CO₂ is consistent with multiple origins from inorganic to organic inputs, the most likely process is fluid-rock alteration with enrichment in ¹²C in the residual gaseous CO₂ accompanying progressive carbonate precipitation within the reservoir. Nitrogen ranges from low−moderate (1.7−9.9% N₂) abundance (Palm Valley av. 1.8%; Mereenie av. 9.1%; Dingo av. 9.4%) to extremely high abundance in Magee-1 (43.6%) and Mount Kitty-1 (61.0%). The nitrogen isotopes for the production gases have δ¹⁵N = -3.0‰ for Mereenie, -3.0‰ for Palm Valley and -7.1‰ for Dingo, suggest all being mixed inorganic and thermogenic nitrogen sources. Helium (He) abundance varies over a wide range from a low of 0.17% to one of the world’s highest at 9% (Mereenie av. 0.23%; Palm Valley av. 0.48%, Dingo av. 0.18%, Magee-1 6.2%; Mount Kitty-1 9.0%). Complementary helium isotopes (R/Ra = ³He/⁴Hesample / ³He/⁴Heair) range from 0.013 to 0.031 R/Ra, indicating a dominant crustal origin for helium with a sustained input of radiogenic 4He from the decomposition of U- and Th-bearing minerals, effectively diluting any original mantle helium input. The high helium content in the non-produced gases compared to the shallower producing wells most likely reflects their stratigraphic position relative to the Tonian Bitter Springs Group with the former below and the latter above an effective carbonate-salt seal.
Bulk Transport in Strongly Correlated Topological Insulator Samarium Hexaboride Using Hall Effect and Inverted Resistance Methods
Samarium hexaboride (SmB6) is a strongly correlated mixed valence material and Kondo insulator. In the resistance-temperature curve, SmB6 exhibits activated behavior from 4-40 K after the Kondo gap forms. However, below 4 K, the resistivity is temperature independent or weakly temperature dependent due to the appearance of a topologically protected surface state. Current research suggests that the surface of SmB6 is conductive while the bulk is truly insulating, different from conventional 3D TIs (Topological Insulators) like Bi₂Se₃ which are plagued by bulk conduction due to impurities. To better understand why the bulk of SmB6 is so different from conventional TIs, this study employed a new method, called inverted resistance, to explore the lowest temperatures, as well as standard Hall measurements for the rest of the temperature range. In the inverted resistance method, current flows from an inner contact to an outer ring, and voltage is measured outside of this outer ring. This geometry confines the surface current and allows for measurement of the bulk resistivity even when the conductive surface dominates transport (below 4 K). The results confirm that the bulk of SmB6 is truly insulating down to 2 K. Hall measurements on a number of samples show consistent bulk behavior from 4-40 K, but widely varying behavior among samples above 40 K. This is attributed to a combination of the growth process and purity of the starting material, and the relationship between the high and low temperature behaviors is still being explored.
A Prospective Study of a Clinically Significant Anatomical Change in Head and Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Using Transit Electronic Portal Imaging Device Images
The major factors of radiotherapy for head and neck (HN) cancers include patient’s anatomical changes and tumour shrinkage. These changes can significantly affect the planned dose distribution that causes the treatment plan deterioration. A measured transit EPID images compared to a predicted EPID images using gamma analysis has been clinically implemented to verify the dose accuracy as part of adaptive radiotherapy protocol. However, a global gamma analysis dose not sensitive to some critical organ changes as the entire treatment field is compared. The objective of this feasibility study is to evaluate the dosimetric response to patient anatomical changes during the treatment course in HN IMRT (Head and Neck Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy) using a novel comparison method; organ-of-interest gamma analysis. This method provides more sensitive to specific organ change detection. Random replanned 5 HN IMRT patients with causes of tumour shrinkage and patient weight loss that critically affect to the parotid size changes were selected and evaluated its transit dosimetry. A comprehensive physics-based model was used to generate a series of predicted transit EPID images for each gantry angle from original computed tomography (CT) and replan CT datasets. The patient structures; including left and right parotid, spinal cord, and planning target volume (PTV56) were projected to EPID level. The agreement between the transit images generated from original CT and replanned CT was quantified using gamma analysis with 3%, 3mm criteria. Moreover, only gamma pass-rate is calculated within each projected structure. The gamma pass-rate in right parotid and PTV56 between predicted transit of original CT and replan CT were 42.8%( ± 17.2%) and 54.7%( ± 21.5%). The gamma pass-rate for other projected organs were greater than 80%. Additionally, the results of organ-of-interest gamma analysis were compared with 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (3D-CBCT) and the rational of replan by radiation oncologists. It showed that using only registration of 3D-CBCT to original CT does not provide the dosimetric impact of anatomical changes. Using transit EPID images with organ-of-interest gamma analysis can provide additional information for treatment plan suitability assessment.
Development of Multileaf Collimator (MLC)-Based Isocenter Verification Tool Using Electrical Portal Imaging Device for Stereotactic Radiosurgery
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a highly precision delivery technique that requires comprehensive quality assurance (QA) tests prior to treatment delivery. An isocenter of delivery beam plays a critical role that affect the treatment accuracy. The uncertainty of isocenter is traditionally accessed using circular cone equipment, Winston-Lutz (WL) phantom and film. This technique is considered time consuming and highly dependent on the observer. In this work, the development of multileaf collimator (MLC)-based isocenter verification tool using electronic portal imaging device (EPID) was proposed and evaluated. A mechanical isocenter alignment with ball bearing diameter 5 mm and circular cone diameter 10 mm fixed to gantry head defines the radiation field was set as the conventional WL test method. The conventional setup was to compare to the proposed setup; using MLC (10 x 10 mm) to define the radiation filed instead of cone. This represents more realistic delivery field than using circular cone equipment. The acquisition from electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and radiographic film were performed in both experiments. The gantry angles were set as following: 0°, 90°, 180° and 270°. A software tool was in-house developed using MATLAB/SIMULINK programming to determine the centroid of radiation field and shadow of WL phantom automatically. This presents higher accuracy than manual measurement. The deviation between centroid of both cone-based and MLC-based WL tests were quantified. To compare between film and EPID image, the deviation for all gantry angle was 0.26±0.19mm and 0.43±0.30 for cone-based and MLC-based WL tests. For the absolute deviation calculation on EPID images between cone and MLC-based WL test was 0.59±0.28 mm and the absolute deviation on film images was 0.14±0.13 mm. Therefore, the MLC-based isocenter verification using EPID present high sensitivity tool for SRS QA.
Estimation of Normalized Glandular Doses Using a Three-Layer Mammographic Phantom
The normalized glandular dose (DgN) estimates the energy deposition of mammography in clinical practice. The Monte Carlo simulations frequently use uniformly mixed phantom for calculating the conversion factor. However, breast tissues are not uniformly distributed, leading to errors of conversion factor estimation. This study constructed a three-layer phantom to estimated more accurate of normalized glandular dose. In this study, MCNP code (Monte Carlo N-Particles code) was used to create the geometric structure. We simulated three types of target/filter combinations (Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, Rh/Rh), six voltages (25 ~ 35 kVp), six HVL parameters and nine breast phantom thicknesses (2 ~ 10 cm) for the three-layer mammographic phantom. The conversion factor for 25%, 50% and 75% glandularity was calculated. The error of conversion factors compared with the results of the American College of Radiology (ACR) was within 6%. For Rh/Rh, the difference was within 9%. The difference between the 50% average glandularity and the uniform phantom was 7.1% ~ -6.7% for the Mo/Mo combination, voltage of 27 kVp, half value layer of 0.34 mmAl, and breast thickness of 4 cm. According to the simulation results, the regression analysis found that the three-layer mammographic phantom at 0% ~ 100% glandularity can be used to accurately calculate the conversion factors. The difference in glandular tissue distribution leads to errors of conversion factor calculation. The three-layer mammographic phantom can provide accurate estimates of glandular dose in clinical practice.
Spectroscopic Relation between Open Clusters and Globular Clusters
The curiosity to investigate the space and its mysteries was dependably the main impetus of human interest, as the particle of livings exists from the "debut de l'Univers" (beginning of the Universe) typified with its few other living things. The sharp drive to uncover the secrets of stars and their unusual deportment was dependably an ignitor of stars investigation. As humankind lives in civilizations and states, stars likewise live in provinces named ‘clusters’. Clusters are separates into 2 composes i.e. open clusters and globular clusters. An open cluster is a gathering of thousand stars that were moulded from a comparable goliath sub-nuclear cloud and for the most part; contain Propulsion I (extremely metal-rich) and Propulsion II (mild metal-rich), where globular clusters are around gathering of more than thirty thousand stars that circles a galactic focus and basically contain Propulsion III (to a great degree metal-poor) stars. Futurology of this paper lies in the spectroscopic investigation of globular clusters like M92 and NGC419 and open clusters like M34 and IC2391 in different color bands by using software like VIREO virtual observatory, Aladin, CMUNIWIN, and MS-Excel. Assessing the outcome Hertzsprung-Russel (HR) diagram with exemplary cosmological models like Einstein model, De Sitter and Planck survey demonstrate for a superior age estimation of respective clusters. Colour-Magnitude Diagram of these clusters was obtained by photometric analysis in g and r bands which further transformed into BV bands which will unravel the idea of stars exhibit in the individual clusters.
Grating Assisted Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensor for Monitoring of Hazardous Toxic Chemicals and Gases in an Underground Mines
The objective of this paper is to develop and optimize the Fiber Bragg (FBG) grating based Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor for monitoring the hazardous toxic chemicals and gases in underground mines or any industrial area. A fully cladded telecommunication standard FBG is proposed to develop to produce surface plasmon resonance. A thin few nm gold/silver film (subject to optimization) is proposed to apply over the FBG sensing head using e-beam deposition method. Sensitivity enhancement of the sensor will be done by adding a composite nanostructured Graphene Oxide (GO) sensing layer using the spin coating method. Both sensor configurations suppose to demonstrate high responsiveness towards the changes in resonance wavelength. The GO enhanced sensor may show increased sensitivity of many fold compared to the gold coated traditional fibre optic sensor. Our work is focused on to optimize GO, multilayer structure and to develop fibre coating techniques that will serve well for sensitive and multifunctional detection of hazardous chemicals. This research proposal shows great potential towards future development of optical fiber sensors using readily available components such as Bragg gratings as highly sensitive chemical sensors in areas such as environmental sensing.
Detailed Sensitive Detection of Impurities in Waste Engine Oils Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Rotating Disc Electrode Optical Emission, and Surface Plasma Resonance Techniques
The sensitive detection systems based on experimental studies have been used for studying the composition and degradation of engine oils. The degradation was evaluated by the optical and spectroscopic techniques viz rotating disc electrode optical emission spectroscopy (RDE-OES) techniques, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and surface plasma resonance (SPR). The fundamental characterization of four engine oil samples was well performed for the measurements of impurities as water content and kinematic viscosity tests. The RDE-OES measurements show iron, silicon, and sodium lines in all the waste engine oil samples in few ppm. The presence of elemental impurity elements was confirmed by the LIBS spectral analysis which confirms the presence of impurity elements such as Fe, Al, Cu, Si, and Pb at various transition levels of atomic line. Apart from the basic tests, the calculations for dielectric constants and refractive index of the engine oils were performed via SPR analysis.
Frequency-Dependent and Full Range Tunable Phase Shifter
In this paper, a frequency-dependent and tunable phase shifter is proposed and numerically analyzed. The key devices are the dual-polarization binary phase shift keying modulator (DP-BPSK) and the fiber Bragg grating (FBG). The phase-frequency response of the FBG is employed to determine the frequency-dependent phase shift. The simulation results show that a linear phase shift of the recovered output microwave signal depends on the frequency of the input RF signal is achieved. In addition, by adjusting the power of the RF signal, the full range phase shift from 0° to 360° can be realized. This structure shows the spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of 70.90 dB·Hz²/³ and 72.11 dB·Hz²/³ under different RF powers.
Multi-Band Frequency Conversion Scheme with Multi-Phase Shift Based on Optical Frequency Comb
A simple operated, stable and compact multi-band frequency conversion and multi-phase shift is proposed to satisfy the demands of multi-band communication and radar phase array system. The dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) modulator is employed to support the LO sideband and the optical frequency comb simultaneously. Meanwhile, the fiber is also used to introduce different phase shifts to different sidebands. The simulation result shows that by controlling the DC bias voltages and a C band microwave signal with frequency of 4.5 GHz can be simultaneously converted into other signals that cover from C band to K band with multiple phases. It also verifies that the multi-band and multi-phase frequency conversion system can be stably performed based on current manufacturing art and can well cope with the DC drifting. It should be noted that the phase shift of the converted signal also partly depends of the length of the optical fiber.
Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Overgrowth on the Bragg Grating for Gallium Nitride Based Distributed Feedback Laser
Laser diodes fabricated from the III-nitride material system are emerging solutions for the next generation telecommunication systems and optical clocks based on Ca at 397nm, Rb at 420.2nm and Yb at 398.9nm combined 556 nm. Most of the applications require single longitudinal optical mode lasers, with very narrow linewidth and compact size, such as communication systems and laser cooling. In this case, the GaN based distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode is one of the most effective candidates with gratings are known to operate with narrow spectra as well as high power and efficiency. Given the wavelength range, the period of the first-order diffraction grating is under 100 nm, and the realization of such gratings is technically difficult due to the narrow line width and the high quality nitride overgrowth based on the Bragg grating. Some groups have reported GaN DFB lasers with high order distributed feedback surface gratings, which avoids the overgrowth. However, generally the strength of coupling is lower than that with Bragg grating embedded into the waveguide within the GaN laser structure by two-step-epitaxy. Therefore, the overgrowth on the grating technology need to be studied and optimized. Here we propose to fabricate the fine step shape structure of first-order grating by the nanoimprint combined inductively coupled plasma (ICP) dry etching, then carry out overgrowth high quality AlGaN film by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Then a series of gratings with different period, depths and duty ratios are designed and fabricated to study the influence of grating structure to the nano-heteroepitaxy. Moreover, we observe the nucleation and growth process by step-by-step growth to study the growth mode for nitride overgrowth on grating, under the condition that the grating period is larger than the mental migration length on the surface. The AFM images demonstrate that a smooth surface of AlGaN film is achieved with an average roughness of 0.20 nm over 3 × 3 μm2. The full width at half maximums (FWHMs) of the (002) reflections in the XRD rocking curves are 278 arcsec for the AlGaN film, and the component of the Al within the film is 8% according to the XRD mapping measurement, which is in accordance with design values. By observing the samples with growth time changing from 200s, 400s to 600s, the growth model is summarized as the follow steps: initially, the nucleation is evenly distributed on the grating structure, as the migration length of Al atoms is low; then, AlGaN growth alone with the grating top surface; finally, the AlGaN film formed by lateral growth. This work contributed to carrying out GaN DFB laser by fabricating grating and overgrowth on the nano-grating patterned substrate by wafer scale, moreover, growth dynamics had been analyzed as well.
Temporal Change in Bonding Strength and Antimicrobial Effect of a Zirconia after Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment
Purpose: Plasma treatment under various conditions has been studied to increase the bonding strength and surface sterilization of dental ceramic materials. We assessed the evolution of the shear bond strength (SBS) and antimicrobial effect of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) treatment over time. Methods: Presintered zirconia specimens were manufactured as discs (diameter: 15 mm, height: 2 mm) after final sintering. The specimens then received a 30-min treatment with argon gas (Ar², 99.999%; 10 L/min) using an NTAPP device. Five post-treatment intervals were evaluated: control (no treatment), P0 (within 1 h), P1 (24 h), P2 (48 h), and P3 (72 h). This study investigated the surface characteristics, SBS of two different resin cement (RelyXTM U200 self-adhesive resin cement, Panavia F2.0 methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-based resin cement), and Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Results: The SBS of RelyXTM U200 increased significantly (p < 0.05) within 2 days following plasma treatment (P0, P1, P2). For Panavia F 2.0, a significant decrease (p < 0.05) was detected only in the group that had undergone cementation immediately after plasma treatment (P0). S. mutans adhesion decreased significantly (p < 0.05) within 2 days of plasma treatment (P0, P1, P2) compared to the control group. The P0 group displayed a lower biofilm thickness than the P1 and P2 groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: After NTAPP treatment of zirconia, the effects on bonding strength and antimicrobial growth persist for a limited duration. The effect of NTAPP treatment on bonding strength depends on the resin cement.
The Effect of a Saturated Kink on the Dynamics of Tungsten Impurities in the Plasma Core
Tungsten (W) will be used in ITER as one of the plasma facing components (PFCs). The W could migrate to the plasma center. This could have a potentially deleterious effect on plasma confinement. Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) can be used to prevent W accumulation. We simulated a series of H mode discharges in ASDEX U with PFC containing W, where central ECRH was used to prevent W accumulation in the plasma center. The experiments showed that the W density profiles were flat after a sawtooth crash, and become hollow in between sawtooth crashes when ECRH has been applied. It was also observed that a saturated kink mode was active in these conditions. We studied the effect of saturated kink like instabilities on the redistribution of W impurities. The kink was modeled as the sum of a simple analytical equilibrium (large aspect ratio, circular cross section) plus the perturbation produced by the kink. A numerical code that follows the exact trajectories of the impurity ions in the total fields and includes collisions was employed. The code is written in Cuda C and runs in Graphical Processing Units (GPUs), allowing simulations with a large number of particles with modest resources. Our simulations show that when the W ions have a thermal velocity distribution, the kink has no effect on the W density. When we consider the plasma rotation, the kink can affect the W density. When the average passing frequency of the W particles is similar to the frequency of the kink mode, the expulsion of W ions from the plasma core is maximum, and the W density shows a hollow structure. This could have implications for the mitigation of W accumulation.
Exploiting Non-Uniform Utility of Computing: A Case Study
The increasing importance of computing in modern society has brought substantial growth in the demand for more computational power. In some problem domains such as scientific simulations, available computational power still sets a limit on what can be practically explored in computation. For many types of code, there is non-uniformity in the utility of computation. That is not every piece of computation contributes equally to the quality of the result. If this non-uniformity is understood well and exploited effectively, we can much more effectively utilize available computing power. In this paper, we discuss a case study of exploring such non-uniformity in a particle-in-cell simulation platform. We find both the existence of significant non-uniformity and that it is generally straightforward to exploit it. We show the potential of order-of-magnitude effective performance gain while keeping the comparable quality of output. We also discuss some challenges in both the practical application of the idea and evaluation of its impact.
Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ Alloys with Tuneable Energy Band Gap on GaAs(100) Substrate by a Modified Magnetron Co-Sputtering
Photonic applications based on group IV semiconductors have always been an interest but also a challenge for the research community. We report manufacturing group IV Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ alloys with tuneable energy band gap on (100) GaAs substrate by a modified radio frequency magnetron co-sputtering. Images were taken by atomic force microscope, and scanning electron microscope clearly demonstrates a smooth surface profile, and Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ nano clusters are with the size of several tens of nanometers. Transmittance spectra were measured by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy that showed changing energy gaps with the variation in elementary composition. Calculation results by 8-band k.p method are consistent with measured gaps. Our deposition system realized direct growth of Ge₁₋ₓSnₓ thin film on GaAs (100) substrate by sputtering. This simple deposition method was modified to be able to grow high-quality photonic materials with tuneable energy gaps. This work provides an alternative and successful method for fabricating Group IV photonic semiconductor materials.