International Science Index

International Journal of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

1675
97332
Digital Factory: Using Shopfloor Data to Optimise Planning Processes
Abstract:
A digital ecosystem and toolset, the Digital Factory approach enable a virtual environment for the lifecycle design of manufacturing processes and systems. Its unique set of methods integrates information and expertise from different engineering phases, serving as models for process and factory planning, manufacturing design, and more. The usage of the Digital Factory has proven to be beneficial for car manufacturers and often resulted in shorter lead times, increased efficiency and quality, optimized ramp-up processes and an overall faster time-to-market. Although the application of Digital Factory methods has been repeatedly positive for the planning phase, most of the industrial implementations are still facing issues that prevent it from reaching its full potential. A common challenge is how to warranty the continuous data flow required along all process steps and especially how to efficiently feedback and translate production data from running shop-floor implementations into the planning tools. During the physical implementations of the virtually planned processes, deviations from the virtual models may occur due to a number of reasons, e.g. planning with offsets or process optimizations. Feeding back real, optimized parameters from the shop-floor of a running production into the Digital Factory modeling tools through an automatic link would lead to a significant business benefit. In doing so, the first major challenge to overcome is the usage of a diversified and heterogeneous tool-chain. Hence, the usage of a standard that can represent information from most of the engineering phases is of primary importance. AutomationML (IEC 62714) offers such possibilities, bringing information from the different engineering phases into a central data repository, where a central data model is generated. Moreover, OPC UA (IEC 62714), the de-facto standard to extract machine data and parameters, is utilised to extract the required information from a running production and stored in a production data lake. The required parameters are in this way extracted into a historical database. By comparing and contrasting the data models from the virtual world and the real world, it is possible to identify deviations which can be fed back into the dedicated tools. This application of the Digital Factory approach results into a seamless error-free planning process, a decrease in the overall commissioning time and an optimised following ramp-up. This paper provides a conceptual view of such an architecture and possible implementation.
1674
97023
Influence of Moringa Leaves Extract on the Response of Hemoglobin Molecule to Dose Rates’ Changes: II. Relaxation Time and Its Thermodynamic Driven State Functions
Abstract:
Irradiation deposits energy through ionization changing the biosystem's net dipole. Such changes allow the use of dielectric parameters and thermodynamic state functions related to these parameters as biophysical detectors to electrical inhomogeneity within the biosystem. This part is concerned with the effect of moringa leaves extract, a natural supplement, on the response of the biosystem to two different dose rates of irradiation. Performing the experiment on Hb molecule would be least invasive to the biosystem. Dielectric measurements were used to extract the relaxation time of certain process found in the Hb spectrum within the indicated frequency window and the interrelated thermodynamic state functions were calculated from the deduced relaxation time. Results showed that relaxation time was decreased for both dose rates indicating a strong influence of moringa on the response of biosystem and consequently Hb molecule; this influence was presented in the relaxation time and other parameters as well.
1673
95469
Study of Adsorption Isotherm Models on Rare Earth Elements Biosorption for Separation Purposes
Abstract:
The development of chemical routes for the recovery and separation of rare earth elements (REE) is seen as a priority and strategic action by several countries demanding these elements. Among the possibilities of alternative routes, the biosorption process has been evaluated in our laboratory. In this theme, the present work attempt to assess and fit the solution equilibrium data in Langmuir, Freundlich and DKR (Dubinin–Kaganer–Radushkevich) isothermal models, based on the biosorption results of the lanthanum and samarium elements by Bacillus subtilis immobilized on calcium alginate gel. It was observed that the preference of adsorption of REE by the immobilized biomass followed the order Sm (III) > La (III). It can be concluded that among the studied isotherms models, the Langmuir model presented better mathematical results than the Freundlich and DKR models.
1672
92877
Apatite Flotation Using Fruits' Oil as Collector and Sorghum as Depressant
Abstract:
The crescent demand for raw material has increased mining activities. Mineral industry faces the challenge of process more complexes ores, with very small particles and low grade, together with constant pressure to reduce production costs and environment impacts. Froth flotation deserves special attention among the concentration methods for mineral processing. Besides its great selectivity for different minerals, flotation is a high efficient method to process fine particles. The process is based on the minerals surficial physicochemical properties and the separation is only possible with the aid of chemicals such as collectors, frothers, modifiers, and depressants. In order to use sustainable and eco-friendly reagents, oils extracted from three different vegetable species (pequi’s pulp, macauba’s nut and pulp, and Jatropha curcas) were studied and tested as apatite collectors. Since the oils are not soluble in water, an alkaline hydrolysis (or saponification), was necessary before their contact with the minerals. The saponification was performed at room temperature. The tests with the new collectors were carried out at pH 9 and Flotigam 5806, a synthetic mix of fatty acids industrially adopted as apatite collector manufactured by Clariant, was used as benchmark. In order to find a feasible replacement for cornstarch the flour and starch of a graniferous variety of sorghum was tested as depressant. Apatite samples were used in the flotation tests. XRF (X-ray fluorescence), XRD (X-ray diffraction), and SEM/EDS (Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) were used to characterize the apatite samples. Zeta potential measurements were performed in the pH range from 3.5 to 12.5. A commercial cornstarch was used as depressant benchmark. Four depressants dosages and pH values were tested. A statistical test was used to verify the pH, dosage, and starch type influence on the minerals recoveries. For dosages equal or higher than 7.5 mg/L, pequi oil recovered almost all apatite particles. In one hand, macauba’s pulp oil showed excellent results for all dosages, with more than 90% of apatite recovery, but in the other hand, with the nut oil, the higher recovery found was around 84%. Jatropha curcas oil was the second best oil tested and more than 90% of the apatite particles were recovered for the dosage of 7.5 mg/L. Regarding the depressant, the lower apatite recovery with sorghum starch were found for a dosage of 1,200 g/t and pH 11, resulting in a recovery of 1.99%. The apatite recovery for the same conditions as 1.40% for sorghum flour (approximately 30% lower). When comparing with cornstarch at the same conditions sorghum flour produced an apatite recovery 91% lower.
1671
97215
Design and Development of High Strength Aluminium Alloy from Recycled 7xxx-Series Material Using Bayesian Optimisation
Abstract:
Aluminum is the preferred material for lightweight applications and its alloys are constantly improving. The high strength 7xxx alloys have been extensively used for structural components in aerospace and automobile industries for the past 50 years. In the next decade, a great number of airplanes will be retired, providing an obvious source of valuable used metals and great demand for cost-effective methods to re-use these alloys. The design of proper aerospace alloys is primarily based on optimizing strength and ductility, both of which can be improved by controlling the additional alloying elements as well as heat treatment conditions. In this project, we explore the design of high-performance alloys with 7xxx as a base material. These designed alloys have to be optimized and improved to compare with modern 7xxx-series alloys and to remain competitive for aircraft manufacturing. Aerospace alloys are extremely complex with multiple alloying elements and numerous processing steps making optimization often intensive and costly. In the present study, we used Bayesian optimization algorithm, a well-known adaptive design strategy, to optimize this multi-variable system. An Al alloy was proposed and the relevant heat treatment schedules were optimized, using the tensile yield strength as the output to maximize. The designed alloy has a maximum yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of more than 730 and 760 MPa, respectively, and is thus comparable to the modern high strength 7xxx-series alloys. The microstructure of this alloy is characterized by electron microscopy, indicating that the increased strength of the alloy is due to the presence of a high number density of refined precipitates.
1670
93789
Influence of Bra Band Tension and Underwire Angles on Breast Motion
Abstract:
Daily activities and exercise may result in a large displacement of the breast, leading to breast pain and discomfort. A proper design and fit of bra helps to control the excessive breast motion for preventing over-stretching of the connective tissue. Nevertheless, inappropriate bra features such as the excessive high tension of shoulder strap and under band may associate with substantial negative effects on wear comfort and health aspects. The purpose of this study is analyzing the tension effect of bra band on breast displacement. To prevent human wear trial inconsistency, a soft torso manikin is designed to stimulate the walking speed of 2.30 km/h and 4.08 km/h. Breast displacement is assessed by VICON motion capture system. The 3D geometrical changes of underwire bra band tension and the corresponding control of breast movement were also analyzed by the 3D handheld scanner with Rapidform software. Results indicated that appropriate tension of bra band reduced breast displacement and provided moderate underwire angle. The findings give an indication for the designers and bra engineers in advancing bra design and development.
1669
93870
Two-Dimensional Material-Based Negative Differential Resistance Device with High Peak-To-Valley Current Ratio for Multi-Valued Logic Circuits
Abstract:
The multi-valued logic (MVL) circuits, which can handle more than two logic states, are one of the promising solutions to overcome the bit density limitations of conventional binary logic systems. Recently, tunneling devices such as Esaki diode and resonant tunneling diode (RTD) have been extensively explored to construct the MVL circuits. These tunneling devices present a negative differential resistance (NDR) phenomenon in which a current decreases as a voltage increases in a specific applied voltage region. Due to this non-monotonic current behavior, the tunneling devices have more than two threshold voltages, consequently enabling construction of MVL circuits. Recently, the emergence of two dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) crystals has opened up the possibility to fabricate such tunneling devices easily. Owing to the defect-free surface of the 2D crystals, a very abrupt junction interface could be formed through a simple stacking process, which subsequently allowed the implementation of a high-performance tunneling device. Here, we report a vdW heterostructure based tunneling device with multiple threshold voltages, which was fabricated with black phosphorus (BP) and hafnium diselenide (HfSe₂). First, we exfoliated BP on the SiO₂ substrate and then transferred HfSe₂ on BP using dry transfer method. The BP and HfSe₂ form type-Ⅲ heterojunction so that the highly doped n+/p+ interface can be easily implemented without additional electrical or chemical doping process. Owing to high natural doping at the junction, record high peak to valley ratio (PVCR) of 16 was observed to the best our knowledge in 2D materials based NDR device. Furthermore, based on this, we first demonstrate the feasibility of the ternary latch by connecting two multi-threshold voltage devices in series.
1668
93884
Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide Photosynaptic Device with Alkylated Graphene Oxide for Optoelectronic Spike Processing
Abstract:
Recently, neuromorphic computing based on brain-inspired artificial neural networks (ANNs) has attracted huge amount of research interests due to the technological abilities to facilitate massively parallel, low-energy consuming, and event-driven computing. In particular, research on artificial synapse that imitate biological synapses responsible for human information processing and memory is in the spotlight. Here, we demonstrate a photosynaptic device, wherein a synaptic weight is governed by a mixed spike consisting of voltage and light spikes. Compared to the device operated only by the voltage spike, ∆G in the proposed photosynaptic device significantly increased from -2.32nS to 5.95nS with no degradation of nonlinearity (NL) (potentiation/depression values were changed from 4.24/8 to 5/8). Furthermore, the Modified National Institute of Standards and Technology (MNIST) digit pattern recognition rates improved from 36% and 49% to 50% and 62% in ANNs consisting of the synaptic devices with 20 and 100 weight states, respectively. We expect that the photosynaptic device technology processed by optoelectronic spike will play an important role in implementing the neuromorphic computing systems in the future.
1667
91818
Gas-Phase Noncovalent Functionalization of Pristine Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with 3D Metal(II) Phthalocyanines
Abstract:
Noncovalent nanohybrid materials combining carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with phthalocyanines (Pcs) is a subject of increasing research effort, with a particular emphasis on the design of new heterogeneous catalysts, efficient organic photovoltaic cells, lithium batteries, gas sensors, field effect transistors, among other possible applications. The possibility of using unsubstituted Pcs for CNT functionalization is very attractive due to their very moderate cost and easy commercial availability. However, unfortunately, the deposition of unsubstituted Pcs onto nanotube sidewalls through the traditional liquid-phase protocols turns to be very problematic due to extremely poor solubility of Pcs. On the other hand, unsubstituted free-base H₂Pc phthalocyanine ligand, as well as many of its transition metal complexes, exhibit very high thermal stability and considerable volatility under reduced pressure, which opens the possibility for their physical vapor deposition onto solid surfaces, including nanotube sidewalls. In the present work, we show the possibility of simple, fast and efficient noncovalent functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with a series of 3d metal(II) phthalocyanines Me(II)Pc, where Me= Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The functionalization can be performed in a temperature range of 400-500 °C under moderate vacuum and requires about 2-3 h only. The functionalized materials obtained were characterized by means of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, UV-visible and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, respectively) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA suggested that Me(II)Pc weight content is 30%, 17% and 35% for NiPc, CuPc, and ZnPc, respectively (CoPc exhibited anomalous thermal decomposition behavior). The above values are consistent with those estimated from EDS spectra, namely, of 24-39%, 27-36% and 27-44% for CoPc, CuPc, and ZnPc, respectively. A strong increase in intensity of D band in the Raman spectra of SWNT‒Me(II)Pc hybrids, as compared to that of pristine nanotubes, implies very strong interactions between Pc molecules and SWNT sidewalls. Very high absolute values of binding energies of 32.46-37.12 kcal/mol and the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO and LUMO, respectively) distribution patterns, calculated with density functional theory by using Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof general gradient approximation correlation functional in combination with the Grimme’s empirical dispersion correction (PBE-D) and the double numerical basis set (DNP), also suggested that the interactions between Me(II) phthalocyanines and nanotube sidewalls are very strong. The authors thank the National Autonomous University of Mexico (grant DGAPA-IN200516) and the National Council of Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACYT, grant 250655) for financial support. The authors are also grateful to Dr. Natalia Alzate-Carvajal (CCADET of UNAM), Eréndira Martínez (IF of UNAM) and Iván Puente-Lee (Faculty of Chemistry of UNAM) for technical assistance with FTIR, TGA measurements, and TEM imaging, respectively.
1666
91820
Gas-Phase Nondestructive and Environmentally Friendly Covalent Functionalization of Graphene Oxide Paper with Amines
Abstract:
Direct covalent functionalization of prefabricated free-standing graphene oxide paper (GOP) is considered as the only approach suitable for systematic tuning of thermal, mechanical and electronic characteristics of this important class of carbon nanomaterials. At the same time, the traditional liquid-phase functionalization protocols can compromise physical integrity of the paper-like material up to its total disintegration. To avoid such undesirable effects, we explored the possibility of employing an alternative, solvent-free strategy for facile and nondestructive functionalization of GOP with two representative aliphatic amines, 1-octadecylamine (ODA) and 1,12-diaminododecane (DAD), as well as with two aromatic amines, 1-aminopyrene (AP) and 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN). The functionalization was performed under moderate heating at 150-180 °C in vacuum. Under such conditions, it proceeds through both amidation and epoxy ring opening reactions. Comparative characterization of pristine and amine-functionalized GOP mats was carried out by using Fourier-transform infrared, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential thermal analysis, scanning electron and atomic force microscopy (SEM and AFM, respectively). Besides that, we compared the stability in water, wettability, electrical conductivity and elastic (Young's) modulus of GOP mats before and after amine functionalization. The highest content of organic species was obtained in the case of GOP-ODA, followed by GOP-DAD, GOP-AP and GOP-DAN samples. The covalent functionalization increased mechanical and thermal stability of GOP, as well as its electrical conductivity. The magnitude of each effect depends on the particular chemical structure of amine employed, which allows for tuning a given GOP property. Morphological characterization by using SEM showed that, compared to pristine graphene oxide paper, amine-modified GOP mats become relatively ordered layered assemblies, in which individual GO sheets are organized in a near-parallel pattern. Financial support from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (grants DGAPA-IN101118 and IN200516) and from the National Council of Science and Technology of Mexico (CONACYT, grant 250655) is greatly appreciated. The authors also thank David A. Domínguez (CNyN of UNAM) for XPS measurements and Dr. Edgar Alvarez-Zauco (Faculty of Science of UNAM) for the opportunity to use TGA equipment.
1665
93489
Biodegradable and Bioactive Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering
Abstract:
The current approach to the treatment of bone defects involves the use of scaffolds that provide a biological and mechanically stable niche to favor tissue repair. Despite the significant progress in the field of bone tissue engineering, several main problems associated are attributed to giving a low biodegradation degree, does not promote osseointegration and regeneration, if the bone is not healing as well as expected or fails to heal, will not be given a proper ossification or new bone formation. The actual approaches of bone tissue regeneration are directed to the use of decellularized native extracellular matrices, which are able of retain their own architecture, mechanic properties, biodegradability and promote new bone formation because they are capable of conserving proteins and other factors that are founded in physiological concentrations. Therefore, we propose an extracellular matrix-based bioscaffolds derived from bovine cancellous bone, which is processed by decellularization, demineralization, and hydrolysis of the collagen protein, these protocols have been successfully carried out in other organs and tissues; the effectiveness of its biosafety has also been previously evaluated in vivo and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved. In the specific case of bone, a more complex treatment is needed in comparison with other organs and tissues because is necessary demineralization and collagen denaturalization. The present work was made in order to obtain a temporal scaffold that succeed in degradation in an inversely proportional way to the synthesis of extracellular matrix and the maturation of the bone by the cells of the host.
1664
93687
Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nano-Platelets Coated Carbon-Fiber Composites
Abstract:
Carbon-fiber epoxy composites show extremely high modulus and strength in the uniaxial direction. However, they are prone to fail under low load in transverse direction due to the weak nature of the interface between the carbon-fiber and epoxy. In the current study, we have coated graphene nano-platelets (GNPs) on the carbon-fibers in an attempt to strengthen the interface/interphase between the fiber and the matrix. Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM) has been used to make the laminates of eight cross-woven fabrics. Tensile, flexural and fracture toughness tests have been performed on pristine carbon-fiber composite (P-CF), GNP coated carbon-fiber composite (GNP-CF) and functionalized-GNP coated carbon-fiber composite (F-GNP-CF). The tensile strength and flexural strength values are pretty similar for P-CF and GNP-CF. The micro-structural examination of the GNP coated carbon-fibers, as well as the fracture surfaces, have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The micrographs reveal the deposition of GNPs onto the carbon fibers in transverse and longitudinal direction. Fracture surfaces show the debonding and pull outs of the carbon fibers in P-CF and GNP-CF samples.
1663
95968
Production of Spherical Cementite within Bainitic Matrix Microstructures in High Carbon Powder Metallurgy Steels
Abstract:
The hardness-microstructure relationships of spherical cementite in bainitic matrix obtained by a different heat treatment cycles carried out to high carbon powder metallurgy (P/M) steel were investigated. For this purpose, 1.5wt% natural graphite powder admixed in atomized iron powders and the mixed powders were compacted under 700 MPa at room temperature and then sintered at 1150°C under a protective argon gas atmosphere. The densities of the green and sintered samples were measured via Archimedes method. A density of 7.4 g/cm³ was obtained after sintering, and a density of 94% was achieved. The sintered specimens having primary cementite plus lamellar pearlitic structures were fully quenched from 950°C temperature and then over-tempered at 705°C temperature for 60 minutes to produce spherical-fine cementite particles in the ferritic matrix. After by this treatment, these samples annealed at 735°C temperature for 3 minutes were austempered at 300°C salt bath for a period of 1 to 5 hours. As a result of this process, it could be able to produced spherical cementite particle in the bainitic matrix. This microstructure was designed to improve wear and toughness of P/M steels. The microstructures were characterized and analyzed by SEM and micro and macro hardness.
1662
97243
Flotation of Rare Earth Oxides from Iron-Oxide Silicate Rich Tailings Using Fatty Acids
Abstract:
The versatility of froth flotation has made it vital in the beneficiation of rare earth elements minerals from either high or low-grade ores. There has been a significant increase in the quantity of iron oxide silicate-rich tailings generated from the extraction of primary commodities such as copper and gold in Australia, which have been identified to contain very low-grade rare earth oxides (≤ 1%). There is a vast knowledge gap in the beneficiation of rare earth oxides from such tailings. The aim of this research is to investigate the feasibility of using fatty acids as collectors for the flotation recovery and upgrade of rare earth oxides from selected iron-oxide silicate-rich tailings. Two forms of fatty acid collectors (oleic acid and sodium oleate) were tested in this investigation. Flotation tests were carried out using a 1.2 L Denver D-12 cell. The effects of pulp pH, fatty acid dosage, particle size distribution (-150 +75 µm, -75 +38 µm and -38 µm) and conventional depressants (sodium silicate and starch) dosage on flotation recovery of rare earth oxides were investigated. A comparison of the flotation results indicated that sodium oleate was the more efficient fatty acid for rare earth oxides flotation at all the pulp pH investigated. The flotation performance was found to be particle size-dependent. Both sodium silicate and starch were unselective in decreasing the recovery of iron oxides and silicate minerals, respectively with the corresponding decrease in rare earth oxides recovery. Generally, iron oxides and silicate minerals formed the substantial fraction of the flotation concentrates obtained, both in the absence and presence of depressants, resulting in a generally low rare earth oxides upgrade, even though rare earth oxides recoveries were high. The flotation tests carried out on the tailings sample suggest the feasibility of rare earth oxides recovery using fatty acids, although particle size distribution and minerals liberation are key limiting factors in achieving selective rare earth oxides upgrade.
1661
95083
Mechanical and Optical Properties of Doped Aluminum Nitride Thin Films
Abstract:
Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a potential candidate for semiconductor industry due to its wide band gap (6.2 eV), high thermal conductivity and low thermal coefficient of expansion. A-plane oriented AlN film finds an important role in deep UV-LED with higher isotropic light extraction efficiency. Also, Cr-doped AlN films exhibit dilute magnetic semiconductor property with high Curie temperature (300 K), and thus compatible with modern day microelectronics. In this work, highly a-axis oriented wurtzite AlN and Al1-xMxN (M = Cr, Ti) films have synthesized by reactive co-sputtering technique at different concentration. Crystal structure of these films is studied by Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Identification of binding energy and concentration (x) in these films is carried out by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Local crystal structure around the Cr and Ti atom of these films are investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). It is found that Cr and Ti replace the Al atom in AlN lattice and the bond lengths in first and second coordination sphere with N and Al, respectively, decrease concerning doping concentration due to strong p-d hybridization. The nano-indentation hardness of Cr and Ti-doped AlN films seems to increase from 17.5 GPa (AlN) to around 23 and 27.5 GPa, respectively. An-isotropic optical properties of these films are studied by the Spectroscopic Ellipsometry technique. Refractive index and extinction coefficient of these films are enhanced in normal dispersion region as compared to the parent AlN film. The optical band gap energies also seem to vary between deep UV to UV regions with the addition of Cr, thus by bringing out the usefulness of these films in the area of optoelectronic device applications.
1660
96143
Self-Assembly of TaC@Ta Core-Shell-Like Nanocomposite Film via Solid-State Dewetting: Toward Superior Wear and Corrosion Resistance
Abstract:
The improvement of comprehensive properties including hardness, toughness, wear, and corrosion resistance in the transition metal carbides/nitrides TMCN films, especially avoiding the trade-off between hardness and toughness, is strongly required to adapt to various applications. Although incorporating ductile metal DM phase into the TMCN via thermally-induced phase separation has been emerged as an effective approach to toughen TMCN-based films, the DM is just limited to some soft ductile metal (i.e. Cu, Ag, Au immiscibility with the TMCN. Moreover, hardness is highly sensitive to soft DM content and can be significantly worsened. Hence, a novel preparation method should be attempted to broaden the DM selection and assemble much more ordered nanocomposite structure for improving the comprehensive properties. Here, we provide a new strategy, by activating solid-state dewetting during layered deposition, to accomplish the self-assembly of ordered TaC@Ta core-shell-like nanocomposite film consisting of TaC nanocrystalline encapsulated with thin pseudocrystal Ta tissue. That results in the superhard (~45.1 GPa) dominated by Orowan strengthening mechanism and high toughness attributed to indenter-induced phase transformation from the pseudocrystal to body-centered cubic Ta, together with the drastically enhanced wear and corrosion resistance. Furthermore, very thin pseudocrystal Ta encapsulated layer (~1.5 nm) in the TaC@Ta core-shell-like structure helps for promoting the formation of lubricious TaOₓ Magnéli phase during sliding, thereby further dropping the coefficient of friction. Apparently, solid-state dewetting may provide a new route to construct ordered TMC(N)@TM core-shell-like nanocomposite capable of combining superhard, high toughness, low friction, superior wear with corrosion resistance.
1659
96144
Ti-Mo-N Nano-Grains Embedded into Thin MoSₓ-Based Amorphous Matrix: A Novel Structure for Superhardness and Ultra-Low Wear
Abstract:
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS₂) represents a highly sought lubricant for reducing friction based on intrinsic layered structure, but for this reason, practical applications have been greatly restricted due to the fact that its low hardness would cause severe wear. Here, a novel TiMoN/MoSₓ composite coatings with TiMoN solid solution grains embedded into MoSₓ-based amorphous matrix has been successfully designed and synthesized, through magnetron co-sputtering technology. Desirably, in virtue of such special microstructure, superhardness and excellent toughness can be well achieved, along with an ultra-low wear rate at ~2×10⁻¹¹ mm³/Nm in the air environment, simultaneously, low friction at ~0.1 is maintained. It should be noted that this wear level is almost two orders of magnitude lower than that of pure TiN coating, and is, as we know, the lowest wear rate in dry sliding. Investigations of tribofilm reveal that it is amorphous MoS₂ in nature, and its formation arises directly from the MoSₓ amorphous matrix. Which contributes to effective lubrication behavior, coupled with excellent mechanical performances of such composite coating, exceptionally low wear can be guaranteed. The findings in this work suggest that the special composite structure makes it possible for the synthesis of super-hard and super-durable lubricative coating, offering guidance to synthesize ultrahigh performance protective coating for industrial application.
1658
97326
Enhancement of Hydrophobicity of Thermally Evaporated Bi Thin Films by Oblique Angle Deposition
Abstract:
Surface-dependent properties such as hydrophobicity can be modified significantly by oblique angle deposition technique. Bi thin films were studied for their hydrophobic nature. The effects of oblique angle deposition on structural, surface morphology, electrical and wettability properties of Bi thin films have been studied and a comparison of these physical properties of normally deposited and obliquely deposited Bi films has been carried out in this study. X-ray diffraction studies found that films have highly oriented hexagonal crystal structure and crystallite size is smaller for obliquely deposited (70 nm) film as compared to that of the normally deposited film (111 nm). Raman spectra of the films consist of peaks corresponding to E_g and A_1g first-order Raman modes of bismuth. The atomic force and scanning electron microscopy studies show that the surface roughness of obliquely deposited film is higher as compared to that of normally deposited film. Contact angle measurements revealed that both films are strongly hydrophobic in nature with the contact angles of 105ᵒ and 119ᵒ for normally and obliquely deposited films respectively. Oblique angle deposition enhances the hydrophobicity of the film. The electrical conductivity of the film is significantly reduced by oblique angle deposition. The activation energies for electrical conduction were determined by four-probe measurements and are 0.016 eV and 0.018 eV for normally and obliquely deposited films respectively.
1657
97331
Electrically Tuned Photoelectrochemical Properties of Ferroelectric PVDF/Cu/PVDF-NaNbO₃ Photoanode
Abstract:
In recent years, photo-electrochemical (PEC) water splitting with an aim to generate hydrogen (H₂) as a clean and renewable fuel has been the subject of intense research interests. Ferroelectric semiconductors have been demonstrated to exhibit enhanced PEC properties as these can be polarized with the application of an external electric field resulting in a built-in potential which helps in separating out the photogenerated charge carriers. In addition to this, by changing the polarization direction, the energy band alignment at the electrode/electrolyte interface can be modulated in a way that it can help in the easy transfer of the charge carriers from the electrode to the electrolyte. In this paper, we investigated the photoelectrochemical properties of ferroelectric PVDF/Cu/PVDF-NaNbO₃ PEC cell and demonstrated that PEC properties can be tuned with ferroelectric polarization and piezophototronic effect. Photocurrent density is enhanced from ~0.71 mA/cm² to 1.97 mA/cm² by changing the polarization direction. Furthermore, due to flexibility and piezoelectric properties of PVDF/Cu/PVDF-NaNbO₃ PEC cell, a further ~26% enhancement in the photocurrent is obtained using the piezophototronic effect. A model depicting the modulation of band alignment between PVDF and NaNbO₃ with the electric field is proposed to explain the observed tuning of the PEC properties. Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy measurements support the validity of the proposed model.
1656
93376
Comparison of Cu Nanoparticle Formation and Properties with and without Surrounding Dielectric
Abstract:
When grown only to nanometric sizes, metallic particles (e.g. Ag, Au and Cu) exhibit specific optical properties caused by the presence of plasmon band. The plasmon band represents collective oscillation of the conduction electrons, and causes a narrow band absorption of light in the visible range. When the nanoparticles are embedded in a dielectric, they also cause modifications of dielectrics optical properties. This can be fine-tuned by tuning the particle size. We investigated Cu nanoparticle growth with and without surrounding dielectric (SiO2 capping layer). The morphology and crystallinity were investigated by GISAXS and GIWAXS, respectively. Samples were produced by high vacuum thermal evaporation of Cu onto monocrystalline silicon substrate held at room temperature, 100°C or 180°C. One series was in situ capped by 10nm SiO2 layer. Additionally, samples were annealed at different temperatures up to 550°C, also in high vacuum. The room temperature deposited samples annealed at lower temperatures exhibit continuous film structure: strong oscillations in the GISAXS intensity are present especially in the capped samples. At higher temperatures enhanced surface dewetting and Cu nanoparticles (nanoislands) formation partially destroy the flatness of the interface. Therefore the particle type of scattering is enhanced, while the film fringes are depleted. However, capping layer hinders particle formation, and continuous film structure is preserved up to higher annealing temperatures (visible as strong and persistent fringes in GISAXS), compared to the non- capped samples. According to GISAXS, lateral particle sizes are reduced at higher temperatures, while particle height is increasing. This is ascribed to close packing of the formed particles at lower temperatures, and GISAXS deduced sizes are partially the result of the particle agglomerate dimensions. Lateral maxima in GISAXS are an indication of good positional correlation, and the particle to particle distance is increased as the particles grow with temperature elevation. This coordination is much stronger in the capped and lower temperature deposited samples. The dewetting is much more vigorous in the non-capped sample, and since nanoparticles are formed in a range of sizes, correlation is receding both with deposition and annealing temperature. Surface topology was checked by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Capped sample's surfaces were smoother and lateral size of the surface features were larger compared to the non-capped samples. Altogether, AFM results suggest somewhat larger particles and wider size distribution, and this can be attributed to the difference in probe size. Finally, the plasmonic effect was monitored by UV-Vis reflectance spectroscopy, and relative weak plasmonic effect could be explained by uncomplete dewetting or partial interconnection of the formed particles.
1655
93233
Biocompatibility and Electrochemical Assessment of Biomedical Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering
Abstract:
In this study, biocompatibility evaluation of nanostructured near beta Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (Ti2448) alloy with non-toxic elements produced utilizing Spark plasma sintering (SPS) of very fine microsized powders attained through mechanical alloying was performed. The results were compared with pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloy. Cell proliferation test was performed using murine osteoblastic cells, MC3T3-E1 at two cell densities; 400 and 4000 cells/mL for 7 days incubation. Pure titanium took a lead under both conditions suggesting that the presence of other oxide layers influence cell proliferation. No significant difference in cell proliferation was observed between Ti64 and Ti2448. Potentiodynamic measurement in Hanks, 0.9% NaCl and cell culture medium showed no distinct difference on the anodic polarization curves of the three alloys, indicating that the same anodic reaction occurred on their surface but with different rates. However, Ti2448 showed better corrosion resistance in cell culture medium with a slightly lower corrosion rate of 2.96 nA/cm2 compared to 4.86 nA/cm2 and 5.62 nA/cm2 of Ti and Ti64 respectively. Ti2448 adsorbed less protein as compared to Ti and Ti64 though no notable difference in surface wettability was observed.
1654
90848
Low-Complex, High-Fidelity Two-Grades Cyclo-Olefin Copolymer (COC) Based Thermal Bonding Technique for Sealing a Thermoplastic Microfluidic Biosensor
Abstract:
The development of microfluidic-based biosensors over the last years has shown an increasing employ of thermoplastic polymers as constitutive material. Their low-cost production, high replication fidelity, biocompatibility and optical-mechanical properties are sought after for the implementation of disposable albeit functional lab-on-chip solutions. Among the range of thermoplastic materials on use, the Cyclo-Olefin Copolymer (COC) stands out due to its optical transparency, which makes it a frequent choice as manufacturing material for fluorescence-based biosensors. Moreover, several processing techniques to complete a closed COC microfluidic biosensor have been discussed in the literature. The reported techniques differ however in their implementation, and therefore potentially add more or less complexity when using it in a mass production process. This work introduces and reports results on the application of a purely thermal bonding process between COC substrates, which were produced by the hot-embossing process, and COC foils containing screen-printed circuits. The proposed procedure takes advantage of the transition temperature difference between two COC grades foils to accomplish the sealing of the microfluidic channels. Patterned heat injection to the COC foil through the COC substrate is applied, resulting in consistent channel geometry uniformity. Measurements on bond strength and bursting pressure are shown, suggesting that this purely thermal bonding process potentially renders a technique which can be easily adapted into the thermoplastic microfluidic chip production workflow, while enables a low-cost as well as high-quality COC biosensor manufacturing process.
1653
94264
Effect of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Aluminum Alloy ADC 10 Produced through Ceramic Shell Investment Casting
Abstract:
Castings are produced by using aluminum alloy ADC 10 through the process of Ceramic Shell Investment Casting. Experiments are conducted as per the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array. In order to evaluate the effect of process parameters such as mould preheat temperature, preheat time, firing temperature and pouring temperature on surface roughness of ceramic shell investment castings, the Taguchi parameter design and optimization approach is used. Plots of means of significant factors and S/N ratios have been used to determine the best relationship between the responses and model parameters. It is found that the pouring temperature is the most significant factor. The best tensile strength of aluminum alloy ADC 10 is given by 150 ºC shell preheat temperature, 45 minutes preheat time, 900 ºC firing temperature, 650 ºC pouring temperature.
1652
92048
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Heat-Treatable Aluminum Alloy Welded by Friction Stir Welding Comparison with Tungsten Inert Gas
Abstract:
Friction StirWelding (FSW) is a solid-state welding technique that can join material without melting the plates to be welded. In this work, we are interesting to demonstrate the potentiality of friction stir welding for joining the heat-treatable aluminum alloy 2024-T3 which is reputed as difficult to be welded by fusion techniques. Thereafter, the FSW joint is compared with another one obtained from a conventional fusion process Tungsten Inert Gaz (TIG). FSW welds are made up using an FSW tool mounted on a milling machine. Single pass welding was applied to fabricated TIG joint. The comparison between the two processes has been made on the mechanical and microstructure behavior. The Microstructural examination revealed that FSW weld is composed of four zones: Base metal (MB), Heat affected zone (HAZ), Thermo-mechanical affected zone (THAZ) and the nugget zone (NZ). The nugget zone exhibits a recrystallized equiaxed rafined grains that induce better mechanical properties and good ductility compared to TIG joint where the grains have a larger size in the welded region compared with the base metal due to the elevated heat input. The microhardness results show that in FSW weld the THAZ contains the lowest microhardness values and increase in the nugget zone, however in TIG process the lowest values are localized on the nugget zone.
1651
95922
Standardization for Crystalline Quality of Silicon Carbide Single Crystal Using High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction
Abstract:
High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), the most typical method for measuring the crystalline quality of silicon carbide (SiC) single crystal thin films, can easily create a great error margin as the result value is analyzed to be very different depending on the measuring process and conditions of the user or the pre-treatment of sample, etc. Therefore, a standard on universal measurement methods and conditions is necessary. The purpose of this work is to provide information to minimize the measuring error on the crystalline quality evaluation of a single crystal and to propose a standard for the procedure and detail conditions from the alignment stage to the omega scan stage. In case of cutting as specific angle (off-cut angle) while cutting the single crystal, the cutting angle must be added to or subtracted from the 2 theta and omega values. In case the crystal plane of a grown SiC single crystal is symmetric (or asymmetric) reflection, the optimum chi value shall be calculated from the initial omega position using the two methods. We demonstrated whether the same full width at half maximum (FWHM) values are obtained using both methods in symmetric and asymmetric reflection. This work provides the effective way to measure the rocking curve for SiC single crystal under various conditions.
1650
83402
Post Coronary Artery Stenting Reflighting: Need for Change in Policy with Changing Antiplatelet Therapy
Abstract:
Background: Coronary artery Disease (CAD) is a common cause of morbidity, mortality and reason for unfitness amongst aircrew. Coronary angioplasty and stenting are the standard of care for CAD. Antiplatelet drugs like Aspirin and Clopidogrel(Dual Antiplatelet therapy) are routinely prescribed post-stenting which are permitted for flying. However, in the recent past, Ticagrelor is being used in place of Clopidogrel as per ACC AHA and ESC guidelines. However Ticagrelor is not permitted for flying. Case Presentation: A 55-year-old pilot suffered Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction. Angiography showed blockages in Left Anterior Descending Artery(LAD) and Right coronary artery (RCA). He underwent primary angioplasty and stenting LAD and subsequent stenting to RCA. Recovery was uneventful. One year later he was asymptomatic with normal Left ventricular function and no reversible perfusion defect on stress MPI. He had patent stents and coronaries on check angiogram. However, he was not allowed to fly since he was on Ticagrelor. He had to be switched over to Clopidogrel from Ticagrelor one year after stenting to permit him for flying. Similarly, switching had to be done in a 45-year-old pilot. Ticagrelor has been proven to be more effective than clopidogrel and as safe as Clopidogrel in preventing stent thrombosis. If Clopidogrel is being permitted, there is no need to restrict Ticagrelor. Hence "Policy" needs to be changed. Conclusions: Dual Antiplatelet therapy is the standard of care post coronary stenting which has been proved safe and effective. Policy needs to be changed to permit flying with Ticagrelor which is more effective than Clopidogrel and equally safe.
1649
94604
Organic Circularly Polarized Luminescence Materials Based on Planar Chirality
Abstract:
[2.2]Paracyclophane compounds, in which two benzene rings are closely stacked, have been extensively studied. We have been interested in their unique planar chirality, a feature that is derived from the suppressed rotary motion of the two fixed benzene rings. This planar chirality can be observed in [2.2]paracyclophanes with one or more substituents depending on the substituted position. Recently, we developed optical resolution methods of 4,12-disubstituted and 4,7,12,15-tetrasubstituted [2.2]paracyclophane derivatives. In addition, we prepared chiral conjugated compounds, oligomers, polymers, and dendrimers with optically active second-ordered structures, such as V-, N-, M-, X-, propeller-shaped, and double helical structure. It was also reported that the obtained conjugated compounds exhibited excellent chiroptical properties including circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) with large CPL dissymmetry factors (glum). To the best of the author’s knowledge, they are first examples that planar chiral molecules emit CPL. In this paper, optical resolutions of planar chiral di- and tetrasubstituted [2.2]paracyclophanes will be briefly reported. Synthesis of the optically active macromolecules with chiral second-ordered structures based on the obtained enantiopure [2.2]paracyclophanes and their chiroptical properties such as CPL profiles will be discussed.
1648
96811
Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) Process Investigation for Co Thin Film as a TSV Alternative Seed Layer
Abstract:
This investigation aims to develop the feasible and qualitative process parameters for the thin films fabrication into ultra-large through-silicon-vias (TSVs) as vertical interconnections. The focus of the study is on TSV metallization and its challenges employing new materials for the purpose of rapid signal propagation in the microsystems technology. Cobalt metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (Co-MOCVD) process enables manufacturing an adhesive and excellent conformal ultra-thin film all the way through TSVs in comparison with the conventional non-conformal physical vapor deposition (PVD) process of copper (Cu) seed layer. Therefore, this process provides a Cu seed-free layer which is capable of direct Cu electrochemical deposition (Cu-ECD) on top of it. The main challenge of this metallization module is to achieve the proper alternative seed layer with less roughness, sheet resistance and granular organic contamination (e.g. carbon) which intensify the Co corrosion under the influence of Cu electrolyte.
1647
94464
Improvement of Microstructure, Wear and Mechanical Properties of Modified G38NiCrMo8-4-4 Steel Used in Mining Industry
Abstract:
G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel is widely used in mining industries, machine parts, gears due to its high strength and toughness properties. In this study, microstructure, wear and mechanical properties of G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel modified with boron used in the mining industry were investigated. For this purpose, cast materials were alloyed by melting in an induction furnace to include boron with the rates of 0 ppm, 15 ppm, and 50 ppm (wt.) and were formed in the dimensions of 150x200x150 mm by casting into the sand mould. Homogenization heat treatment was applied to the specimens at 1150˚C for 7 hours. Then all specimens were austenitized at 930˚C for 1 hour, quenched in the polymer solution and tempered at 650˚C for 1 hour. Microstructures of the specimens were investigated by using light microscope and SEM to determine the effect of boron and heat treatment conditions. Changes in microstructure properties and material hardness were obtained due to increasing boron content and heat treatment conditions after microstructure investigations and hardness tests. Wear tests were carried out using a pin-on-disc tribometer under dry sliding conditions. Charpy V notch impact test was performed to determine the toughness properties of the specimens. Fracture and worn surfaces were investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that boron element has a positive effect on the hardness and wear properties of G38NiCrMo8-4-4 steel.
1646
85749
Optimization of Sintering Process with Deteriorating Quality of Iron Ore Fines
Abstract:
Blast Furnace performance mainly depends on the quality of sinter as a major portion of iron-bearing material occupies by it hence its quality w.r.t. Tumbler Index (TI), Reducibility Index (RI) and Reduction Degradation Index (RDI) are the key performance indicators of sinter plant. Now it became very tough to maintain the desired quality with the increasing alumina (Al₂O₃) content in iron fines and study is focused on it. Alumina is a refractory material and required more heat input to fuse thereby affecting the desired sintering temperature, i.e. 1300°C. It goes in between the grain boundaries of the bond and makes it weaker. Sinter strength decreases with increasing alumina content, and weak sinter generates more fines thereby reduces the net sinter production as well as plant productivity. Presence of impurities beyond the acceptable norm: such as LOI, Al₂O₃, MnO, TiO₂, K₂O, Na₂O, Hydrates (Goethite & Limonite), SiO₂, phosphorous and zinc, has led to greater challenges in the thrust areas such as productivity, quality and cost. The ultimate aim of this study is maintaining the sinter strength even with high Al₂O without hampering the plant productivity. This study includes mineralogy test of iron fines to find out the fraction of different phases present in the ore and phase analysis of product sinter to know the distribution of different phases. Corrections were done focusing majorly on varying Al₂O₃/SiO₂ ratio, basicity: B2 (CaO/SiO₂), B3 (CaO+MgO/SiO₂) and B4 (CaO+MgO/SiO₂+Al₂O₃). The concept of Alumina / Silica ratio, B3 & B4 found to be useful. We used to vary MgO, Al₂O₃/SiO₂, B2, B3 and B4 to get the desired sinter strength even at high alumina (4.2 - 4.5%) in sinter. The study concludes with the establishment of B4, and Al₂O₃/SiO₂ ratio in between 1.53-1.60 and 0.63- 0.70 respectively and have achieved tumbler index (Drum Index) 76 plus with the plant productivity of 1.58-1.6 t/m2/hr. at JSPL, Raigarh. Study shows that despite of high alumina in sinter, its physical quality can be controlled by maintaining the above-mentioned parameters.