International Science Index

International Journal of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences

796
96852
Determining Face-Validity for a Set of Preventable Drug-Related Morbidity Indicators Developed for Primary Healthcare in South Africa
Abstract:
Introduction and aims of the study: It is the responsibility of the pharmacist to manage drug-related problems in order to ensure the greatest benefit to the patient. In order to prevent drug-related morbidity, pharmacists should be aware of medicines that may contribute to certain drug-related problems due to their pharmacological action. In an attempt to assist healthcare practitioners to prevent drug-related morbidity (PDRM), indicators for prevention have been designed. There are currently no indicators available for primary health care in developing countries like South Africa, where the majority of the population access primary health care. There is, therefore, a need to develop such indicators, specifically with the aim of assisting healthcare practitioners in primary health care. Methods: A literature study was conducted to compile a comprehensive list of PDRM indicators as developed internationally using the search engines Google Scholar and PubMed. MESH term used to retrieve suitable articles was 'preventable drug-related morbidity indicators'. The comprehensive list of PDRM indicators obtained from the literature study was further evaluated for face validity. Face validity was done in duplicate by 2 sets of independent researchers to ensure 1) no duplication of indicators when compiling a single list, 2) inclusion of only medication available in primary healthcare, and 3) inclusion of medication currently available in South Africa. Results: The list of indicators, compiled from PDRM indicators in the USA, UK, Portugal, Australia, India, and Canada contained 324 PDRM. 184 of these indicators were found to be duplicates, and the duplications were omitted, leaving a final list of 140. The 140 PDRM indicators were evaluated for face-validity, and 97 were accepted as relevant to primary health care in South Africa. 43 indicators did not comply with the criteria and were omitted from the final list. Conclusion: This study is a first step in compiling a list of PDRM indicators for South Africa. It is important to take cognizance to the fact the health systems differ vastly internationally, and it is, therefore, important to develop country-specific indicators.
795
96854
Effects of Tenefovir Disiproxil Fumarate on the Renal Sufficiency of HIV Positive Patients
Abstract:
Background: Tenefovir disiproxil fumarate (TDF) is a nephrotoxic drug and has been proven to contribute to renal insufficiency necessitating intensive monitoring and management of adverse effects arising from prolonged exposure to the drug. TDF is one of the preferred first-line drugs used in combination therapy in most regions. There are estimated 300 000 patients being initiated on the Efavirenz/TDF/Emtricitabine first-line regimen annually in South Africa. It is against this background that this study aims to investigate the effects of TDF on renal sufficiency of HIV positive patients. Methodology: A retrospective quantitative study was conducted, analysing clinical charts of HIV positive patient’s older than 18 years of age and on a TDF-containing regimen for more than 1 year. Data were obtained from the analysis of patient files and was transcribed into Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet. Extracted data were coded, categorised and analysed using STATA®. Results: A total of 275 patient files were included in this study. Renal function started decreasing after 3 months of treatment (with 93.5% patients having a normal EGFR), and kept on decreasing as time progressed with only 39.6% normal renal function at year 4. Additional risk factors for renal insufficiency included age below 25, female gender, and additional medication. Conclusion: It is clear from this study that the use of TDF necessitates intensive monitoring and management of adverse effects arising from prolonged exposure to the drug. The findings from this study generated pertinent information on the safety profile of the drug TDF in a resource-limited setting of a public health institution. The appropriate management is of tremendous importance in the South African context where the majority of HIV positive individuals are on the TDF containing regimen; thus it is beneficial to ascertain the possible level of toxicities these patients may be experiencing.
794
93976
A Cross Sectional Study on Pharmacy Workforce in Saudi Arabia: Evaluating Supply and Demand, Distribution and Employment Prospects
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacy workforce in Saudi Arabia in terms of supply, geographical distribution, nationality and gender distribution, as well as to assess the employment rate. A retrospective cross-sectional approach was used to address these objectives. Relevant data was identified and retrieved from the latest version of the Health Statistical Yearbook— Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2016; Saudi Commission for Health Specialties publications, 2018; and national pharmacy organisation websites. In general, the exponential increase in the number of pharmacy schools has helped to produce more pharmacists in the rural areas of the country, but inequitable distribution of the workforce still exists. The reliance on non-indigenous pharmacists, especially in the private sector, is substantial. Male pharmacists outnumber females, mainly due to the cultural and social factors that limit the participation of women in community pharmacy, which is the largest employment sector. The employment rate shows limited opportunities for Saudi pharmacists at the Ministry of Health (MOH) as they have already Saudised almost all pharmacy positions at the MOH healthcare facilities. However, the private sector needs to assume responsibility for their share of the re-nationalisation of the profession in order to provide jobs for local pharmacists. Regular, more detailed profiling of the pharmacy workforce is an essential step to achieving effective pharmacy workforce planning. Currently, a large gap exists in our knowledge of the workforce in the country, especially regarding their supply and demand and employment prospects.
793
94522
The Impact of the Flipped Classroom Instructional Model on MPharm Students in Two Pharmacy Schools in the UK
Abstract:
Introduction: A 'flipped classroom' uses technology to shift the traditional lecture outside the scheduled class time and uses the face-to-face time to engage students in interactive activities. Aim of the Study: Assess the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of using the 'flipped classroom' teaching format with MPharm students in two pharmacy schools in the UK: UCL School of Pharmacy and the School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences at University of Portsmouth. Methods: An experimental mixed methods design was employed, with final year MPharm students in two phases; 1) a qualitative study using focus groups, 2) a quasi-experiment measuring knowledge acquisition and satisfaction by delivering a session on rheumatoid arthritis, in two teaching formats: the flipped classroom and the traditional lecture. Results: The flipped classroom approach was preferred over the traditional lecture for delivering a pharmacy practice topic, and it was comparable or better than the traditional lecture with respect to knowledge acquisition. In addition, this teaching approach was found to overcome the perceived challenges of the traditional lecture method such as fast pace instructions, student disengagement and boredom due to lack of activities and/or social anxiety. However, high workload and difficult or new concepts could be barriers to pre-class preparation, and therefore successful flipped classroom. The flipped classroom encouraged learning scaffolding where students could benefit from application of knowledge, and interaction with peers and the lecturer, which might, in turn, facilitate learning consolidation and deep understanding. This research indicated that the flipped classroom was beneficial for all learning styles. Conclusion: Implementing the flipped classroom at both pharmacy institutions was successful and well received by final year MPharm students. Given the attention now being put on the Teaching Excellence Framework (TEF), understanding effective methods of teaching to enhance student achievement and satisfaction is now more valuable than ever.
792
95175
Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Studies on Chiral Chloroquine Analogues as Antimalarial Agents
Abstract:
In a focused exploration, we have designed synthesized and biologically evaluated chiral conjugated new chloroquine (CQ) analogs with substituted piperazines as antimalarial agents. In vitro as well as in vivo studies revealed that compound 7c showed potent activity [for in vitro IC₅₀= 56.98nM (3D7), 97.76nM (K1); for in vivo (up to at the dose of 12.5 mg/kg); SI = 3510] as a new lead of antimalarial agent. Other compounds 6b, 6d, 7d, 7h, 8c, 8d, 9a, and 9c are also showing moderate activity against CQ-sensitive (3D7) strain and superior activity against resistant (K1) strain of P. falciparum. Furthermore, we have carried out docking and 3D-QSAR studies of all in-house data sets (168 molecules) of chiral CQ analogs to explain the structure activity relationships (SAR). Our new findings specified the significance of H-bond interaction with the side chain of heme for biological activity. In addition, the 3D-QSAR study against 3D7 strain indicated the favorable and unfavorable sites of CQ analogs for incorporating steric, hydrophobic and electropositive groups to improve the antimalarial activity.
791
96633
Cellular Uptake and Endocytosis of Doxorubicin Loaded Methoxy Poly (Ethylene Glycol)-Block-Poly (Glutamic Acid) [DOX/mPEG-b-PLG] Nanoparticles against Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines
Abstract:
pH responsive block copolymers consist of mPEG and glutamic acid units were syntheiszed in different formulations. The synthesized polymers were structurally investigated. Doxorubicin Hydrocholide (DOX-HCl) as a chemotherapy medication for the treatment of cancer was selected. DOX-HCl was loaded and their drug loading content and drug loading efficiency were determined. The nanocarriers were obtained in small size, well shaped and slightly negative surface charge. The release study was carried out both at pH 7.4 and 5.5 and it was revealed that the release was sustained and in controlled manner and there was no initial burst release. The in vitro release study was further carried out for different formulations with different glutamic acid moieties. Time dependent cell proliferation inhibition of the free drug and drug loaded nanoparticles against human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and Zr-75-30 was observed. Cellular uptakes and endocytosis were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometery. The biocompatibility, optimum size, shape and surface charge of the developed nanoparticles make the nanoparticles an efficient drug delivery carrier.
790
92991
Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization and Study of the Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorobutanol, Antimicrobial Agent
Abstract:
Introduction and Objectives: Chlorobutanol is a raw material, mainly used as an antiseptic and antimicrobial preservative in injectable and ophthalmic preparations. The main objective of our study was the synthesis and evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of chlorobutanol hemihydrates. Material and Methods: Chlorobutanol was synthesized according to the nucleophilic addition reaction of chloroform to acetone, identified by an infrared absorption using Spectrum One FTIR spectrometer, melting point, scanning electron microscopy and colorimetric reactions. The dosage of Carvedilol active substance was carried out by assaying the degradation products of chlorobutanol in a basic solution. The chlorobutanol obtained was subjected to bacteriological tests in order to study its antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial activity was evaluated against strains such as Escherichia coli (ATCC 25 922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25 923) and Pseudomonas aeroginosa (ATCC = American type culture collection). The antifungal activity was evaluated against human pathogenic fungal strains, such as Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger provided by the parasitology laboratory of the Hospital of Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria. Results and Discussion: Chlorobutanol was obtained in an acceptable yield. The characterization tests of the product obtained showed a white and crystalline appearance (confirmed by scanning electron microscopy), solubilities (in water, ethanol and glycerol), and a melting temperature in accordance with the requirements of the European pharmacopoeia. The colorimetric reactions were directed towards the presence of a trihalogenated carbon and an alcohol function. The spectral identification (IR) showed the presence of characteristic chlorobutanol peaks and confirmed the structure of the latter. The microbiological study revealed an antimicrobial effect on all strains tested (Sataphylococcus aureus (MIC = 1250 µg/ml), E. coli (MIC = 1250 µg/ml), Pseudomonas aeroginosa (MIC = 1250 µg/ml), Candida albicans (MIC =2500 µg/ml), Aspergillus niger (MIC =2500 µg/ml)) with MIC values close to literature data. Conclusion: Thus, on the whole, the synthesized chlorobutanol satisfied the requirements of the European pharmacopoeia, and possesses antibacterial and antifungal activity; nevertheless it is necessary to insist on the purification step of the product in order to eliminate the maximum impurities.
789
96543
Knowledge-Attitude-Practice Survey Regarding High Alert Medication in a Teaching Hospital in Eastern India
Abstract:
Objective: Medication errors are a reality in all settings where medicines are prescribed, dispensed and used. High Alert Medications (HAM) are those that bear a heightened risk of causing significant patient harm when used in error. We conducted a knowledge-attitude-practice survey, among residents working in a teaching hospital, to assess the ground situation with regard to the handling of HAM. Methods: We plan to approach 242 residents among the approximately 600 currently working in the hospital through purposive sampling. Residents in all disciplines (clinical, paraclinical and preclinical) are being targeted. A structured questionnaire that has been pretested on 5 volunteer residents is being used for data collection. The questionnaire is being administered to residents individually through face-to-face interview, by two raters, while they are on duty but not during rush hours. Results: Of the 156 residents approached so far, data from 140 have been analyzed, the rest having refused participation. Although background knowledge exists for the majority of respondents, awareness levels regarding HAM are moderate, and attitude is non-uniform. The number of respondents correctly able to identify most ( > 80%) HAM in three common settings– accident and emergency, obstetrics and intensive care unit are less than 70%. Several potential errors in practice have been identified. The study is ongoing. Conclusions: Situation requires corrective action. There is an urgent need for improving awareness regarding HAM for the sake of patient safety. The pharmacology department can take the lead in designing awareness campaign with support from the hospital administration.
788
90170
Silymarin Reverses Scopolamine-Induced Memory Deficit in Object Recognition Test in Rats: A Behavioral, Biochemical, Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Study
Abstract:
Dementia is characterized by impairments in memory and other cognitive abilities. This study aims to elucidate the possible ameliorative effect of silymarin on scopolamine-induced dementia using the object recognition test (ORT). The study was extended to demonstrate the role of cholinergic activity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, brain neurotransmitters and histopathological changes in the anti-amnestic effect of silymarin in demented rats. Wistar rats were pretreated with silymarin (200, 400, 800 mg/kg) or donepezil (10 mg/kg) orally for 14 consecutive days. Dementia was induced after the last drug administration by a single intraperitoneal dose of scopolamine (16 mg/kg). Then behavioral, biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses were then performed. Rats pretreated with silymarin counteracted scopolamine-induced non-spatial working memory impairment in the ORT and decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA), elevated reduced glutathione (GSH), restored gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine (DA) contents in the cortical and hippocampal brain homogenates. Silymarin dose-dependently reversed scopolamine-induced histopathological changes. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that silymarin dose-dependently mitigated protein expression of a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) in the brain cortex and hippocampus. All these effects of silymarin were similar to that of the standard anti-amnestic drug, donepezil. This study reveals that the ameliorative effect of silymarin on scopolamine-induced dementia in rats using the ORT maybe in part mediated by, enhancement of cholinergic activity, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as well as mitigation in brain neurotransmitters and histopathological changes.
787
96554
Nephroprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Roxb.) Leaves in Adriamycin Induced Acute Renal Failure in Wistar Rats: A Biochemical and Histopathological Assessment
Abstract:
The search for alternative pharmacological therapies based on natural extracts for renal failure has become an urgent need, due to paucity of effective pharmacotherapy. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the acute nephroprotective effect of aqueous leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (Roxb.) (Family: Lamiaceae), a medicinal plant used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine for the management of renal diseases in Sri Lanka. The study was performed in adriamycin (ADR) induced nephrotoxic in Wistar rats. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups each with six rats. A single dose of ADR (20 mg/kg body wt., ip) was used for the induction of nephrotoxicity in all groups of rats except group one. The treatments were started 24 hours after induction of nephrotoxicity and continued for three days. Group one and two served as healthy and nephrotoxic control rats and were administered equivalent volumes of normal saline (0.9% NaCl) orally. Group three and four nephrotoxic rats were administered the lyophilized powder of the aqueous extract of P. amboinicus (400 mg/ kg body wt.; equivalent human therapeutic dose) and the standard drug, fosinopril sodium (0.09 mg/ kg body wt.) respectively. Urine and blood samples were collected from rats in each group at the end of the period of intervention for the estimation of selected renal parameters. H and E stained sections of the kidney tissues were examined for histopathological changes. Rats treated with the plant extract showed significant improvement in biochemical parameters and histopathological changes compared to ADR induced nephrotoxic group. The elevation of serum concentrations of creatinine and β2-microglobulin were decreased by 38%, and 66% in plant extract treated nephrotoxic rats respectively (p < 0.05). In addition, serum concentrations of total protein and albumin were significantly increased by 25% and 14% in rats treated with P. amboinicus respectively (p < 0.05). The results of β2 –microglobulin and serum total protein demonstrated a significant reduction in the elevated values in rats administered with the plant extract (400 mg/kg) compared to that of fosinopril (0.09 mg/kg). Urinary protein loss in 24hr urine samples was significantly decreased in rats treated with both fosinopril (86%) and P. ambonicus (56%) at the end of the intervention (p < 0.01). Accordingly, an attenuation of morphological destruction was observed in the H and E stained sections of the kidney with the treatments of plant extract and fosinopril. The results of the present study revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of P. amboinicus possesses significant nephroprotective activity at the equivalent therapeutic dose of 400 mg/ kg against adriamycin induced acute nephrotoxicity.
786
97103
Nephroprotective Effect of Asparagus Falcatus Leaf Extract on Adriamycin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats: A Dose Response Study
Abstract:
Adriamycin (ADR) is an effective anthracyclin antitumor drug, but its clinical use is limited due to renal toxicity. The leaves of Asparagus falcatus (Family: Liliaceae) have been used in the management of renal diseases since antiquity. In the present investigation, the aqueous leaf extract of A. falcatus was evaluated for acute nephroprotective activity in ADR induced nephrotoxic rats. Nephrotoxicity was induced in healthy male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of ADR 20 mg/kg. The lyophilized powder of the aqueous refluxed (4h) leaf extract of A. falcatus was administered orally at three selected doses; 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg for three consecutive days. Fosinopril sodium (0.09 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. Administration of the plant extract and the standard drug was commenced 24 hours after the induction of nephrotoxicity to rats. The nephroprotective effect was determined by selected biochemical parameters and by the assessment of histopathology on H and E stained kidney sections. The results were compared to a group of control rats with ADR induced nephrotoxicity. A group of rats administered with the equivalent volume of normal saline served as the healthy control. Administration of ADR 20 mg/kg produced a significant increase in the concentrations of serum creatinine (61%) and urine protein (73%) followed by a significant decrease in serum total protein (21%) and albumin (44%) of the plant extract treated animals compared to the healthy control group (p < 0.05). The aqueous extract of Asparagus falcatus at the three doses; 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg and the standard drug were found to decrease the elevation of concentrations of serum creatinine (33%, 51%, 54% and 42%) and urine protein (8%, 63%, 80% and 86%) respectively. The serum concentrations of total protein (12%, 17%, 29% and 12%) and albumin (3%, 17%, 17% and 16%) were significantly increased compared to the nephrotoxic control group respectively. Assessment of histopathology on H and E stained kidney sections demonstrated that ADR induced renal injury, as evidenced by loss of brush border, cytoplasmic vacuolization, pyknosis in renal tubular epithelial cells, haemorrhages, glomerular congestion and presence of hyaline casts. Treatment with the plant extract and the standard drug resulted in attenuation of the morphological destruction in rats. The results of the present study revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of A. falcatus possesses significant nephroprotective activity against adriamycin induced acute nephrotoxicity. The improved kidney functions were supported with the results of selected biochemical parameters and histological changes observed on H and E stained sections of the kidney tissues in Wistar rats.
785
97340
Phytochemical Analysis and in vitro Biological Activities of an Ethyl Acetate Extract from the Peel of Punica granatum L. Var. Dente Di Cavallo
Abstract:
Hyperglycemia represents the main pathogenic factor in the development of diabetes complications and has been found associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, which in turn increase cell dysfunction. Therefore, counteract oxidative species appears to be a suitable strategy for preventing the hyperglycemia-induce cell damage and support the pharmacotherapy of diabetes and metabolic diseases. Antidiabetic potential of many food sources has been linked to the presence of polyphenolic metabolites, particularly flavonoids such as quercetin and its glycosylated form rutin. In line with this evidence, in the present study, we assayed the potential anti-hyperglycemic activity of an ethyl acetate extract from the peel of Punica granatum L. var. Dente di Cavallo (PGE), a fruit well known to traditional medicine for the beneficial properties of its edible juice. The effect of the extract on the glucidic metabolism has been evaluated by assessing its ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, two digestive enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of dietary carbohydrates: their inhibition can delay the carbohydrate digestion and reduce glucose absorption, thus representing an important strategy for the management of hyperglycemia. Also, the PGE ability to block the release of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs), whose accumulation is known to be responsible for diabetic vascular complications, was studied. The iron-reducing and chelating activities, which are the primary mechanisms by which AGE inhibitors stop their metal-catalyzed formation, were evaluated as possible antioxidant mechanisms. At last, the phenolic content of PGE was characterized by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. Our results displayed the ability of PGE to inhibit α-amylase enzyme with a similar potency to the positive control: the IC₅₀ values were 52.2 (CL 27.7 - 101.2) µg/ml and 35.6 (CL 22.8 - 55.5) µg/ml for acarbose and PGE, respectively. PGE also inhibited the α-glucosidase enzyme with about a 25 higher potency than the positive controls of acarbose and quercetin. Furthermore, the extract exhibited ferrous and ferric ion chelating ability, with a maximum effect of 82.1% and 80.6% at a concentration of 250 µg/ml respectively, and reducing properties, reaching the maximum effect of 80.5% at a concentration of 10 µg/ml. At last, PGE was found able to inhibit the AGE production (maximum inhibition of 82.2% at the concentration of 1000 µg/ml), although with lower potency with respect to the positive control rutin. The phytochemical analysis of PGE displayed the presence of high levels of total polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids, among which ellagic acid, gallic acid and catechin were identified. Altogether these data highlight the ability of PGE to control the carbohydrate metabolism at different levels, both by inhibiting the metabolic enzymes and by affecting the AGE formation likely by chelating mechanisms. It is also noteworthy that peel from pomegranate, although being a waste of juice production, can be reviewed as a nutraceutical source. In conclusion, present results suggest the possible role of PGE as a remedy for preventing hyperglycemia complications and encourage further in vivo studies.
784
89632
Modified Acetamidobenzoxazolone Based Biomarker for Translocator Protein Mapping during Neuroinflammation
Abstract:
The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) previously called as peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is proven biomarker for variety of neuroinflammation. TSPO is tryptophane rich five transmembranal protein found on outer mitochondrial membrane of steroid synthesising and immunomodulatory cells. In case of neuronal damage or inflammation the expression level of TSPO get upregulated as an immunomodulatory response. By utilizing Benzoxazolone as a basic scaffold, series of TSPO ligands have been designed followed by their screening through in silico studies. Synthesis has been planned by employing convergent methodology in six high yielding steps. For the synthesized ligands the ‘in vitro’ assay was performed to determine the binding affinity in term of Ki. On ischemic rat brain, autoradiography studies were also carried to check the specificity and affinity of the designed radiolabelled ligand for TSPO.Screening was performed on the basis of GScore of CADD based schrodinger software. All the modified and better prospective compound were successfully carried out and characterized by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, NMR and HRMS). In vitro binding assay showed best binding affinity Ki = 6.1+ 0.3 for TSPO over central benzodiazepine receptor (CBR) Ki > 200. ARG studies indicated higher uptake of two analogues on the lesion side compared with that on the non-lesion side of ischemic rat brains. Displacement experiments with unlabelled ligand had minimized the difference in uptake between the two sides which indicates the specificity of the ligand towards TSPO receptor.
783
93158
Evaluation of Trabectedin Safety and Effectiveness at a Tertiary Cancer Center at Qatar: A Retrospective Analysis
Abstract:
Purpose: Trabecatine is a is a potent marine-derived antineoplastic drug which binds to the minor groove of the DNA, bending DNA towards the major groove resulting in a changed conformation that interferes with several DNA transcription factors, repair pathways and cell proliferation. Trabectedin was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA; London, UK) for the treatment of adult patients with advanced stage soft tissue sarcomas in whom treatment with anthracyclines and ifosfamide has failed, or for those who are not candidates for these therapies. The recommended dosing regimen is 1.5 mg/m2 IV over 24 hours every 3 weeks. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review available data on the safety and efficacy of trabectedin used as indicated for patients at a Tertiary Cancer Center at Qatar. Methods: A medication administration report generated in the electronic health record identified all patients who received trabectedin between November 1, 2015 and November 1, 2017. This retrospective chart review evaluated the indication of trabectedin use, compliance to administration protocol and the recommended monitoring parameters, number of patients improved on the drug and continued treatment, number of patients discontinued treatment due to side-effects and the reported side effects. Progress and discharged notes were utilized to report experienced side effects during trabectedin therapy. A total of 3 patients were reviewed. Results: Total of 2 out of 3 patients who received trabectedin were receiving it for non-FDA and non-EMA, approved indications; metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma and ovarian cancer stage IV with poor prognosis. And only one patient received it as indicated for leiomyosarcoma of left ureter with metastases to liver, lungs and bone. None of the patients has continued the therapy due to development of serious side effects. One patient had stopped the medication after one cycle due to disease progression and transient hepatic toxicity, the other one had disease progression and developed 12 % reduction in LVEF after 12 cycles of trabectedin, and the third patient deceased, had disease progression on trabectedin after the 10th cycle that was received through peripheral line which resulted in developing extravasation and left arm cellulitis requiring debridement. Regarding monitoring parameters, at baseline the three patients had ECHO, and Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK) but it was not monitored during treatment as recommended. Conclusion: Utilizing this medication as indicated with performing the appropriate monitoring parameters as recommended can benefit patients who are receiving it. It is important to reinforce the intravenous administration via central intravenous line, the re-assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by echocardiogram or multigated acquisition (MUGA) scan at 2- to 3-month intervals thereafter until therapy is discontinued, and CPK and LFTs levels prior to each administration of trabectedin.
782
94755
Pyridoxine Effectiveness and Safety for Postpartum Lactation Inhibition: A Systematic Review
Abstract:
Background: It has been suggested that pyridoxine has an anti-lactogenic effect. Studies of the efficacy of pyridoxine in suppressing lactation have reported conflicting results. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of high-dose pyridoxine in postpartum lactation inhibition. Methods: This systematic review included published trials that compared the efficacy and/or safety of pyridoxine to placebo or to other pharmacological agents for the inhibition of postpartum lactation. We searched PubMed, Embase, ScienceDirect, CINAHL, AMED, the Cochrane library, and the clinical trials registry to identify relevant literature. No limit was imposed on the year of publication of the studies, and the review included studies published until 15 January 2016. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. Results: Seven studies were included, with a total of 1155 women, of which 471 women received pyridoxine. Three studies were randomized controlled trials, while the remaining four studies were non-randomized controlled trials. All of the included studies were relatively small (n = 18 – 482). The studies compared pyridoxine with placebo, bromocriptine, and/or stilboestrol. Pyridoxine was given orally, with a total daily dose of 450 – 600 mg for 5 to 7 days. Two trials (n = 349 participants) indicated that pyridoxine was effective in inhibiting lactation in approximately 95% of the enrolled patients. All other studies failed to demonstrate pyridoxine efficacy through either clinical assessment or prolactin level measurements. Pyridoxine safety was assessed by two trials in which no serious untoward side-effects were reported. Overall, the risk of bias for most of the studies was low to moderate. Conclusion: Current evidence supporting the effectiveness of high dose pyridoxine in the inhibition of postpartum lactation is inconsistent and insufficient. Larger randomized trials are needed to confirm the efficacy of pyridoxine in postpartum lactation inhibition. Acknowledgment: This review received a grant from the Medical Research Center of Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar (grant number: 15100/15).
781
96486
Association between G2677T/A MDR1 Polymorphism with the Clinical Response to Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Abstract:
Introduction: In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, resistance or poor response to disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) may be a reflection of the increase in g-P. The expression of g-P may be important in mediating the effluence of DMARD from the cell. In addition, P-glycoprotein is involved in the transport of cytokines, IL-1, IL-2 and IL-4, from normal lymphocytes activated to the surrounding extracellular matrix, thus influencing the activity of RA. The involvement of P-glycoprotein in the transmembrane transport of cytokines can serve as a modulator of the efficacy of DMARD. It was shown that a number of lymphocytes with glycoprotein P activity is increased in patients with RA; therefore, P-glycoprotein expression could be related to the activity of RA and could be a predictor of poor response to therapy. Objective: To evaluate in RA patients, if the G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms is associated with differences in the rate of therapeutic response to disease-modifying antirheumatic agents in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Material and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted. Fifty seven patients with RA were included. They had an active disease according to DAS-28 (score >3.2). We excluded patients receiving biological agents. All the patients were followed during 6 months in order to identify the rate of therapeutic response according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. At the baseline peripheral blood samples were taken in order to identify the G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms using PCR- Specific allele. The fragment was identified by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels stained with ethidium bromide. For statistical analysis, the genotypic and allelic frequencies of MDR1 gene polymorphism between responders and non-responders were determined. Chi-square tests as well as, relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were computed to identify differences in the risk for achieving therapeutic response. Results: RA patients had a mean age of 47.33 ± 12.52 years, 87.7% were women with a mean for DAS-28 score of 6.45 ± 1.12. At the 6 months, the rate of therapeutic response was 68.7 %. The observed genotype frequencies were: for G/G 40%, T/T 32%, A/A 19%, G/T 7% and for A/A genotype 2%. Patients with G allele developed at 6 months of treatment, higher rate for therapeutic response assessed by ACR20 compared to patients with others alleles (p=0.039). Conclusions: Patients with G allele of the - G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphisms had a higher rate of therapeutic response at 6 months with DMARD. These preliminary data support the requirement for a deep evaluation of these and other genotypes as factors that may influence the therapeutic response in RA.
780
97109
Effect of Post and Pre Induced Treatment with Hesperidin in N-Methyl N-Nitrosourea Induced Mammary Gland Cancer in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats
Abstract:
The main objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of hesperidin in the treatment of breast cancer and causing less (or) no bone marrow depression which is the major side effect of the present anticancer drugs treating breast cancer, also to evaluate the mechanisms through which these compounds are exerting their effect. Breast cancer is induced by administering N-methyl N-Nitrosourea (MNU) at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight. Upon the termination of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed by the method of cervical dislocation. The animals were dissected along the ventral midline and were grossly examined for the presence of tumors. Then the tumours were removed along with the stroma. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels were estimated by using ELISA method. The first occurrence of palpable tumors was eight weeks after carcinogen treatment and the final tumour incidence was 100% in the MNU alone and topical treated rats. Whereas in rats of other treatment groups there is decreased tumour incidence which might be due to their antitumour activity. Hesperidin therapy inhibited angiogenesis which can be evident from the significant reduction in serum as well as tumour VEGF concentrations in comparison to the untreated mammary carcinoma bearing rats. Hesperidin is promising agents that exert direct antitumor and also antiangiogenic, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities. Even though the potency is little lesser than standard drug vincristine, it has been proved to be safe without effecting haematological count.
779
85539
Tetra Butyl Ammonium Cyanate Mediated Selective Synthesis of Sulfonyltriuret and Their Investigation towards Trypsin Protease Modulation
Abstract:
A pseudo peptide can mimic the biological or structural properties of natural peptides. They have become an increasing attention in medicinal chemistry because of their interesting advantages like more bioavailability and less biodegradation than compare to the physiologically active native peptides which increase their therapeutic applications. Many biologically active compounds contain urea as functional groups, and they have improved pharmacokinetic properties because of their bioavailability and metabolic stability. Recently we have reported a single-step synthesis of sulfonyl urea and sulfonyltriuret from sulfonyl chloride and sodium cyanate. But the yield of sulfonyltriuret was less around 40-60% because of the formation of other products like sulfonamide and sulfonylureas. In the present work, we mainly focused on the selective synthesis of sulfonyltriuret using tetrabutylammonium cyanate and sulfonyl chloride. More precisely, we are interested in the controlled synthesis of oligomeric urea mainly sulfonyltriuret as a new class of pseudo peptide and their application as protease modulators. The distinctive architecture of these molecules in the form of their pseudo-peptide backbone offers promise as a potential pharmacophore. The synthesized molecules have been screened on trypsin enzyme, and we observed that these molecules are the efficient modulator of trypsin enzyme.
778
89410
A Multifactorial Algorithm to Automate Screening of Drug-Induced Liver Injury Cases in Clinical and Post-Marketing Settings
Abstract:
Background: Hepatotoxicity can be linked to a variety of clinical symptoms and histopathological signs, posing a great challenge in the surveillance of suspected drug-induced liver injury (DILI) cases in the safety database. Additionally, the majority of such cases are rare, idiosyncratic, highly unpredictable, and tend to demonstrate unique individual susceptibility; these qualities, in turn, lend to a pharmacovigilance monitoring process that is often tedious and time-consuming. Objective: Develop a multifactorial algorithm to assist pharmacovigilance physicians in identifying high-risk hepatotoxicity cases associated with DILI from the sponsor’s safety database (Argus). Methods: Multifactorial selection criteria were established using Structured Query Language (SQL) and the TIBCO Spotfire® visualization tool, via a combination of word fragments, wildcard strings, and mathematical constructs, based on Hy’s law criteria and pattern of injury (R-value). These criteria excluded non-eligible cases from monthly line listings mined from the Argus safety database. The capabilities and limitations of these criteria were verified by comparing a manual review of all monthly cases with system-generated monthly listings over six months. Results: On an average, over a period of six months, the algorithm accurately identified 92% of DILI cases meeting established criteria. The automated process easily compared liver enzyme elevations with baseline values, reducing the screening time to under 15 minutes as opposed to multiple hours exhausted using a cognitively laborious, manual process. Limitations of the algorithm include its inability to identify cases associated with non-standard laboratory tests, naming conventions, and/or incomplete/incorrectly entered laboratory values. Conclusions: The newly developed multifactorial algorithm proved to be extremely useful in detecting potential DILI cases, while heightening the vigilance of the drug safety department. Additionally, the application of this algorithm may be useful in identifying a potential signal for DILI in drugs not yet known to cause liver injury (e.g., drugs in the initial phases of development). This algorithm also carries the potential for universal application, due to its product-agnostic data and keyword mining features. Plans for the tool include improving it into a fully automated application, thereby completely eliminating a manual screening process.
777
95827
Evaluation of Synthesis and Structure Elucidation of Some Benzimidazoles as Antimicrobial Agents
Abstract:
Benzimidazole, a structural isostere of indol and purine nuclei that can interact with biopolymers, can be identified as master key. So that benzimidazole compounds are important fragments in medicinal chemistry because of their wide range of biological activities including antimicrobial activity. We planned to synthesize some benzimidazole compounds for developing new antimicrobial drug candidates. In this study, we put some heterocyclic rings on second position and an amidine group on the fifth position of benzimidazole ring and synthesized them using a multiple step procedure. For the synthesis of the compounds, as the first step, 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzonitrile was reacted with cyclohexylamine in dimethyl formamide. Imidate esters (compound 2) were then prepared with absolute ethanol saturated with dry HCl gas. These imidate esters which were not too stable were converted to compound 3 by passing ammonia gas through ethanol. At the Pd / C catalyst, the nitro group is reduced to the amine group (compound 4). Finally, various aldehyde derivatives were reacted with sodium metabisulfite addition products to give compound 5-20. Melting points were determined on a Buchi B-540 melting point apparatus in open capillary tubes and are uncorrected. Elemental analyses were done a Leco CHNS 932 elemental analyzer. 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra were recorded on a Varian Mercury 400 MHz spectrometer using DMSO-d6. Mass spectra were acquired on a Waters Micromass ZQ using the ESI(+) method. The structures of them were supported by spectral data. The 1H-NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra and elemental analysis results agree with those of the proposed structures. Antimicrobial activity studies of the synthesized compounds are under the investigation.
776
93446
Application of Exhaust Gas-Air Brake System in Petrol and Diesel Engine
Abstract:
The possible role of the engine brake is to convert a power-producing engine into a power-absorbing retarding mechanism. In this braking system, exhaust gas (EG) from the internal combustion (IC) engines is used to operate air brake in the automobiles. Airbrake is most used braking system in vehicles. In the proposed model, instead of air brake, EG is used to operate the brake lever and stored in a specially designed tank. This pressure of EG is used to operate the pneumatic cylinder and brake lever. Filters used to remove the impurities from the EG, then it is allowed to store in the tank. Pressure relief valve is used to achieve a specific pressure in the tank and helps to avoid further damage to the tank as well as in an engine. The petrol engine is used in the proposed EG braking system. The petrol engine is chosen initially because it produces less impurity in the exhaust than diesel engines. Moreover, exhaust brake system (EBS) for the Diesel engines is composed of gate valve, pneumatic cylinder and exhaust brake valve with the on-off solenoid. Exhaust brake valve which is core component of EBS should have characteristics such as high reliability and long life. In a diesel engine, there is butterfly valve in exhaust manifold connected with solenoid switch which is used to on and off the butterfly valve. When butterfly valve closed partially, then the pressure starts built up inside the exhaust manifold and cylinder that actually resist the movement of piston leads to crankshaft getting stops resulting stopping of the flywheel. It creates breaking effect in a diesel engine. The exhaust brake is a supplementary breaking system to the service brake. It is noted that exhaust brake increased 2-3 fold the life of service brake may be due to the creation of negative torque which retards the speed of the engine. More study may also be warranted for the best suitable design of exhaust brake in a diesel engine.
775
86031
Towards the Inhibition Mechanism of Lysozyme Fibrillation by Hydrogen Sulfide
Abstract:
Amyloid fibrils are stable aggregates of misfolded protein associated with many neurodegenerative disorders. It has been shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), inhibits the fibrillation of lysozyme through the formation of trisulfide (S-S-S) bonds. However, the overall mechanism remains elusive. Here, the concentration dependence of H2S effect was investigated using Atomic force microscopy (AFM), non-resonance Raman spectroscopy, Deep-UV Raman spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD). It was found that small spherical aggregates with trisulfide bonds and a unique secondary structure were formed instead of amyloid fibrils when adding concentrations of 25 mM and 50 mM of H2S. This could indicate that H2S might serve as a protecting agent for the protein. However, further characterization of these aggregates and their trisulfide bonds is needed to fully unravel the function H2S has on protein fibrillation.
774
86069
Metformin and Its Combination with Sodium Hydrosulfide Influences Plasma Galectin-3 and CSE/H₂S System in Diabetic Rat's Heart
Abstract:
Background and Aims: Galectin-3 is a marker of subclinical cardiac injury and is elevated in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus; while hydrogen sulfide (H₂S), metabolite of sulfur-containing amino acids, is considered having antifibrogenic effects. This study was designed to investigate whether metformin and its combination with NaHS can influence plasma galectin-3 and cystathionine-γ-lyase/hydrogen sulfide (CSE/H₂S) system in diabetic rat’s heart. Methods: 32 healthy male rats (180-250 g) were divided into 4 groups. To induct diabetes, rats (group 2-4) were injected with streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg/i.p., 0.1 M citrate buffer (pH 4.5). Rats from 3d (STZ+Metf) and 4th (STZ+Metf+NaHS) groups were given metformin (500 mg/kg/day) orally, and rats from 4th (STZ+Metf+NaHS) group were injected sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, 3 mg/kg/i.p.) once per day starting from 3 to 28 day after streptozotocin injection. Rats of first group (control) were administered the equivalent volumes of 0.9% NaCl. Plasma galectin-3 was measured by ELISA. Rats’ hearts were sampled for determination of H2S by reaction with N,N-Dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine. Determination of CSE gene expression was performed in real time using PCR in the presence of SYBR Green I, using DT-Light detecting amplifier ('DNA-technology', Russia). Results: Induction of streptozotocin diabetes (STZ-diabetes, group 2) was followed by low myocardial H2S concentration and CSE expression (by 35%, p < 0.05 and 60.5%, p < 0.001 respectively, than that in controls), while plasma galectin-3 in this group was significantly higher than in controls (by 3.8 times, p < 0.05). Administration of metformin (group 3) resulted in significantly higher H₂S concentration (by 28.5%, p < 0.05), whereas CSE expression was only by 6% more than that in STZ-diabetes, as well as plasma galectin-3 was only by 14.8% lower in comparison with untreated diabetic rats. The inhibition of H₂S generation and CSE activity by diabetes was greatly attenuated in STZ+Metf+NaHS group. The combination of metformin with NaHS significantly stimulated H₂S production (by 48%, p < 0.05 and 15%, p < 0.05 more than STZ-diabetes and STZ+Metf respectively) and CSE gene expression (by 64.8%, p < 0.05 compared to STZ-diabetes and by 55.4%,p < 0.05 compared to STZ+Metf). Besides, plasma galectin-3 in rats receiving metformin and NaHS was significantly lower by 42%, p < 0.05 and 32.5%, p < 0.05 compared to STZ-diabetes and STZ+Metf groups respectively. Conclusions: To summarize, dysfunction of CSE/H2S system and galectin-3 stimulation was found in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Metformin and its combination with exogenous H2S effectively prevented the development of metabolic changes induced by diabetes. These findings suggest that CSE/H₂S system can be integrated into pathogenesis of diabetic complications through modulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic mediator galectin-3.
773
96400
Dual Mode Mobile Based Detection of Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide for Determination of Live and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria
Abstract:
Increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a big concern for the treatment of pathogenic diseases. The effect of treatment of patients with antibiotics often leads to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in the pathogens. The detection of antibiotic or antimicrobial resistant bacteria (microbes) is quite essential as it is becoming one of the big threats globally. Here we propose a novel technique to tackle this problem. We are taking a step forward to prevent the infections and diseases due to drug resistant microbes. This detection is based on some unique features of silver (a noble metal) nanorods (AgNRs) which are fabricated by a physical deposition method called thermal glancing angle deposition (GLAD). Silver nanorods are found to be highly sensitive and selective for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. Color and water wetting (contact angle) of AgNRs are two parameters what are effected in the presence of this gas. H₂S is one of the major gaseous products evolved in the bacterial metabolic process. It is also known as gasotransmitter that transmits some biological singles in living systems. Nitric Oxide (NO) and Carbon mono oxide (CO) are two another members of this family. Orlowski (1895) observed the emission of H₂S by the bacteria for the first time. Most of the microorganism produce these gases. Here we are focusing on H₂S gas evolution to determine live/dead and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. AgNRs array has been used for the detection of H₂S from micro-organisms. A mobile app is also developed to make it easy, portable, user-friendly, and cost-effective.
772
91333
Synthesis and Molecular Docking of Isonicotinohydrazide Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Candidates
Abstract:
Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic disease as a result of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It can affect all age groups, and hence, is a global health problem that causes the death of millions of people every year. One of the drugs used in tuberculosis treatment is isonicotinohydrazide. In this study, N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivative compounds (a-l) were prepared using acylation reactions between isonicotinohydrazide and benzoyl chloride derivatives, through the reflux method. Molecular docking studies suggested that all of the compounds had better interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) than isonicotinohydrazide. It can be concluded that N'-benzoylisonicotinohydrazide derivatives (a-l) could be used as anti-tuberculosis candidates. From the docking results revealed that all of the compounds interact well with InhA, with compound g (N'-(3-nitrobenzoyl)isonicotinohydrazide) exhibiting the best interaction.
771
91992
Superoxide Dismutase Activity of Male Rats after Administration of Extract and Nanoparticle of Ginger Torch Flower
Abstract:
Nanoparticle formulation is often used to improve drug absorptivity, thus increasing the sharpness of the action. Ginger torch flower extract was formulated into nanoparticle form using poloxamer 1, 3 and 5%. The nanoparticle was then characterized by its particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and morphological form by SEM. The result shows that nanoparticle formulations have particle size 134.7-193.1 nm, polydispersity index less than 0.5 for all formulations, zeta potential -41.0 - (-24.3) mV and entrapment efficiency 89.93-97.99 against flavonoid content with a soft surface and spherical form of particles. Methanolic extract of ginger torch flower could enhance superoxide dismutase activity by 1,3183 U/mL in male rats. Nanoparticle formulation of ginger torch extract is expected to increase the capability of the drug to enhance superoxide dismutase activity.
770
92270
Docking and Dynamic Molecular Study of Isoniazid Derivatives as Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Candidate
Abstract:
In this research, we have designed four isoniazid derivatives i.e., isonicotinohydrazide (1-isonicotinoyl semicarbazide, 1-thiosemi isonicotinoyl carbazide, N '-(1,3-dimethyl-1 h-pyrazole-5-carbonyl) isonicotino hydrazide, and N '-(1,2,3- 4-thiadiazole-carbonyl) isonicotinohydrazide. The docking and molecular dynamic have performed to them in order to study its interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (InhA). Based on this research, all of the compounds were predicted to have a stable interaction with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase (INHA) receptor, so they could be used as an anti-tuberculosis drug candidate.
769
92293
Identification of Target Receptor Compound 10,11-Dihidroerisodin as an Anti-Cancer Candidate
Abstract:
Cancer is one of the most feared diseases and is considered the leading cause of death worldwide. Generally, cancer drugs are synthetic drugs with relatively more expensive prices and have harmful side effects, so many people turn to traditional medicine, for example by utilizing herbal medicine. Erythrina poeppigiana is one of the plants that can be used as a medicinal plant containing 10,11-dihidroerisodin compounds that are useful anticancer etnofarmakologi. The purpose of this study was to identify the target of 10,11 dihydroerisodin receptor compound as in silico anticancer candidate. The pure isolate was tested physicochemically by MS (Mass Spectrometry), UV-Vis (Ultraviolet – Visible), IR (Infra Red), 13C-NMR (Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), 1H-NMR (Hydrogen-1 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance), to obtain the structure of 10,11-dihydroerisodin alkaloid compound then identified to target receptors in silico. From the results of the study, it was found that 10,11-dihydroerisodin compound can work on the Serine / threonine-protein kinase Chk1 receptor that serves as an anti-cancer candidate.
768
92307
Antioxidant Activity of Nanoparticle of Etlingera elatior (Jack) R. M. Sm Flower Extract on Liver and Kidney of Rats
Abstract:
Nanoparticle technology gives a chance for drugs, especially natural based product, to give better activities than in its macromolecule form. The ginger torch is known to have activities as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, etc. In this research, ginger torch flower extract was nanoparticlized using poloxamer 1, 3, and 5%. Nanoparticle was charaterized for its particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, and morphological form by SEM (scanning electron microscope). The result shows that nanoparticle formulations have particle size 134.7-193.1 nm, polydispersity index is less than 0.5 for all formulations, zeta potential is -41.0 to (-24.3) mV, and entrapment efficiency is 89.93 to 97.99 against flavonoid content with a soft surface and spherical form of particles. Methanolic extract of ginger torch flower could enhance superoxide dismutase activity by 1,3183 U/mL in male rats. Nanoparticle formulation of ginger torch extract is expected to increase the capability of drug to enhance superoxide dismutase activity.
767
89295
Melatonin Suppresses the Brain Injury after Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion in Hyperglycemic Rats
Abstract:
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to exacerbate cerebral ischemic injury. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of oral supplementation of melatonin (MLN) on cerebral injury caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/Re) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic rats. Hyperglycemia was induced by a single injection of STZ (55mg/kg; i.p.), six weeks later the cerebral injury was induced by MCAO/Re. Twenty-four hours after the MCAO/Re the MLN (10 mg/kg) was injected for 14 consecutive days. Results of the present study revealed that MCAO/Re in STZ-induced hyperglycemia in rats causes an increase in the oxidative stress biomarkers; it increased brain lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA) and brain level of nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, MCAO/Reproduces a prominent increase in the brain inflammatory markers viz. interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis nuclear factor-alpha (TNF-α). Oral treatment of MCAO/Re in STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats with MLN (10 mg/kg) for two weeks restored the brain levels of MDA, GSH, NO, IL-6, IL-1β and the TNF-α. MLN succeeded to suppress the exacerbation of damage in the brain of hyperglycemic rats. These results suggest that daily intake of MLN attenuates the exacerbation of cerebral ischemic injury in a diabetic state, which may be attributed to anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the brain.