International Science Index

International Journal of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering

Elastic and Plastic Collision Comparison Using Finite Element Method
The prevision of post-impact conditions and the behavior of the bodies during the impact have been object of several collision models. Almost all use the formulation from Hertz’s theory, dated from the nineteenth century. These models consider the repulsive force as proportional to the deformation of the bodies under contact and may consider it proportional to the rate of deformation. The objective of the present work is to analyze the behavior of the bodies during impact using the Finite Element Method (FEM) with elastic and plastic material models. The main parameters to evaluate are, the contact force, the time of contact and the deformation of the bodies. An advantage of using the FEM approach is the possibility to apply a plastic deformation to the model according to the material definition: there will be used Johnson–Cook plasticity model whose parameters are obtained through empirical tests of real materials. This model allows analyzing the permanent deformation caused by impact, phenomenon observed in real world depending on the forces applied to the body. These results are compared between them and with the model based Hertz theory.
Development of a Matlab® Program for the Bi-Dimensional Truss Analysis Using the Stiffness Matrix Method
A structure is defined as a physical system or, in certain cases, an arrangement of connected elements, capable of bearing certain loads. The structures are presented in every part of the daily life, e.g., in the designing of buildings, vehicles and mechanisms. The main goal of a structure designer is to develop a secure, aesthetic and maintainable system, considering the constraint imposed to every case. With the advances in the technology during the last decades, the capabilities of solving engineering problems have increased enormously. Nowadays the computers, play a critical roll in the structural analysis, pitifully, for university students the vast majority of these software are inaccessible due to the high complexity and cost they represent, even when the software manufacturers offer student versions. This is exactly the reason why the idea of developing a more reachable and easy-to-use computing tool. This program is designed as a tool for the university students enrolled in courser related to the structures analysis and designs, as a complementary instrument to achieve a better understanding of this area and to avoid all the tedious calculations. Also, the program can be useful for graduated engineers in the field of structural design and analysis. A graphical user interphase is included in the program to make it even simpler to operate it and understand the information requested and the obtained results. In the present document are included the theoretical basics in which the program is based to solve the structural analysis, the logical path followed in order to develop the program, the theoretical results, a discussion about the results and the validation of those results.
Hardware in the Loop Platform for Virtual Commissioning: Case Study of a Hydraulic-Press Model Simulated in Real-Time
Hydraulic-press commissioning consumes a great amount of man-hours, due to the fact that it takes place several miles away from where it has been designed. This factor became exacerbated due to control designers’ lack of knowledge about which will be the final controller gains before they start working with it. Virtual commissioning has been postulated as an optimal solution to deal with this lack of knowledge. Here, a case study is presented in which a controller is set up against a real-time model based on a hydraulic-press. The press model is designed following manufacturer specifications and it is embedded in a real-time simulator. This methodology ensures that the model achieves similar responses as the real machine that would be placed on the industry. A deterministic communication protocol is in charge of the bidirectional information transmission between the real-time model and the controller. This platform allows the engineer to test and verify the final control responses with exactly the same hardware that is going to be installed in the hydraulic-press, in other words, realize a virtual commissioning of the electro-hydraulic actuator. The Hardware in the Loop (HiL) platform validates in laboratory conditions and harmless for the machine the control algorithms designed, which allows embedding them afterwards in the industrial environment without further modifications.
Humans Trust Building in Robots with the Help of Explanations
The field of robotics is advancing rapidly to the point where robots have become an integral part of the modern society. These robots collaborate and contribute productively with humans and compensate some shortcomings from human abilities and complement them with their skills. Effective teamwork of humans and robots demands to investigate the critical issue of trust. The field of human-computer interaction (HCI) has already examined trust humans place in technical systems mostly on issues like reliability and accuracy of performance. Early work in the area of expert systems suggested that automatic generation of explanations improved trust and acceptability of these systems. In this work, we augmented a robot with the user-invoked explanation generation proficiency. To measure explanations effect on human’s level of trust, we collected subjective survey measures and behavioral data in a human-robot team task into an interactive, adversarial and partial information environment. The results showed that with the explanation capability humans not only understand and recognize robot as an expert team partner. But, it was also observed that human's learning and human-robot team performance also significantly improved because of the meaningful interaction with the robot in the human-robot team. Moreover, by observing distinctive outcomes, we expect our research outcomes will also provide insights into further improvement of human-robot trustworthy relationships.
Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow Simulation for a Vertical Plate and a Square Cylinder Pair
The flow behaviour of non-Newtonian fluid is quite complicated, although both the pseudoplastic (n < 1, n being the power index) and dilatant (n > 1) fluids under this category are used immensely in chemical and process industries. A limited research work is carried out for flow over a bluff body in non-Newtonian flow environment. In the present numerical simulation we control the vortices of a square cylinder by placing an upstream vertical splitter plate for pseudoplastic (n=0.8), Newtonian (n=1) and dilatant (n=1.2) fluids. The position of the upstream plate is also varied to calculate the critical distance between the plate and cylinder, below which the cylinder vortex shedding suppresses. Here the Reynolds number is considered as Re = 150 (Re = U∞a/ν, where U∞ is the free-stream velocity of the flow, a is the side of the cylinder and ν is the maximum value of kinematic viscosity of the fluid), which comes under laminar periodic vortex shedding regime. The vertical plate is having a dimension of 0.5a × 0.05a and it is placed at the cylinder centre-line. Gambit 2.2.30 is used to construct the flow domain and to impose the boundary conditions. In detail, we imposed velocity inlet (u = U∞), pressure outlet (Neumann condition), symmetry (free-slip boundary condition) at upper and lower domain. Wall boundary condition (u = v = 0) is considered both on the cylinder and the splitter plate surfaces. The unsteady 2-D Navier Stokes equations in fully conservative form are then discretized in second-order spatial and first-order temporal form. These discretized equations are then solved by Ansys Fluent 14.5 implementing SIMPLE algorithm written in finite volume method. Here, fine meshing is used surrounding the plate and cylinder. Away from the cylinder, the grids are slowly stretched out in all directions. To get an account of mesh quality, a total of 297 × 208 grid points are used for G/a = 3 (G being the gap between the plate and cylinder) in the streamwise and flow-normal directions respectively after a grid independent study. The computed mean flow quantities obtained from Newtonian flow are agreed well with the available literatures. The results are depicted with the help of instantaneous and time-averaged flow fields. Qualitative and quantitative noteworthy differences are obtained in the flow field with the changes in rheology of fluid. Also, aerodynamic forces and vortex shedding frequencies differ with the gap-ratio and power index of the fluid. We can conclude from the present simulation that fluent is capable to capture the vortex dynamics of unsteady laminar flow regime even in the non-Newtonian flow environment.
Vortex Control by a Downstream Splitter Plate in Psudoplastic Fluid Flow
Pseudoplastic (n
Diagnosis and Condition Monitoring of Broken Bar Problem in Induction Motors Base Wavelet Analysis and Empirical Mode Decomposition Method: Case Study of Mobarakeh Steel Company in Iran
Nowadays, induction motors have a significant role in industries. Condition Monitoring (CM) of these equipment has gained a remarkable importance during the recent years; due to huge production losses, substantial imposed costs and increases in vulnerability, risk and uncertainty levels. Using motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is one of the most important techniques in CM. This method can be used for rotor broken bars detection. Signal processing methods such as Fourier transformation (FFT), Wavelet transformation and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) are used for analyzing MCSA output data. In this study, these signal processing methods are used for broken bar problem detection of Mobarakeh steel company induction motors. Based on wavelet transformation method, an index for fault detection, CF, is introduced which is the Variation of maximum to the mean of wavelet transformation coefficients. We find that in the broken bar condition the amount of CF factor is greater than the healthy condition. Based on EMD method, the energy of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) is calculated and finds that when motor bars become broken the energy of IMFs increases.
Heat Transfer Characteristics of Submerged Two-Phase Impinging Jet at Low Nozzle-To-Plate Spacing
The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of nozzle-to-plate spacing on heat transfer characteristics of submerged two-phase impinging jets. The influence of the low nozzle-to-plate spacings on the stagnation Nusselt number and pressure are considered. The stagnation pressure of the submerged two-phase impinging jets was measured to understand a relationship with heat transfer characteristics under a fixed water flow rate condition. An x-y-z stage with a 10 µm resolution controlled the nozzle-to-plate spacing (Thorlabs, Inc, PT3A/M). A mass flow controller (Omega FMA5520A) with an accuracy level of ± 1% and a repeatability of ± 0.15% controlled air flow rate. Water flow rate was controlled by a gear pump (Micropump). A heated surface was made by a stainless steel foil, which was connected with two copper bus-bars. A high voltage DC power supply (Agilent 6651A #J03) supplied heat to the foil heater. Five K-type thermocouples of diameter 0.08 mm were used to measure the heater surface temperature using OMEGA (OM-CP-QuadTemp2000) digital data acquisition system. The results show that stagnation pressure and the Nusselt number are divided into two regions; Region I, jet deflection region (H/d ≤ 0.45) and Region II, inertia dominant region (0.45 < H/d ≤ 1.0). In region I, the Nusselt number drastically increases as the nozzle-to-plate spacing decreases due to the increase of the stagnation pressure by the jet deflection. In region II, the effect of the nozzle-to-plate spacing is negligible on the Nusselt number due to the inertia dominant effect.
Effect of Different Parameters of Converging-Diverging Vortex Finders on Cyclone Separator Performance
The present study is done to explore design modifications of the vortex finder, as it has a significant effect on the cyclone separator performance. It is evident that modifications of the vortex finder improve the performance of the cyclone separator significantly. The study conducted strives to improve the overall performance of cyclone separators by utilizing a converging-diverging (CD) vortex finder instead of the traditional uniform diameter vortex finders. The velocity and pressure fields inside a Stairmand cyclone separator with body diameter 0.29m and vortex finder diameter 0.1305m are calculated. The commercial software, Ansys Fluent v14.0 is used to simulate the flow field in a uniform diameter cyclone and six cyclones modified with CD vortex finders. Reynolds stress model is used to simulate the effects of turbulence on the fluid and particulate phases, discrete phase model is used to calculate the particle trajectories. The performance of the modified vortex finders is compared with the traditional vortex finder. The effects of the lengths of the converging and diverging sections, the throat diameter and the end diameters of the convergent divergent section are also studied to achieve enhanced performance. The pressure and velocity fields inside the vortex finder are presented by means of contour plots and velocity vectors and changes in the flow pattern due to variation of the geometrical variables are also analysed. Results indicate that a convergent-divergent vortex finder is capable of decreasing the pressure drop than that achieved through a uniform diameter vortex finder. It is also observed that the end diameters of the CD vortex finder, the throat diameter and the length of the diverging part of the vortex finder have a significant impact on the cyclone separator performance. Increase in the lower diameter of the vortex finder by 66% results in 11.5% decrease in the dimensionless pressure drop (Euler number) with 5.8% decrease in separation efficiency. Whereas 50% decrease in the throat diameter gives 5.9% increase in the Euler number with 10.2% increase in the separation efficiency and increasing the length of the diverging part gives 10.28% increase in the Euler number with 5.74% increase in the separation efficiency. Increasing the upper diameter of the CD vortex finder is seen to produce an adverse effect on the performance as it increases the pressure drop significantly and decreases the separation efficiency. Increase in length of the converging is not seen to affect the performance significantly. From the present study, it is concluded that convergent-divergent vortex finders can be used in place of uniform diameter vortex finders to achieve a better cyclone separator performance.
Design of a Class I Unmanned Aircraft for Maritime Surveillance
The incorporation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in its operational apparatus is recognized by the Portuguese Air Force (PAF) as potentially beneficial, particularly in the domain of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance. Over the past ten years, the PAF has conducted several research and development programs with the objective of operationalizing UAS technology, keeping in mind its integration with the operational apparatus responsible for maritime surveillance and search and rescue (SAR) missions. In this context, it is the present work's objective to design a class I unmanned aircraft (UA), intended for maritime surveillance, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and SAR missions. Its development encompasses conceptual, preliminary and detailed design, focusing on the integration of systems, performance, aerodynamics, stability, propulsion and composite structural design. Mission requirements are set to comply with the European Maritime Safety Agency's specifications. The approach to conceptual design follows a methodology in which the airplane is conceived in a step-by-step, iterative fashion, making use of spreadsheets, empirical data and numerical information obtained with the software XFLR5. It starts with the aircraft concept generation and selection, as well as its initial sizing. Subsequently, the main wing, fuselage, and tail are designed. Finally, static and dynamic stabilities are evaluated, flight performance is assessed, and the flight envelope is determined, yielding the design load, which acts as a design driver, setting the aerodynamic and inertial load characterization of the critical flight maneuver. In preliminary design, the software Star-CCM+, a computational fluid dynamics tool, is employed in a main wing's geometry parametric study, performed with the aim of maximizing endurance. Other aircraft components are analysed, the design is refined, and the necessary onboard systems are integrated, resulting in the definition of the aircraft’s interior layout. The aircraft detailed design is performed through Computed Aided Design (CAD) modelling, with the objective of minimizing the structural weight. It is endorsed by a numerical stress analysis via a Finite Element Analysis (FEA), achieving convergence for both stress and displacement results. The developed design withstands the critical load condition without failure of the structure. As the project’s output, an aircraft capable of not only meeting but also surpassing the demanded mission requirements, is presented. The main wing parametric study concludes that the aerodynamic benefits fail to balance the structural and manufacture drawbacks.
Numerical Validation of Liquid Nitrogen Phase Change in a Star-Shaped Ambient Vaporizer
Gas Nitrogen where has a boiling point of -189.52oC at atmospheric pressure widely used in the industry. Nitrogen that used in the industry should be transported in liquid form to the plant area. Ambient air vaporizer (AAV) generally used for vaporization of cryogenic gases such as liquid nitrogen (LN2), liquid oxygen (LOX), liquid natural gas (LNG), and liquid argon (LAR) etc. AAV is a group of star-shaped fin vaporizer. The design and the effect of the shape of fins of the vaporizer is one of the most important criteria for the performance of the vaporizer. In this study, the performance of AAV working with liquid nitrogen was analyzed numerically in a star-shaped aluminum finned pipe. The numerical analysis is performed in order to investigate the heat capacity of the vaporizer per meter pipe length. By this way, the vaporizer capacity can be predicted for the industrial applications. In order to achieve the validation of the numerical solution, the experimental setup is constructed. The setup includes a liquid nitrogen tank with a pressure of 9 bar. The star-shaped aluminum finned tube vaporizer is connected to the LN2 tank. The inlet and the outlet pressure and temperatures of the LN2 of the vaporizer are measured. The mass flow rate of the LN2 is also measured and collected. The comparison of the numerical solution is performed by these measured data. The ambient conditions of the experiment are given as boundary conditions to the numerical model. The surface tension and contact angle have a significant effect on the boiling of liquid nitrogen. Average heat transfer coefficient including convective and nucleated boiling components should be obtained for liquid nitrogen saturated flow boiling in the finned tube. Fluent CFD module is used to simulate the numerical solution. The turbulent k-ε model is taken to simulate the liquid nitrogen flow. The phase change is simulated by using the evaporation-condensation approach used with user-defined functions (UDF). The comparison of the numerical and experimental results will be shared in this study. Besides, the performance capacity of the star-shaped finned pipe vaporizer will be calculated in this study. Based on this numerical analysis, the performance of the vaporizer per unit length can be predicted for the industrial applications and the suitable pipe length of the vaporizer can be found for the special cases.
Numerical Study on the Effects of Truncated Ribs on Film Cooling with Ribbed Cross-Flow Coolant Channel
To evaluate the effect of the ribs on internal structure in film hole and the film cooling performance on outer surface, the numerical study investigates on the effects of rib configuration on the film cooling performance with ribbed cross-flow coolant channel. The base smooth case and three ribbed cases, including the continuous rib case and two cross-truncated rib cases with different arrangement, are studied. The distributions of adiabatic film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer coefficient are obtained under the blowing ratios with the value of 0.5 and 1.0, respectively. A commercial steady RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes) code with realizable k-ε turbulence model and enhanced wall treatment were performed for numerical simulations. The numerical model is validated against available experimental data. The two cross-truncated rib cases produce approximately identical cooling effectiveness compared with the smooth case under lower blowing ratio. The continuous rib case significantly outperforms the other cases. With the increase of blowing ratio, the cases with ribs are inferior to the smooth case, especially in the upstream region. The cross-truncated rib I case produces the highest cooling effectiveness among the studied the ribbed channel case. It is found that film cooling effectiveness deteriorates with the increase of spiral intensity of the cross-flow inside the film hole. Lower spiral intensity leads to a better film coverage and thus results in better cooling effectiveness. The distinct relative merits among the cases at different blowing ratios are explored based on the aforementioned dominant mechanism. With regard to the heat transfer coefficient, the smooth case has higher heat transfer intensity than the ribbed cases under the studied blowing ratios. The laterally-averaged heat transfer coefficient of the cross-truncated rib I case is higher than the cross-truncated rib II case.
Micro-Channel Flows Simulation Based on Nonlinear Coupled Constitutive Model
MicroElectrical-Mechanical System (MEMS) is one of the most rapidly developing frontier research field both in theory study and applied technology. Micro-channel is a very important link component of MEMS. With the research and development of MEMS, the size of the micro-devices and the micro-channels becomes further smaller. Compared with the macroscale flow, the flow characteristics of gas in the micro-channel have changed, and the rarefaction effect appears obviously. However, for the rarefied gas and microscale flow, Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) equations are no longer appropriate due to the breakup of the continuum hypothesis. A Nonlinear Coupled Constitutive Model (NCCM) has been derived from the Boltzmann equation to describe the characteristics of both continuum and rarefied gas flows. We apply the present scheme to simulate continuum and rarefied gas flows in a micro-channel structure. And for comparison, we apply other widely used methods which based on particle simulation or direct solution of distribution function, such as Direct simulation of Monte Carlo (DSMC), Unified Gas-Kinetic Scheme (UGKS) and Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), to simulate the flows. The results show that the present solution is in better agreement with the experimental data and the DSMC, UGKS and LBM results than the NSF results in rarefied cases but is in good agreement with the NSF results in continuum cases. And some characteristics of both continuum and rarefied gas flows are observed and analyzed.
Optimization of Tooth Root Profile and Drive Side Pressure Angle to Minimize Bending Stress at Root of Asymmetric Spur Gear Tooth
Bending stress at the root of the gear tooth is the very important criteria in gear design and it should be kept the minimum. Minimization of bending stress at the root of the gear tooth is a recent demand from industry. This paper presents an innovative approach to obtain minimum bending stress at the root of a tooth by optimizing tooth root profile and drive side pressure angle. Circular-filleted at the root of the tooth is widely used in the design. Circular fillet creates discontinuity at the root of the tooth. So, at root stress concentration occurs. In order to minimize stress concentration, an important criterion is a G2 continuity at the blending of the gear tooth. A Bezier curve is used with G2 continuity at the root of asymmetric spur gear tooth. The comparison has been done between normal and modified tooth using ANSYS simulation. Tooth root profile and drive side pressure angle are optimized to minimize bending stress at the root of the tooth of the asymmetric involute spur gear. Von Mises stress of optimized profile is analyzed and compared with normal profile symmetric gear. Von Mises stress is reducing by 31.27% by optimization of drive side pressure angle and root profile. Stress concentration of modified gear was significantly reduced.
Performance Improvement of Piston Engine in Aeronautics by Means of Additive Manufacturing Technologies
The reduction of greenhouse gases and pollution emissions is a worldwide environmental issue. The amount of CO₂ released by an aircraft is associated with the amount of fuel burned, so the improvement of engine thermo-mechanical efficiency and specific fuel consumption is a significant technological driver for aviation. Moreover, with the prospect that avgas will be phased out, an engine able to use more available and cheaper fuels is an evident advantage. An advanced aeronautical Diesel engine, because of its high efficiency and ability to use widely available and low-cost jet and diesel fuels, is a promising solution to achieve a more fuel-efficient aircraft. On the other hand, a Diesel engine has generally a higher overall weight, if compared with a gasoline one of same power performances. Fixing the MTOW, Max Take-Off Weight, and the operational payload, this extra-weight reduces the aircraft fuel fraction, partially vinifying the associated benefits. Therefore, an effort in weight saving manufacturing technologies is likely desirable. In this work, in order to achieve the mentioned goals, innovative Electron Beam Melting – EBM, Additive Manufacturing – AM technologies were applied to a two-stroke, common rail, GF56 Diesel engine, developed by the CMD Company for aeronautic applications. For this purpose, a consortium of academic, research and industrial partners, including CMD Company, Italian Aerospace Research Centre – CIRA, University of Naples Federico II and the University of Salerno carried out a technological project, funded by the Italian Minister of Education and Research – MIUR. The project aimed to optimize the baseline engine in order to improve its performance and increase its airworthiness features. This project was focused on the definition, design, development, and application of enabling technologies for performance improvement of GF56. Weight saving of this engine was pursued through the application of EBM-AM technologies and in particular using Arcam AB A2X machine, available at CIRA. The 3D printer processes titanium alloy micro-powders and it was employed to realize new connecting rods of the GF56 engine with an additive-oriented design approach. After a preliminary investigation of EBM process parameters and a thermo-mechanical characterization of titanium alloy samples, additive manufactured, innovative connecting rods were fabricated. These engine elements were structurally verified, topologically optimized, 3D printed and suitably post-processed. Finally, the overall performance improvement, on a typical General Aviation aircraft, was estimated, substituting the conventional engine with the optimized GF56 propulsion system.
Optimal Peer-To-Peer On-Orbit Refueling Mission Planning with Complex Constraints
On-Orbit Refueling is of great significance in extending spacecrafts' lifetime. The problem of minimum-fuel, time-fixed, Peer-to-Peer On-Orbit Refueling mission planning is addressed here with the particular aim of assigning fuel-insufficient satellites to the fuel-sufficient satellites and optimizing each rendezvous trajectory. Constraints including perturbation, communication link, sun illumination, hold points for different rendezvous phases, and sensor switching are considered. A planning model has established as well as a two-level solution method. The upper level deals with target assignment based on fuel equilibrium criterion, while the lower level solves constrained trajectory optimization using special maneuver strategies. Simulations show that the developed method could effectively resolve the Peer-to-Peer On-Orbit Refueling mission planning problem and deal with complex constraints.
The Influence of Ice Topography on Sliding over Ice
Winter brings snow and ice in the Northern Europe and with it the need to move safely over ice. It has been customary to select an appropriate material surface for movement over ice, but another way to influence the interaction with ice is to modify the ice surface. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of ice topography on initiating movement over ice and on sliding velocity over ice in the laboratory and real-life conditions. The ice was prepared smooth, scratched or with solidified ice-droplets to represent the surface of ice after ice rain. In the laboratory, the coefficient of friction and the sliding velocity were measured, but the sliding velocity measured at the skeleton push-start facility. The scratched ice surface increased the resistance to movement and also showed the slowest sliding speed. Sliding was easier on the smooth ice and ice covered with frozen droplets. The contact surface was measured to determine the effect of contact area with sliding. Results from laboratory tests will be compared to loading under heavier loads to show the influence of load on sliding over different ice surfaces. This outcome provides a useful indicator for pedestrians and road traffic on the safety of movement over different ice surfaces as well as a reference for those involved with winter sports.
Combining Nitrocarburisation and Dry Lubrication for Improving Component Lifetime
Nitrocarburisation is a surface hardening technique often applied to improve the wear resistance of steel surfaces. It is considered to be a promising solution in comparison with other processes such as flame spraying, owing to the formation of a diffusion layer which provides mechanical integrity, as well as its cost-effectiveness. To improve other tribological properties of the surface such as the coefficient of friction (COF), dry lubricants are utilized. Currently, the lifetime of steel components in many applications using either of these techniques individually are faced with the limitations of the two: high COF for nitrocarburized surfaces and low wear resistance of dry lubricant coatings. To this end, the current study involves the creation of a hybrid surface using the impregnation of a dry lubricant on to a nitrocarburized surface. The mechanical strength and hardness of Gerster SA’s nitrocarburized surfaces accompanied by the impregnation of the porous outermost layer with a solid lubricant will create a hybrid surface possessing both outstanding wear resistance and a low friction coefficient and with high adherence to the substrate. Gerster SA has the state-of-the-art technology for the surface hardening of various steels. Through their expertise in the field, the nitrocarburizing process parameters (atmosphere, temperature, dwelling time) were optimized to obtain samples that have a distinct porous structure (in terms of size, shape, and density) as observed by metallographic and microscopic analyses. The porosity thus obtained is suitable for the impregnation of a dry lubricant. A commercially available dry lubricant with a thermoplastic matrix was employed for the impregnation process, which was optimized to obtain a void-free interface with the surface of the nitrocarburized layer (henceforth called hybrid surface). In parallel, metallic samples without nitrocarburisation were also impregnated with the same dry lubricant as a reference (henceforth called reference surface). The reference and the nitrocarburized surfaces, with and without the dry lubricant were tested for their tribological behavior by sliding against a quenched steel ball using a nanotribometer. Without any lubricant, the nitrocarburized surface showed a wear rate 5x lower than the reference metal. In the presence of a thin film of dry lubricant ( < 2 micrometers) and under the application of high loads (500 mN or ~800 MPa), while the COF for the reference surface increased from ~0.1 to > 0.3 within 120 m, the hybrid surface retained a COF < 0.2 for over 400m of sliding. In addition, while the steel ball sliding against the reference surface showed heavy wear, the corresponding ball sliding against the hybrid surface showed very limited wear. Observations of the sliding tracks in the hybrid surface using Electron Microscopy show the presence of the nitrocarburized nodules as well as the lubricant, whereas no traces of the lubricant were found in the sliding track on the reference surface. In this manner, the clear advantage of combining nitrocarburisation with the impregnation of a dry lubricant towards forming a hybrid surface has been demonstrated.
A Comparative Study on the Thermophysical and Lubricity Characteristics of Multiwall Carbon Nanotube/Oil and Nanoclay/Oil Nanofluids
Now-a-days, particle based lubricants have been widely used to enhance the lubrication performance. Use of tailor made micro/nanofluids can reduce the friction losses and dissipate heat in a better way. Use of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) has gained interests because of its structure that can endure much better in a system mechanically or thermally in comparison to any other additive in oil. On the other hand, nanoclays have been characterized mechanically and tribologically for the use of clay/polymer composite, and they have been gaining huge interest. Hence it is interesting to be investigated the effect of nanoclays as additive in oil. Thermophysical characteristics of lubricant play a predominant role in defining the friction and wear characteristics of lubricated contacts. However, very limited studies have been carried out to correlate the thermophysical properties of nanolubricants with their lubricity characteristics. Besides, most of the lubricant formulations till dates are found to be optimized for steel/steel contacts. In the present study, Multiwall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) and nanoclay are used as particle additives in mineral oil to develop nanofluids of various concentrations. The prepared lubricants are tested for their rheological, thermal and lubricity characteristics under aluminium-steel contacts. From the thermophysical investigation, it is observed that nanoclay particles significantly improve the viscosity of lubricant with an insignificant improvement in thermal conductivity. On the other hand, MWCNT particles moderately increase the viscosity but significantly increase the thermal conductivity of the base oil. Frictional responses of the nanofluids are characterized using a Pin-on-Disc tribometer which reveal some interesting facts. The findings from this study will greatly aid in formulating the particle based lubricants for cutting fluid in metal forming industries as well as fully developed nanolubricants for aluminium and Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite (AMMC) tribocontact for the use in the automotive and their allied industries.
Heat Transfer Modeling of Bubble Growth during Evaporation in a Square Microchannel
High heat dissipation from a small area is an essential focus of future technologies for semiconductor and microelectronic devices. Similarly, the local temperature control in micro-process reactors has been identified as highly important to achieve efficient realization of various chemical reactions. Hence, understanding and modeling of heat transfer during evaporation process in microchannels are highly important for optimal design and thermal management of these applications. Despite the knowledge provided by many studies on flow and heat transfer characteristics in microchannels by high-speed videography and infrared thermography, development of novel simplified models for prediction of heat transfer mechanism inside a microchannel is still required. In this study, we model the heat transfer to a single nucleate vapor bubble which then expands to an elongated bubble during evaporation in the microchannel. The model is a logical mix of empirical correlations and analytical models and is divided into two steps; (a) partially confined growth, the bubble expands from nucleation site until it fills the entire cross-section of the channel; (b) fully confined growth, the bubble reaches the side walls, begins to elongate axially and grows only in downstream direction. The flow inside the channel results in a resistance expressed in pressure drop. An initial bubble nucleus at the microchannel smooth wall with constant temperature is assumed. The difference between saturation and wall temperature is considered as a model parameter. Liquid is supplied at a constant volumetric rate to the inlet with the assumption of incompressible flow. The initial condition is steady laminar flow with a constant inlet velocity. It is assumed that heat is transferred to the bubble only by evaporation of a thin liquid film, which entirely covers the contact area over the heated wall (no dry out). The heat flux through the contact area is equated to the uniform heat input to the wall qw, implying that the thin liquid film at the wall has the negligible thermal capacity. The enthalpy of evaporation hlv and the vapor density ρv are assumed constant. To estimate the heat transfer characteristics of vapor bubble growth during the evaporation inside of the microchannel, the time variation of liquid film thickness and the bubble nose position were evaluated. Finally, time-averaged value of local heat transfer coefficient is obtained for a period of time using available heat transfer correlations for each heat transfer process separately. Results of the present model are compared to the results of a 3D simulations, where the bubble growth is modeled using the volume-of-fluids method with evaporation. Influence of the model assumptions is discussed based on the comparison of instantaneous and time-averaged results. To conclude, we assess the possibility of application of the presented model for an optimization of the micro heat-exchanger geometry and operational parameters.
Estimation of the External Force for a Co-Manipulation Task Using the Drive Chain Robot
The aim of this paper is to show that the observation of the external effort and the sensor-less control of a system is limited by the mechanical system. First, the model of a one-joint robot with a prismatic joint is presented. Based on this model, two different procedures were performed in order to identify the mechanical parameters of the system and observe the external effort applied to it. Experiments have proven that the accuracy of the force observer, based on the DC motor current, is limited by the mechanics of the robot. The sensor-less control will be limited by the accuracy in estimation of the mechanical parameters and by the maximum static friction force, that is the minimum force which can be observed in this case. The consequence of this limitation is that industrial robots without specific design are not well adapted to perform sensor-less precision tasks. Finally, an efficient control law is presented for high effort applications.
Improvement of the Reliability and the Availability of a Production System
Aims of the work: The aim of this paper is to improve the reliability and the availability of a Packer production line of cigarettes based on two methods: The SADT method (Structured Analysis Design Technique) and the FMECA approach (Failure Mode Effects and Critically Analysis). The first method enables us to describe the functionality of the Packer production line of cigarettes and the second method enables us to establish an FMECA analysis. Methods: The methodology adopted in order to contribute to the improvement of the reliability and the availability of a Packer production line of cigarettes has been proposed in this paper, and it is based on the use of Structured Analysis Design Technique (SADT) and Failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA) methods. This methodology consists of using a diagnosis of the existing of all of the equipment of a production line of a factory in order to determine the most critical machine. In fact, we use, on the one hand, a functional analysis based on the SADT method of the production line and on the other hand, a diagnosis and classification of mechanical and electrical failures of the line production by their criticality analysis based on the FMECA approach. Results: Based on the methodology adopted in this paper, the results are the creation and the launch of a preventive maintenance plan. They contain the different elements of a Packer production line of cigarettes; the list of the intervention preventive activities and their period of realization. Conclusion: The diagnosis of the existing state helped us to found that the machine of cigarettes used in the Packer production line of cigarettes is the most critical machine in the factory. Then this enables us in the one hand, to describe the functionality of the production line of cigarettes by SADT method and on the other hand, to study the FMECA machine in order to improve the availability and the performance of this machine.
The Methodology of System Modeling of Mechatronic Systems
Aims of the work: After a presentation of the functionality of an example of a mechatronic system which is a paint mixer system, we present the concepts of modeling and safe operation. This paper briefly discusses how to model and protect the functioning of a mechatronic system relying mainly on functional analysis and safe operation techniques. Methods: For the study of an example of a mechatronic system, we use methods for external functional analysis that illustrate the relationships between a mechatronic system and its external environment. Thus, we present the Safe-Structured Analysis Design Technique method (Safe-SADT) which allows the representation of a mechatronic system. A model of operating safety and automation is proposed. This model enables us to use a functional analysis technique of the mechatronic system based on the GRAFCET (Graphe Fonctionnel de Commande des Etapes et Transitions: Step Transition Function Chart) method; study of the safe operation of the mechatronic system based on the Safe-SADT method; automation of the mechatronic system based on a software tool. Results: The expected results are to propose a model and safe operation of a mechatronic system. This methodology enables us to analyze the relevance of the different models based on Safe-SADT and GRAFCET in relation to the control and monitoring functions and to study the means allowing exploiting their synergy. Conclusion: In order to propose a general model of a mechatronic system, a model of analysis, safety operation and automation of a mechatronic system has been developed. This is how we propose to validate this methodology through a case study of a paint mixer system.
Methodology for the Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Pneumatics Systems
The present article presents a methodology for the improvement of the energy efficiency in pneumatic systems through the restoring of air. In this way, three techniques of expansion of a cylinder are identified: Expansion using the air of the compressor (conventional), restoring the air (efficient), and combining the air of the compressor and the restored air (hybrid). The methodology starts with the development of the GRAFCET of the system so that it can be decided whether to expand the cylinder in a conventional, efficient, or hybrid way. The methodology can be applied to any case. Finally, graphs of comparison between the three methods of expansion with certain cylinder strokes and workloads are presented, to facilitate the subsequent selection of one system or another.
The Effects of Water Fraction and Salinity on Crude Oil-Water Dispersions
Oil-water emulsions can be found in almost every part of the petroleum industry, namely in reservoir rocks, drilling cuttings circulation, production in wells, transportation pipelines, surface facilities and refining process. However, it is necessary for oil production and refinery engineers to resolve the petroleum emulsion problems as well as to eliminate the contaminants in order to meet environmental standards, achieve the desired product quality and to improve equipment reliability and efficiency. A state-of-art Dispersion Characterization Rig (DCR) has been utilized to investigate crude oil-distilled water dispersion separation. Over 80 experimental tests were ran to investigate the flow behavior and stability of the dispersions. The experimental conditions include the effects of water cuts (25%, 50% and 75%), NaCl concentrations (0, 3.5% and 18%), mixture flow velocities (0.89 and 1.71 ft/s), and also orifice place types on the separation rate. The experimental data demonstrate that the water cut can significantly affects the separation time and efficiency. The dispersion with lower water cut takes longer time to separate and have low separation efficiency. The medium and lower water cuts will result in the formation of Mousse emulsion and the phase inversion happens around the medium water cut. The data also confirm that increasing the NaCl concentration in aqueous phase can increase the crude oil water dispersion separation efficiency especially at higher salinities. The separation profile for dispersions with lower salt concentrations has a lower sedimentation rate slope before the inflection point. Dispersions in all tests with higher salt concentrations have a larger sedimenting rate. The presence of NaCl can influence the interfacial tension gradients along the interface and it plays a role in avoiding the Mousse emulsion formation.
Scale-Up Study of Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow in Downcomer
Downcomers are important conduits for multiphase flow transfer from offshore platforms to the seabed. Uncertainty in the predictions of the pressure drop of multiphase flow between platforms is often dominated by the uncertainty associated with the prediction of holdup and pressure drop in the downcomer. The objectives of this study are to conduct experimental and theoretical scale-up study of the downcomer. A 4-in. diameter vertical test section was designed and constructed to study two-phase flow in downcomer. The facility is equipped with baffles for flow area restriction, enabling interchangeable annular slot openings between 30% and 61.7%. Also, state-of-the-art instrumentation, the capacitance Wire-Mesh Sensor (WMS) was utilized to acquire the experimental data. A total of 76 experimental data points were acquired, including falling film under 30% and 61.7% annular slot opening for air-water and air-Conosol C200 oil cases as well as gas carry-under for 30% and 61.7% opening utilizing air-Conosol C200 oil. For all experiments, the parameters such as falling film thickness and velocity, entrained liquid holdup in the core, gas void fraction profiles at the cross-sectional area of the liquid column, the void fraction and the gas carry under were measured. The experimental results indicated that the film thickness and film velocity increase as the flow area reduces. Also, the increase in film velocity increases the gas entrainment process. Furthermore, the results confirmed that the increase of gas entrainment for the same liquid flow rate leads to an increase in the gas carry-under. A power comparison method was developed to enable evaluation of the Lopez (2011) model, which was created for full bore downcomer, with the novel scale-up experiment data acquired from the downcomer with the restricted area for flow. Comparison between the experimental data and the model predictions shows a maximum absolute average discrepancy of 22.9% and 21.8% for the falling film thickness and velocity, respectively; and a maximum absolute average discrepancy of 22.2% for fraction of gas carried with the liquid (oil).
Investigation of External Pressure Coefficients on Large Antenna Parabolic Reflector Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Estimation of wind forces plays a significant role in the in the design of large antenna parabolic reflectors. Reflector surface accuracies are very sensitive to the gain of the antenna system at higher frequencies. Hence accurate estimation of wind forces becomes important, which is primary input for design and analysis of the reflector system. In the present work, numerical simulation of wind flow using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software is used to investigate the external pressure coefficients. An extensive comparative study has been made between the CFD results and the published wind tunnel data for different wind angle of attacks (α) acting over concave to convex surfaces respectively. Flow simulations using CFD are carried out to estimate the coefficients of Drag, Lift and Moment for the parabolic reflector. Coefficients of pressures (Cp) over the front and the rear face of the reflector are extracted over surface of the reflector to study the net pressure variations. These resultant pressure variations are compared with the published wind tunnel data for different angle of attacks. It was observed from the CFD simulations, both convex and concave face of reflector system experience a band of pressure variations for the positive and negative angle of attacks respectively. In the published wind tunnel data, Pressure variations over convex surfaces are assumed to be uniform and vice versa. Chordwise and spanwise pressure variations were calculated and compared with the published experimental data. In the present work, it was observed that the maximum pressure coefficients for α ranging from +30° to -90° and α=+90° was lower. For α ranging from +45° to +75°, maximum pressure coefficients were higher as compared to wind tunnel data. This variation is due to non-uniform pressure distribution observed over front and back faces of reflector. Variations in Cd, Cl and Cm over α=+90° to α=-90° was in close resemblance with the experimental data.
Fluid Structure Interaction of Offshore Concrete Columns under Explosion Loads
The paper describes the influences of the fluid and structure interaction in concrete structures that support large oil platforms in the North Sea. The dynamic interaction of the fluid both in 2D and 3D are demonstrated through a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis in the event of explosion following a gas leak inside of the concrete column. The structural response characteristics of the column in water under dynamic conditions are quite complex involving axial, radial and circumferential modes. Fluid structure interaction (FSI) modelling showed that there are some frequencies of the column in water which are not found for a column in air. For example, it was demonstrated that one of the axial breathing modes can never be simulated without the use of FSI models. The occurrence of a shift in magnitude and time of pressure from explosion following gas leak along the height of the shaft not only excited the modes of vibration involving breathing (axial), bending and squashing (radial) modes but also magnified the forces in the column. FSI models revealed that dynamic effects resulted in dynamic amplification of loads. The results are summarized from a detailed study that was carried out by the first author for the Offshore Safety Division of Health & Safety Executive United Kingdom.
Modelling of Heat Transfer during Controlled Cooling of Thermo-Mechanically Treated Rebars Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach
Thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT) of rebars is a critical process to impart sufficient strength and ductility to rebar. TMT rebars are produced by the Tempcore process, involves an 'in-line' heat treatment in which hot rolled bar (temperature is around 1080°C) is passed through water boxes where it is quenched under high pressure water jets (temperature is around 25°C). The quenching rate dictates composite structure consisting (four non-homogenously distributed phases of rebar microstructure) pearlite-ferrite, bainite, and tempered martensite (from core to rim). The ferrite and pearlite phases present at core induce ductility to rebar while martensitic rim induces appropriate strength. The TMT process is difficult to model as it brings multitude of complex physics such as heat transfer, highly turbulent fluid flow, multicomponent and multiphase flow present in the control volume. Additionally the presence of film boiling regime (above Leidenfrost point) due to steam formation adds complexity to domain. A coupled heat transfer and fluid flow model based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been developed at product technology division of Tata Steel, India which efficiently predicts temperature profile and percentage martensite rim thickness of rebar during quenching process. The model has been validated with 16 mm rolling of New Bar mill (NBM) plant of Tata Steel Limited, India. Furthermore, based on the scenario analyses, optimal configuration of nozzles was found which helped in subsequent increase in rolling speed.
Comparative Mesh Sensitivity Study of Different Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Turbulence Models in OpenFOAM
In industry, to validate a case, often a multitude of simulation are required and in order to demonstrate confidence in the process where users tend to use a coarser mesh. Therefore, it is imperative to establish the coarsest mesh that could be used while keeping reasonable simulation accuracy. To date, the two most reliable, affordable and broadly used advanced simulations are the hybrid RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes)/LES (Large Eddy Simulation) and wall modelled LES. The potentials in these two simulations will still be developed in the next decades mainly because the unaffordable computational cost of a DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation). In the wall modelled LES, the turbulence model is applied as a sub-grid scale model in the most inner layer near the wall. The RANS turbulence models cover the entire boundary layer region in a hybrid RANS/LES (Detached Eddy Simulation) and its variants, therefore, the RANS still has a very important role in the state of art simulations. This research focuses on the turbulence model mesh sensitivity analysis where various turbulence models such as the S-A (Spalart-Allmaras), SSG (Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski), K-Omega transitional SST (Shear Stress Transport), K-kl-Omega, γ-Reθ transitional model, v2f are evaluated within the OpenFOAM. The simulations are conducted on a fully developed turbulent flow over a flat plate where the skin friction coefficient as well as velocity profiles are obtained to compare against experimental values and DNS results. A concrete conclusion is made to clarify the mesh sensitivity for different turbulence models.