International Science Index

International Journal of Law and Political Sciences

Religious Beliefs versus Child’s Rights: Anti-Vaccine Movement in Indonesia
Every child has the right to be healthy, and it is a parents’ obligation to fulfill their rights. In order to be healthy and prevented from the outbreak of infectious diseases, some vaccines are required. However, there are groups of people, who consider that vaccines consist of religiously forbidden ingredients. The government of Indonesia legally set the rule that all children must be vaccinated. However, merely based on religious beliefs and not supported by scientific evidence, these people ignore the vaccination. As a result, this anti-vaccine movement caused diphtheria outbreak in 2017. Categorized as a vulnerable group, child`s rights must be fulfilled in any forms. This paper tries to analyze the contradiction between religious beliefs and the fulfillment of child`s rights. Furthermore, it tries to identify the anti-vaccine movement as a form of human rights violation, especially regarding child's rights. This has been done by examining the event of the outbreak of diphtheria in 20 provinces of Indonesia. Furthermore, interview and literature reviews have been done to support the analysis. Through this process, it becomes clear that the anti-vaccine movements driven by religious beliefs did influence the outbreak of diphtheria. Hence, the anti-vaccine movements ignore the long-term effects not only on their own children’s health but also others.
Association of Southeast Asian Nations Caught in between International and Regional Human Rights Frameworks: The Myanmar Rohingya Crisis
Human Rights enforcement in the newly independent countries like Asian and African has always been penetrating issues. In spite, the existing of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), regions like Africa and Asia where values and cultural norms far differ from the concept had formed their own Human Rights instruments to tackle Human Rights issues in their regions instead of embracing the concept of UDHR completely. ASEAN Human Rights Declaration is one of the examples. This paper aims to examine the enforcement of Human Rights in South East Asia in the context of ASEAN regional integration. Precisely, the author attempts to analyse the effectiveness in undertaking Human Rights issues in the region by applying both the existing international and regional frameworks using the Myanmar Rohingya Crisis as the case study. The methodology of the paper is qualitative analysis where cross-impact analysis is employed to examine the case study. It is anticipated that the main findings of this paper will illuminate how applicable the international instruments are in comparison to the regional instruments in apprehending the human rights issues and will shed light on how ASEAN and dialogue partners should cooperate in the future regarding with the challenging issues of Human Rights in the region.
Analysis of Expert Possibilities While Identifying Human Teeth
Forensic investigation of human teeth plays an important role in detection of crime, particularly in cases of personal identification of dead bodies changed by putrefactive processes or skeletonized bodies as well as when finding bodies of unknown persons. 152 teeth have been investigated; 85 of them belonged to men and 67 belonged to women taken from alive people of different age. Teeth have been investigated after extraction. Two types of teeth have been investigated: teeth without integrity violation of dental crown and teeth with different degrees of its violation. Additionally, 517 teeth have been investigated that were collected from dead bodies, 252 of which belonged to women and 265 belonged to men, whatever the cause of death with death limitation from 1 month to 20 years. Isohemagglutinating serums and Coliclons of different series have been used for the research of tooth-group specificity by serological methods according to the AB0 system. Standard protocols of different techniques have been used for DNA purification from teeth (by reagent Chelex 100 produced by Bio-Rad using reagent kit 'DNA IQTM System' produced by Promega company (USA) and using columns 'QIAamp DNA Investigator Kit' produced by Qiagen company). Results of comparative forensic investigation of human teeth using serological and molecular genetic methods have shown that use of serological methods for forensic identification is sensible only in cases of preselection prior to the next molecular genetic investigation as well as in cases of impossibility of corresponding genetic investigation for different objective reasons. A number of advantages of methods of molecular genetics in the dental investigation have been marked, particularly in putrefactive changes, in personal identification. Key moments of modern condition of personal identification have been reflected according to dental state. Prospective directions of advance preparation of material have been emphasized for identification of teeth in forensic practice.
Factors Associated with Risky Sexual Behaviour in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Cambodia: A Systematic Review
There is an increase in risky sexual behavior and unsafe sex in adolescent girls and young women aged 15 to 24 years in Cambodia, which negatively affects their reproductive health by increasing the risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Risky sexual behavior includes ‘having sex at an early age, having multiple sexual partners, having sex while under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and unprotected sexual behaviors’. A systematic review of quantitative research conducted in Cambodia was undertaken, using the theoretical framework of the Social Ecological Model to identify the personal, social and cultural factors associated with risky sexual behavior and unsafe sex in young Cambodian women. PRISMA guidelines were used to search databases including Medline Complete, PsycINFO, CINAHL Complete, Academic Search Complete, Global Health, and Social Work Abstracts. Additional searches were conducted in Science Direct, Google Scholar and in the grey literature sources. A risk-of-bias tool developed explicitly for the systematic review of cross-sectional studies was used. Summary item on the overall risk of study bias after the inter-rater response showed that the risk-of-bias was high in two studies, moderate in one study and low in one study. The search strategy included a combination of subject terms and free text terms. The medical subject headings (MeSH) terms included were; contracept* or ‘birth control’ or ‘family planning’ or pregnan* or ‘safe sex’ or ‘protected intercourse’ or ‘unprotected intercourse’ or ‘protected sex’ or ‘unprotected sex’ or ‘risky sexual behaviour*’ or ‘abort*’ or ‘planned parenthood’ or ‘unplanned pregnancy’ AND ( barrier* or obstacle* or challenge* or knowledge or attitude* or factor* or determinant* or choic* or uptake or discontinu* or acceptance or satisfaction or ‘needs assessment’ or ‘non-use’ or ‘unmet need’ or ‘decision making’ ) AND Cambodia*. Initially, 300 studies were identified by using key words and finally, four quantitative studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria. The four studies were published between 2010 and 2016. The study participants ranged in age from 10-24 years, single or married, with 3 to 10 completed years of education. The mean age at sexual debut was reported to be 18 years. Using the perspective of the Social Ecological Model, risky sexual behavior was associated with individual-level factors including young age at sexual debut, low education, unsafe sex under the influence of alcohol and substance abuse, multiple sexual partners or transactional sex. Family level factors included living away from parents, orphan status and low levels of family support. Peer and partner level factors included peer delinquency and lack of condom use. Low socioeconomic status at the society level was also associated with risky sexual behaviour. There is scant research on sexual and reproductive health of adolescent girls and young women in Cambodia. Individual, family and social factors were significantly associated with risky sexual behaviour. More research is required to inform potential preventive strategies and policies that address young women’s sexual and reproductive health.
Impact of Transportation on Access to Reproductive and Maternal Health Services in Northeast Cambodia: A Policy Brief
Ensuring access to timely obstetric care is essential to prevent maternal deaths. Geographical barriers pose significant challenges for women accessing quality reproductive and maternal health services in rural Cambodia. This policy brief affirms the need to address the issue of transportation and cost (direct and indirect) as critical barriers to accessing reproductive and maternal health (RMH) services in four provinces in Northeast Cambodia (Kratie, Ratanak Kiri, Mondul Kiri, Stung Treng). A systemic search of the literature identified 1,116 articles, and only ten articles from low-and-middle-income countries met the inclusion criteria. The ten articles reported on transportation and cost related to accessing RMH services. In addition, research findings from Partnering to Save Lives (PSL) studies in the four provinces were included in the analysis. Thematic data analysis using the information in the ten articles and PSL research findings was conducted, and the findings are presented in this paper. The key findings are the critical barriers to accessing RMH services in the four provinces because women experience: 1) difficulties finding affordable transportation; 2) lack of available and accessible transportation; 3) greater distance and traveling time to services; 4) poor geographical terrain and; 5) higher opportunity costs. Distance and poverty pose a double burden for the women accessing RMH services making a facility-based delivery less feasible compared to home delivery. Furthermore, indirect and hidden costs associated with institutional delivery may have an impact on women’s decision to seek RMH care. Existing health financing schemes in Cambodia such as the Health Equity Fund (HEF) and the Voucher Scheme contributed to the solution but have also shown some limitations. These schemes contribute to improving access to RMH services for the poorest group, but the barrier of transportation costs remains. In conclusion, initiatives that are proven to be effective in the Cambodian context should continue or be expanded in conjunction with the HEF, and special consideration should be given to communities living in geographically remote regions and difficult to access areas. The following strategies are recommended: 1) maintain and further strengthen transportation support in the HEF scheme; 2) expand community-based initiatives such as Community Managed Health Equity Funds and Village Saving Loans Associations; 3) establish maternity waiting homes; and 4) include antenatal and postnatal care in the provision of integrated outreach services. This policy brief can be used to inform key policymakers and provide evidence that can assist them to develop strategies to increase poor women’s access to RMH services in low-income settings, taking into consideration the geographic distance and other indirect costs associated with a facility-based delivery.
Variability in Contraception Choices and Abortion Rates among Female Garment Factory Workers in Urban and Rural Cambodia
Background: Modern contraceptives are effective in preventing unwanted pregnancies and therefore the potential to reduce abortion rates. There is a need for information about how rates of contraceptive use and abortion vary across Cambodia and the relationship between the prevalence of modern contraception use and abortion rates. This study compares the use of contraception and abortion among female garment factory workers in rural and urban areas of Cambodia. Method: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted with 1701 women working in eleven garment factories in rural and urban areas of Cambodia. Sexual and reproductive health data were collected using Audio-Assisted Survey Interviews and analysed using STATA 14 software. Findings: Over 70% of the respondents were less than 30 years of age across both rural and urban settings and over 50% have only primary education, thus the study population was largely young women with limited education. A significantly higher proportion of the rural women earned over $200 in the previous month compared with their urban counterparts. The majority of the urban women (51.5%) were married, while single women (46.9%) made up the largest group working in the rural factories. A significantly larger proportion of women in the rural areas (83.9%) were sexually active compared to the urban women (50.9%). More women from the rural areas (41.4%) had been pregnant at some time compared with the urban population (37.7%). The use of any contraceptive method among sexually active women was significantly higher in the rural areas (80.1%) compared to the urban areas (65.7%) with p-value=0.000. However, among those women who used contraception, the prevalence of modern contraception use was slightly higher in the urban population (68.8% urban, 63.4% rural, p-value=0.1). For women who had a history of pregnancy the abortion prevalence was higher among rural women (43.8%) compared to their urban counterparts (37.7%). Regression analysis showed that after adjustment for the demographic variables (age, relationship status, income, education) only age and relationship status had a significant influence on the use of modern contraception.Single females who were sexually active and older women, who had potentially completed their families, were more likely to choose modern contraception. Conclusion: Although overall the use of contraception was higher among rural women, the use of modern contraception was higher among urban women.This finding may partly explain the higher rates of abortion among women in the rural areas as traditional contraception methods have higher failure rates and are more likely to result in an unplanned pregnancy.Despite the regional variation, the high rates of abortion across the country suggest there is a need for improve education on family planning among female garment factory workers in Cambodia.
A Qualitative Exploration of the Sexual and Reproductive Health Practices of Adolescent Mothers from Indigenous Populations in Ratanak Kiri Province, Cambodia
Adolescent pregnancy presents a significant public health challenge for Cambodia. Despite declines in the overall fertility rate, the adolescent fertility rate is increasing. Adolescent pregnancy is particularly problematic in the Northeast provinces of Ratanak Kiri and Mondul Kiri where 34 percent of girls aged between 15 and 19 have begun childbearing; this is almost three times Cambodia’s national average of 12 percent. Language, cultural and geographic barriers have restricted qualitative exploration of the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) challenges that face indigenous adolescents in Northeast Cambodia. The current study sought to address this gap by exploring the SRH practices of adolescent mothers from indigenous populations in Ratanak Kiri Province. Twenty-two adolescent mothers, aged between 15 and 19, were recruited from seven indigenous villages in Ratanak Kiri Province and asked to participate in a combined body mapping exercise and semi-structured interview. Participants were given a large piece of paper (59.4 x 84.1 cm) with the outline of a female body and asked to draw the female reproductive organs onto the ‘body map’. Participants were encouraged to explain what they had drawn with the purpose of evoking conversation about their reproductive bodies. Adolescent mothers were then invited to participate in a semi-structured interview to further expand on topics of SRH. The qualitative approach offered an excellent avenue to explore the unique SRH challenges that face indigenous adolescents in rural Cambodia. In particular, the use of visual data collection methods reduced the language and cultural barriers that have previously restricted or prevented qualitative exploration of this population group. Thematic analysis yielded six major themes: (1) understanding of the female reproductive body, (2) contraceptive knowledge, (3) contraceptive use, (4) barriers to contraceptive use, (5) sexual practices, (6) contact with healthcare facilities. Participants could name several modern contraceptive methods and knew where they could access family planning services. However, adolescent mothers explained that they gained this knowledge during antenatal care visits and consequently participants had limited SRH knowledge, including contraceptive awareness, at the time of sexual initiation. Fear of the perceived side effects of modern contraception, including infertility, provided an additional barrier to contraceptive use for indigenous adolescents. Participants did not cite cost or geographic isolation as barriers to accessing SRH services. Child marriage and early sexual initiation were also identified as important factors contributing to the high prevalence of adolescent pregnancy in this population group. The findings support the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports' (MoEYS) recent introduction of SRH education into the primary and secondary school curriculum but suggest indigenous girls in rural Cambodia require additional sources of SRH information. Results indicate adolescent girls’ first point of contact with healthcare facilities occurs after they become pregnant. Promotion of an effective continuum of care by increasing access to healthcare services during the pre-pregnancy period is suggested as a means of providing adolescents girls with an additional avenue to acquire SRH information.
Young Adult Males’ Attitudes, Perceptions and Behaviours in Regards to Male Condoms in Cambodia: A Qualitative Study
Condom use among young men in Cambodia has declined between 2005 and 2014 which has public health implications such as increased risks of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, and unplanned pregnancies. Conversations about sexual and reproductive health issues, including condom use, are not socially sanctioned in Cambodian society leaving young adults with limited knowledge of, and poor access to sexual and reproductive health services. Additionally, men play a dominant role in decision making regarding condom use within sexual partnerships. This study sought to fill a gap in knowledge by exploring young adult males’ attitudes, perceptions and behaviours regarding condom use. In February and March 2018, twenty young adult males, aged 18 to 24 years, were recruited from urban, peri urban and rural areas in Cambodia. The young adult males participated in a face-to-face semi structured interview that used an interview guide and photo elicitation method. The interview explored participants’ knowledge of sexual and reproductive health issues and efficacy, sexual behaviours, and use of condoms. Inductive thematic analysis was conducted and the following major themes emerged: understanding of reproduction, understanding of sexually transmitted infections, knowledge about condoms, condom use, access to condoms, and sexual behaviour. Participants’ knowledge of condoms and specific reasons for their use varied; most participants understood that condoms provide protection from sexually transmitted infections and prevent pregnancy. Stigma associated with condom access was consistently referred to as a problem and the main reason cited by young men for not using condoms during sexual intercourse. The perceived importance of condom use altered with partner type and relationship status, dependent upon the need for protection from sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy. Condoms were used for infection control in the context of multiple relationships, or as a contraceptive method for unmarried and some married couples. The majority of young men engaged in premarital sexual intercourse, of those men the many used condoms. The inconsistent use of condoms by young men in Cambodia is of public health concern because of the increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (including HIV), and unplanned pregnancy. Public health action is required in order to minimize long term health issues for individuals and the community. Health education is required to increase knowledge of condom use, sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and reduce the stigma associated with this topic. Sustainable health promotion programs are needed to increase ease of access to condoms for young people. Public health policy in Cambodia needs to be reviewed to improve sexual and reproductive health outcomes for young adults.
Perceptions and Experiences of Iranian Students of Human Dignity in Canada: A Phenomenological Comparative Study
Human dignity is a subjective concept indicating an inner feeling of worth which depends on one’s perceptions and life experiences. Yet the notion is also very much under the influence of societal and cultural factors. Scholars have identified human dignity as a context-based concept that lies at the intersection of culture, gender, religion, and individual characteristics. Migration may constitute an individual or collective strategy for people seeking to situations that bolster rather than undermine their human dignity. Through the use of a phenomenological method, this study will explore how Iranian students in Canada perceive human dignity through such values and characteristics as honor, respect, self-determination, self-worth, autonomy, freedom, love, and equality in Canada as compared to their perceptions of the same in Iran. In-depth interviewing will be used to collect data from Iranian students who have lived in Canada for at least two years. The aim is to discover which essential themes constitute participants’ understanding of human dignity and how this understanding compares to their pre-Canadian experience in Iran. We will use criterion sampling as our sampling method. This study will clarify how being exposed to a different culture can affect perceptions of human dignity among university students.
Study of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation and Life-orientation in Convicts and Under-trials
Human beings are social animals. The scenario is changing and people become angry towards petty things and this may lead to committing a crime. Objective: The aim of the present research is: 1. To find out the difference between convicts and under-trials on different dimensions of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Life-orientation; 2. To find out the difference between male and female jail inmates on different dimensions of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Life-orientation; 3. To find out the relationship between different dimensions of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Life-orientation in convicts and under-trials; 4. To find out the relationship between different dimensions of Personality, Fear of Negative Evaluation (FNE) and Life-orientation in male and female jail inmates. Method: The study was conducted on 100 participants (consisting of 50 convicts- 25 males and 25 females, and 50 under-trials- 25 males and 25 females); age range was 20-60 years. The NEO Five-Factor Inventory-3 by McCrae, Costa (2010), Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation scale- II by Leary (1983) and Life Orientation Test-R by Scheier et al. (1994) was used and purposive sampling technique was done for data collection. The t-test was applied to find out the comparison and Pearson correlation was applied to determine the relationship between personality, FNE and life-orientation in both the groups. Results: There is a significant difference in the dimension of personality that is neuroticism and life-orientation in convicts and under-trials and also, in the dimensions of personality such as neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience and agreeableness, and FNE in male and female jail inmates. In convicts the dimension of personality, agreeableness shows significant positive correlation with life-orientation (r = 0.430**) whereas, in under-trials the dimension of personality, agreeableness shows significant positive correlation with FNE (r = 0.315*) and another dimension of personality, extraversion shows significant negative correlation with life-orientation (r = -0.409**). In male jail inmates, the dimension of personality, agreeableness shows significant positive correlation with FNE (r = 0.474**) whereas in female jail inmates, the dimension of personality, openness to experience shows significant negative correlation with FNE (r = -0.356*) and significant positive correlation of neuroticism with life-orientation (r = 0.292*). Conclusion: It was found that under-trials are neurotic and life-oriented than convicts, and female jail inmates are also neurotic and exhibit fear of negative evaluation whereas male jail inmates are extravert and agreeable.
Age Estimation from Upper Anterior Teeth by Pulp/Tooth Ratio Using Peri-Apical X-Rays among Egyptians
Introduction: Age estimation of individuals is one of the crucial steps in forensic practice. Different traditional methods rely on the length of the diaphysis of long bones of limbs, epiphyseal-diaphyseal union, fusion of the primary ossification centers as well as dental eruption. However, there is a growing need for the development of precise and reliable methods to estimate age, especially in cases where dismembered corpses, burnt bodies, purified or fragmented parts are recovered. Teeth are the hardest and indestructible structure in the human body. In recent years, assessment of pulp/tooth area ratio, as an indirect quantification of secondary dentine deposition has received a considerable attention. However, scanty work has been done in Egypt in terms of applicability of pulp/tooth ratio for age estimation. Aim of the Work: The present work was designed to assess the Cameriere’s method for age estimation from pulp/tooth ratio of maxillary canines, central and lateral incisors among a sample from Egyptian population. In addition, to formulate regression equations to be used as population-based standards for age determination. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted on 270 peri-apical X-rays of maxillary canines, central and lateral incisors (collected from 131 males and 139 females aged between 19 and 52 years). The pulp and tooth areas were measured using the Adobe Photoshop software program and the pulp/tooth area ratio was computed. Linear regression equations were determined separately for canines, central and lateral incisors. Results: A significant correlation was recorded between the pulp/tooth area ratio and the chronological age. The linear regression analysis revealed a coefficient of determination (R² = 0.824 for canine, 0.588 for central incisor and 0.737 for lateral incisor teeth). Three regression equations were derived. Conclusion: As a conclusion, the pulp/tooth ratio is a useful technique for estimating age among Egyptians. Additionally, the regression equation derived from canines gave better result than the incisors.
Interrogating Western Political Perspectives of Social Justice in Canadian Social Work
The term social justice is central to social work; however, the meaning behind this term is not as simple as defining the term itself. This is because the meaning of social justice is relative since its origin and development is based on evolving political perspectives. Political perspectives provide numerous lenses to view social justice in social work; however, the realities of changing society have meant that social justice has assumed different values, definitions, and understandings over time and in different geopolitical and cultural contexts. There are many competing and convincing theories of social justice that are relevant to social work practice. Exploring the term is not an idle preoccupation because the meaning of the term is not as crucial as the meaning of the worldview, as it is the worldview that positions social justice as crucial in the emancipation of people marginalized from oppression. The many political assumptions that underlie the term social justice are explored and connected to the contemporary discussions about social justice in social work. These connections are then interrogated in the Canadian Social Works Code of Ethics, and in micro, mezzo, and macro approaches. To be remiss in interrogating the underlying political assumptions of the worldview of social justice is to entrench oppression and to preserve oppressive structures in contemporary Canadian social work. The concept of social justice is unable to withstand closer scrutiny about its emancipatory qualities in Canadian social work when we interrogate the many political assumptions that frame its understanding. In order to authenticate social justice as an emancipatory central organizing principle, Canadian social workers must engage in deeper discussions about the political implications of social justice in their everyday practices based on diverse worldviews and geopolitical contexts. Social workers are well positioned to develop an understanding of social justice that is emancipatory based on their everyday practices because as social and political actors they are positioned to work for and with individuals and toward the greater good of those who are marginalized from oppression.
A Conceptual Analysis of Right of Taxpayers to Claim Refund in Nigeria
A salient feature of the Nigerian Tax Law is the right of the taxpayer to demand for a refund where excess tax is paid. Section 23 of the Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act, 2007 vests Federal Inland Revenue Services with the power to make tax refund as well as set guidelines and requirements for refund process from time to time. In addition, Section 61 of the Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act, 2007, empowers the Federal Inland Revenue Services to issue information circular to acquaint stakeholders with the policy on the refund process. A Circular was issued to that effect to correct the position that until after the annual audit of the Service before such excess can be paid to the claimant/taxpayer. But it is amazing that such circular issuance does not feature under the states’ laws. Hence, there is an inconsistencies in the tax paying system in Nigeria. This study, therefore, sets an objective, to examine the trending concept of tax refund in Nigeria. In order to achieve this set objective, a doctrinal study went under way, wherein both federal and states laws were consulted including journals and textbooks. At the end of the research, it was revealed that the law should be specific as to the time frame within which to make the refund. It further revealed that it is essential to put up a legal framework for the tax system to recognize excess payment as debt due from the state. This would provide a foundational framework for the relationship between taxpayers and Federal Inland Revenue Service as well as promote effective tax administration in all the states of the federation. Several Recommendations were made especially relating to legislative passage of ‘’Refund Circular Bill at the states levels’ pursuant to the Federal Inland Revenue Service (Establishment) Act, 2007.
Consideration of Whether Participation in the International '16 Days of Activism against Gender Based Violence' Campaign Is an Effective Teaching Tool for Raising Awareness and Understanding of Gender Based Violence
The international campaign, '16 Days of Activism against Gender Based Violence', seeks to raise awareness and understanding of gender based violence in a variety of settings. The campaign requires its participants to join in for advancing the right to education and challenging violence, discrimination, and inequality and take into account intersections such as gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, socio-economic status and other social identifiers. The authors of this paper are both clinic supervisors at Northumbria University in Newcastle Upon Tyne, England. As part of their research project, the authors are going to ask final year students on the MLaw degree at Northumbria University to become involved in the campaign by participating in a variety of awareness-raising activities during the course of the 16 days, which runs from 27 November 2017 until 10 December 2017. As part of the campaign, the authors will be running the following activities for students to participate in 1. Documentary showing of Banaz, a love story followed by discussion group. 2. 16 blogs for 16 days. Students will contribute to our family law blog over the 16 days, with articles about gender based violence. 3. Guest lecture on domestic violence (potentially run by a domestic violence organisation) 4. Workshop by Professor Ruth Lewis who will be presenting her innovative research in gender based violence and online abuse. 5. Poster competition - the students are asked to submit a poster about the different forms of gender based violence or proposals for ending violence against women and girls. The research aims are to identify whether participation in the project: 1. increases the students' engagement with issues of gender justice 2. is an effective educational tool for raising the students' awareness and understanding of gender based violence in its many forms. 3. increases the students' understanding of the domestic and international framework for protecting victims (in particular women and children) of gender based violence. After the activities, an impartial, experienced researcher will be holding a focus group with volunteering students to discuss their experiences of participating in the activities and whether they felt that participation in the project achieved the aims set out above. This paper will discuss the activities undertaken by the students and will address the data gathered during the focus group. Finally, the authors will discuss their thoughts on whether awareness of gender-based violence and other international family law issues can be appropriately raised in an educational setting.
Imposing Personal Liability on Shareholder's/Partner's in a Corporate Entity; Implementation of UK’s Personal Liability Institutions in Georgian Corporate Law: Content and Outcomes
The paper examines the grounds for the imposition of a personal liability on shareholder/partner, mainly under Georgian and UK law’s comparative analysis. The general emphasis was made on personal responsibility grounds adaptation in practice and presents the analyze of court decisions. On this base, reader will be capable to find a difference between the dogmatic and practical grounds for imposition personal liability. The first chapter presents the general information about discussed issue and notion of personal liability. The second chapter is devoted to an explanation the concept – ‘the head of the corporation’ to make it clear who is the subject of responsibility in the article and not to remain individuals beyond the attention, who do not hold the position of director but are participating in governing activities and, therefore, have to have fiduciury duties. After short comparative analysis of personal responsibility, the Georgian Corporate law reality is further discussed. Here, the problem of determining personal liability is a problematic issue, thus a separate chapter is devoted to the issue, which explains the grounds for personal liability imposition in details. Within the paper is discussed the content and the purpose of personal liability institutions under UK’s corporate law and an attempt to implement them, and especially ‘Alter Ego’ doctrine in Georgian corporate Law reality and the outcomes of the experiment. For the research purposes will be examined national case law in regard to personal liability imposition, as well as UK’s experience in that regard. Comparative analyze will make it clear, wherein the Georgian statute, are gaps and how to fill them up. The articles major finding as stated, is that Georgian Corporate law does not provide any legally consolidated grounds for personal liability imposition, which in fact, leads to unfaithful, unlawful actions on partners’/shareholders’ behalf. In order to make business market fair, advancement of a national statute is inevitable, and for that, the experience sharing from developed countries is an irreplaceable gift. Overall, the article analyses, how discussed amendments might influence case law and if such amendments were made years ago, how the judgments could look like (before and after amendments).
A Critique of the Neo-Liberal Model of Economic Governance and Its Application to the Electricity Market Industry: Some Lessons and Learning Points from Nigeria
The Nigerian electricity industry was deregulated and privatized in 2005 and 2014 in line with global trend and practice. International and multilateral lending institutions advised developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, to adopt deregulation and privatization as part of reforms in their electricity sectors. The ideological basis of these reforms are traceable to neoliberalism. Neoliberalism is an ideology that believes in the supremacy of free market and strong non-interventionist competition law as against government ownership of the electricity market. This ideology became a state practice and a blue print for the deregulation and privatization of the electricity markets in many parts of the world. The blue print was used as a template for the privatization of the Nigerian electricity industry. In this wise, this paper, using documentary analysis and review of academic literatures, examines neoliberalism as an ideology and model of economic governance for the electricity supply industry in Nigeria. The paper examines the origin of the ideology, it features and principles and how it was used as the blue print in designing policies for electricity reforms in both developed and developing countries. The paper found out that there is gap between the ideology in theory and in practice because although the theory is rational in thinking it is difficult to be implemented in practice. The paper argues that the ideology has a mismatched effect and this has made its application in the electricity industry in many developing countries problematic and unsuccessful. In the case of Nigeria, the article argues that the template is also not working. The article concludes that the electricity sectors in Nigeria have failed to develop into competitive market for the benefit of consumers in line with the assumptions and promises of the ideology. The paper therefore recommends the democratization of the electricity sectors in Nigeria through a new system of public ownership as the solution to the failure of the neoliberal policies; but this requires the design of a more democratic and participatory system of ownership with communities and state governments in charge of the administration, running and operation of the sector.
A Conceptual Framework of Strategies for Managing Intellectual Property Rights at Different Stages of Product Life Cycle
Organizations follow various strategies for managing their intellectual property rights, either in the form of securing IP rights or using such IP rights through leveraging, monetizing, and commercializing them. It is well known that organizations adopt different intellectual property strategies in response to other organizations within the industry. But within an organization, and within the products that are being manufactured and sold by it, the strategies for managing its intellectual property rights keep changing at different stages of the product life cycle. Organizations could adopt not only different strategies for managing its intellectual property rights, but could also adopt different kinds of business models to leverage, monetize, and commercial the IP rights. This paper analyzes the various strategies that can be adopted by organizations to manage its IP rights at different stages of the product life cycle and the rationale for adopting such strategies. This would be a secondary research, based solely on the literature of strategic management, new product development, resource-based management, and the intellectual property management. This paper synthesizes the literature from these streams to propose a conceptual framework of strategies that can be adopted by organizations for managing its IP rights in conjunction with the life cycle of the products that it manufactures and sells in the market. This framework could be adopted by organizations in implementing strategies for effectively managing their IP rights.
An Examination of the Challenges of Domestication of International Laws and Human Rights Laws in Nigeria
This study evolved from the need to look at and evaluate the difficulties in the domestication of International Laws and Human Rights Laws in Nigeria. Essentially, the paper-based its examination on documentary evidence and depended much on secondary sources, for example, textbooks, journals, articles, periodicals and research reports emanating from suggestions of international law experts, jurists and human rights lawyers on the development challenges in domesticating international laws and human rights laws in Nigeria. These data were analyzed by the application of content analysis and careful observation of the current municipal laws which has posed great challenges in the domestication of International laws. This paper might follow the historical backdrop of the practices in the use of International law in Nigeria and should likewise consider the challenges inherent in these practices. The paper suggests that a sustainable domestication of International Laws and its application in Nigerian courts will ensure a better enforcement of human rights within the domestic jurisdiction.
Criteria for Good Governance in Georgian Defense Sector:Standards and Principles
This paper provides an overview of criteria for good governance in Georgian defense sector and scientific outcomes of comparative research. A respect for good governance and its realization into Georgian national defense sector represents a fundamental institutional necessity as well as country`s politico-legal obligation within the framework of the existing collaboration mechanisms with NATO (especially Building Integrity (BI) Programme) and the Association Agreement between the EU and Georgia. Furthermore good governance is considered as a democracy measuring criterion in country`s Euro-Atlantic integration process. Accordingly, integration and further development of the contemporary approaches of good governance into Georgian defense management model represents a burning issue of the country. The assessment of an existing model of the country, identification of defects and determination of course of institutional reforms in a mutual comparison format of good governance mechanisms of NATO or/and the EU member Eastern European or Baltic countries positively assessed by the international organizations is considered as a precondition for its effective realization. Scientific aims of this study are: (a) to conduct comparative analysis of Georgian national principles and generalized standards of NATO or/and the EU member Eastern European and Baltic countries in following segments of good governance: open governance; anticorruption policy; conflict of interests; integrity; internal and external control bodies; (b) to formulate theoretical and practical recommendations on reforms to be implemented in the country`s national defence sector. As research reveals, although, institutional / legal pillars of good governance in Georgian defense sector generally are in compliance with international principles, the quality of implementation of good government norms still remains as an area that needs further development by raising awareness of public servants and community.
The Clash of the Clans in the British Divorce
Ever since the Scottish Independence Referendum in 2014, there has been a threat of a second referendum. However, if there was another referendum and the majority favoured independence, it is highly likely to be by a small majority. In this paper, it will look into the hypothetical situation of what could have happened if Scotland had voted in favour of independence in 2014. If this occurred, there would be many Unionists within Scotland, including devoted supporters of the Better Together campaign. There was a possibility of some Scottish Unionists not willing to accept the result of the Referendum unchallenged and use their right of self-determination through the UN Charter for their region to remain within the United Kingdom. The Shetland and Orkney Islands contemplated of opting out of an independent Scotland in 2013. This caught the attention of some politicians and the media, via confirming the possibility of some form of partition in Scotland and could have gained extra attention if partition quickly became a matter of ‘need’ instead of ‘want’. Whilst some Unionists may have used petitions and formed pressure groups to voice their claims, others may have used more hard-line tactics to achieve their political objectives, including possible protest marches and acts of civil unrest. This could have possibly spread sectarian violence between Scottish Unionists and Nationalists. Glasgow has a serious issue of this kind of sectarianism, which has escalated in recent years. This is due to the number communities that have been established from Irish Immigrants, which maintain links with Northern Irish loyalists and republicans. Some Scottish Unionists not only have sympathy towards Northern Irish loyalists but actively participate with the paramilitary groups and gave support. Scottish loyalists could use these contacts to create their own paramilitary group(s), with aid from remaining UK (RUK) benefactors. Therefore, this could have resulted in the RUK facing a serious security dilemma, with political and ethical consequences to consider. The RUK would have the moral obligation to protect Scottish Unionists from persecution and recognise their right of self-determination, whilst ensuring the security and well-being of British citizens within and outside of Scotland. This work takes into consideration the lessons learned from the ‘Troubles’ in Northern Ireland. As an era of ‘Troubles’ could occur in Scotland, extending into England and Northern Ireland. This is due to proximity, the high number of political, communal and family links in Scotland to the RUK, and the delicate peace process within Northern Ireland which shares a similar issue. This paper will use British and Scottish Government documents prior to the Scottish referendum to argue why partition might happen and use cartography of maps of a potential partition plan for Scotland. Reports from the UK National Statistics, National Rail, and Ministry of Defence shall also be utilised, and use of journal articles that were covering the referendum.
A Temporal Analysis on the Legal Status of the Turkish Straits in the Scope of National and International Legislation
The Turkish Straits are at the crossroads of Europe and Asia continents and are unique waterways connecting the Black Sea countries to the rest of the world. Because of the geostrategic value of the location, passage of trade and war ships through the Turkish Straits has become a vital attraction and importance for the great powers and the riparian states throughout the history. This study contains a temporal analysis of the legal measures implemented in the Turkish Straits System. In this context, the historical alternation of the Turkish Straits has been examined, taking into account the relevant national and international regulations. In other words, relevant national and international regulations have been examined in this study according to historical time schedules. Parallel to the main concept mentioned above, the first chapter focuses on international regulations. These arrangements are organized according to date order and in three subheadings: Sèvres Treaty (1920), Lausanne Treaty (1923) and Montreux Convention (1936). Another topic, the national regulations, has been examined under five subheadings. These; (1982), Port Regulations of Canakkale (1982), Marine Traffic Regulations of the Turkish Straits and Marmara Region (1994) and Maritime Traffic Regulations for the Turkish Straits (1998). In doing so, the aim was to identify the differences in legal arrangements throughout the time regarding the navigation through the Turkish Straits. The current situation of the Turkish Straits has been presented in detail in the last part of the work, taking Montreux Convention into consideration. In this context, the articles of the Convention which regulate the passage of trade vessels have been examined from two perspectives; Peace time and war time. As for the measures that can be implemented in time of war, three options put forward depending on Turkey's stance: ‘Turkey not being belligerent’, ‘Turkey being belligerent’ and ‘situation in which Turkey considers herself threatened with imminent danger of war’.
Targeting Violent Extremist Narratives: Applying Network Targeting Techniques to the Communication Functions of Terrorist Groups
Over the last decade, the increasing utility of extremist narratives to the operational effectiveness of terrorist organizations has been evidenced by the proliferation of inspired or affiliated attacks across the world. Famous examples such as regional al-Qaeda affiliates and the self-styled “Islamic State” demonstrate the effectiveness of leveraging communication technologies to disseminate propaganda, recruit members, and orchestrate attacks. Terrorist organizations with the capacity to harness the communicative power offered by digital communication technologies and effective political narratives have held an advantage over their targets in recent years. Terrorists have leveraged the perceived legitimacy of grass-roots actors to appeal to a global audience of potential supporters and enemies alike, and have wielded a proficiency in profile-raising which remains unmatched by counter terrorism narratives around the world. In contrast, many attempts at propagating official counter-narratives have been received by target audiences as illegitimate, top-down and impersonally bureaucratic. However, the benefits provided by widespread communication and extremist narratives have come at an operational cost. Terrorist organizations now face a significant challenge in protecting their access to communications technologies and authority over the content they create and endorse. The dissemination of effective narratives has emerged as a core function of terrorist organizations with international reach via inspired or affiliated attacks. As such, it has become a critical function which can be targeted by intelligence and security forces. This study applies network targeting principles which have been used by coalition forces against a range of non-state actors in the Middle East and South Asia to the communicative function of terrorist organizations. This illustrates both a conceptual link between functional targeting and operational disruption in the abstract and a tangible impact on the operational effectiveness of terrorists by degrading communicative ability and legitimacy. Two case studies highlight the utility of applying functional targeting against terrorist organizations. The first case is the targeted killing of Anwar al-Awlaki, an al-Qaeda propagandist who crafted a permissive narrative and effective propaganda videos to attract recruits who committed inspired terrorist attacks in the US and overseas. The second is a series of operations against Islamic State propagandists in Syria, including the capture or deaths of a cadre of high profile Islamic State members, including Junaid Hussain, Abu Mohammad al-Adnani, Neil Prakash, and Rachid Kassim. The group of Islamic State propagandists were linked to a significant rise in affiliated and enabled terrorist attacks and were subsequently targeted by law enforcement and military agencies. In both cases, the disruption of communication between the terrorist organization and recruits degraded both communicative and operational functions. Effective functional targeting on member recruitment and operational tempo suggests that narratives are a critical function which can be leveraged against terrorist organizations. Further application of network targeting methods to terrorist narratives may enhance the efficacy of a range of counter terrorism techniques employed by security and intelligence agencies.
19th Century Exam, 21st Century Policing: An Examination of the New York State Civil Service and Police Officer Recruitment Efforts
The civil service was created to reform the hiring process for public officials, changing the patronage system to a merit-based system. Though exam reforms continued throughout the 20th century, there have been few during the 21st century, particularly in New York state. In the case of police departments, the civil service exam has acted as a hindrance to its ‘21st Century Policing’ goals and new exam reform efforts have left out officers voices and concerns. Through in-depth interviews of current and retired police officers and local and state civil service administrators in Albany County in New York, this study seeks to understand police influence and insight regarding the civil service exam, placing some of the voice and input for civil service reform on police departments, instead of local and state bureaucrats. The study also looks at the relationship between civil service administrators and police departments. Using practice theory, the study seeks to understand the ways in which the civil service exam was defined in the 20th century and how it is out of step with current thinking while examining possible changes to the civil service exam that would lead to a more equitable hiring process and successful police departments.
Perceptions and Expectations by Participants of Monitoring and Evaluation Short Course Training Programmes in Africa
Background: At the core of the demand to utilize evidence-based approaches in the policy-making cycle, prioritization of limited financial resources and results driven initiatives is the urgency to develop a cohort of competent Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) practitioners and public servants. The ongoing strides in the evaluation capacity building (ECB) initiatives are a direct response to produce the highly- sought after M&E skills. Notwithstanding the rapid growth of M&E short courses, participants perceived value and expectation of M&E short courses as a panacea for ECB have not been empirically quantified or measured. The objective of this article is to explicitly illustrate the importance of measuring ECB interventions and understanding what works in ECB and why it works. Objectives: This article illustrates the importance of establishing empirical ECB measurement tools to evaluate ECB interventions in order to ascertain its contribution to the broader evaluation practice. Method: The study was primarily a desktop review of existing literature, juxtaposed by a survey of the participants across the African continent based on the 43 M&E short courses hosted by the Centre for Learning on Evaluation and Results: Anglophone Africa (CLEAR-AA) in collaboration with the Department of Planning Monitoring and Evaluation (DPME). Results: The article established that participants perceive short course training as a panacea to improve their M&E practical skill critical to executing their organizational duties. In tandem, participants are likely to demand customized training as opposed to general topics in evaluation. However, the organizational environments constrain the application of the newly acquired skills. Conclusion: This article aims to contribute to the 'how to' measure ECB interventions discourse and contribute towards the improvement to evaluate ECB interventions. The study finds that, in contrast to the literature, participants prefer training courses with longer duration to cover more topics. At the same time, whilst organizations call for customization of programmes, the study found that individual participants demand knowledge of generic and popular evaluation topics.
Perceptions and Expectations by Participants of Monitoring and Evaluation Short Course Training Programmes in Africa
Background: At the core of the demand to utilize evidence-based approaches in the policy-making cycle, prioritization of limited financial resources and results driven initiatives is the urgency to develop a cohort of competent Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) practitioners and public servants. The ongoing strides in the evaluation capacity building (ECB) initiatives are a direct response to produce the highly-sought after M&E skills. Notwithstanding the rapid growth of M&E short courses, participants perceived value and expectation of M&E short courses as a panacea for ECB have not been empirically quantified or measured. The objective of this article is to explicitly illustrate the importance of measuring ECB interventions and understanding what works in ECB and why it works. Objectives: This article illustrates the importance of establishing empirical ECB measurement tools to evaluate ECB interventions in order to ascertain its contribution to the broader evaluation practice. Method: The study was primarily a desktop review of existing literature, juxtaposed by a survey of the participants across the African continent based on the 43 M&E short courses hosted by the Centre for Learning on Evaluation and Results Anglophone Africa (CLEAR-AA) in collaboration with the Department of Planning Monitoring and Evaluation (DPME) Results: The article established that participants perceive short course training as a panacea to improve their M&E practical skill critical to executing their organizational duties. In tandem, participants are likely to demand customized training as opposed to general topics in Evaluation. However, the organizational environments constrain the application of the newly acquired skills. Conclusion: This article aims to contribute to the 'how to' measure ECB interventions discourse and contribute towards the improvement to evaluate ECB interventions. The study finds that participants prefer training courses with longer duration to cover more topics. At the same time, whilst organizations call for customization of programmes, the study found that individual participants demand knowledge of generic and popular evaluation topics.
Examination of the South African Fire Legislative Framework
The article aims to make a case for a legislative framework for the fire sector in South Africa. Robust legislative framework is essential for empowering those with obligatory mandate within the sector. This article contributes to the body of knowledge in the field of policy reviews particularly with regards to the legal framework. It has been observed overtime that the scholarly contributions in this field are limited. Document analysis was the methodology selected for the investigation of the various legal frameworks existing in the country. It has been established that indeed the national legislation on the fire industry does not exist in South Africa. From the documents analysed, it was revealed that the sector is dominated by cartels who are exploiting the new entrants to the market particularly SMEs. It is evident that these cartels are monopolising the system as they have long been operating in the system turning it into self- owned entities. Commitment to addressing the challenges faced by fire services and creating a framework for the evolving role that fire brigade services are expected to execute in building safer and sustainable communities is vital. Legislation for the fire sector ought to be concluded with immediate effect. The outdated national fire legislation has necessitated the monopolisation and manipulation of the system by dominating organisations which cause a painful discrimination and exploitation of smaller service providers to enter the market for trading in that occupation. The barrier to entry bears long term negative effects on national priority areas such as employment creation, poverty, and others. This monopolisation and marginalisation practices by cartels in the sector calls for urgent attention by government because if left attended, it will leave a lot of people particularly women and youth being disadvantaged and frustrated. The downcast syndrome exercised within the fire sector has wreaked havoc and is devastating. This is caused by cartels that have been within the sector for some time, who know the strengths and weaknesses of processes, shortcuts, advantages and consequences of various actions. These people take advantage of new entrants to the sector who in turn find it difficult to manoeuvre, find the market dissonant and end up giving up their good ideas and intentions. There are many pieces of legislation which are industry specific such as housing, forestry, agriculture, health, security, environmental which are used to regulate systems within the institutions involved. Other regulations exist as bi-laws for guiding the management within the municipalities.
Political Coercion from Within: Theoretical Convergence in the Strategies of Terrorist Groups, Insurgencies, and Social Movements
The early twenty-first century national security environment has been characterized by political coercion. Despite an abundance of political commentary on the various forms of non-state coercion leveraged against the state, there is a lack of literature which distinguishes between the mechanisms and the mediums of coercion. Frequently non-state movements seeking to coerce the state are labelled by their tactics, not their strategies. Terrorists, insurgencies and social movements are largely defined by the ways in which they seek to influence the state, rather than by their political aims. This study examines the strategies of coercion used by non-state actors against states. This approach includes terrorist groups, insurgencies, and social movements who seek to coerce state politics. Not all non-state actors seek political coercion, so not all examples of different group types are considered. This approach also excludes political coercion by states, focusing on the non-state actor as the primary unit of analysis. The study applies a general theory of political coercion, which is defined as attempts to change the policies or action of a polity against its will, to the strategies employed by terrorist groups, insurgencies, and social movements. This distinguishes non-state actors’ strategic objectives from their actions and motives, which are variables that are often used to differentiate between types of non-state actors and the labels commonly used to describe them. It also allows for a comparative analysis of theoretical perspectives from the disciplines of terrorism, insurgency and counterinsurgency, and social movements. The study finds that there is a significant degree of overlap in the way that different disciplines conceptualize the mechanism of political coercion by non-state actors. Studies of terrorism and counterterrorism focus more on the notions of cost tolerance and collective punishment, while studies of insurgency focus on a contest of legitimacy between actors, and social movement theory tend to link political objectives, social capital, and a mechanism of influence to leverage against the state. Each discipline has a particular vernacular for the mechanism of coercion, which is often linked to the means of coercion, but they converge on three core theoretical components of compelling a polity to change its policies or actions: exceeding resistance to change, using political or violent punishments, and withholding legitimacy or consent from a government.
Divorce Advice and Parents' Council Support Groups: Help for Divorced Parents to Create Co-Parenting after Divorce
At family with children, divorce is a risk for a child to lose the relationship to the parent with whom the child doesn't live. A child has the right to the get care from both parents after the divorce. Even though your ex-spouse isn’t longer your companion, to the child he or she is still unique as a parent and parents must cooperate and support their child in the new family situation. To divorcee, it's necessary to understand the difference between the intimate relationship that ends and parenthood that continues. Cooperative parenting takes a lot of effort and flexibility for the parents to make joint custody work well. It is vital that parents get help to understand the situation from child points of view. When parent is facing divorce, and all the emotions that it brings along, can the child easily be forgotten. To help children, we must help parents to understand, that a relationship can end, parenthood cannot. As professionals, we should help the parents to see the significance and value of both parents to the child and try to support and protect parenthood-relationship between parents. The Federation of Mother and Child Homes and Shelters have developed group models to work with parents during or after divorce. These support groups are led by professionals, but peer support is also used. These support groups have been held over 10 years and there are found from 20 different cities in Finland. Eroneuvo event (divorce advice) service is intended for parents who are considering or have already divorced. The Vanhemman neuvo (parents' council) is a peer support group that helps parents with post-divorce parenting issues. From these groups, parents receive information and peer support for matters related to divorcing and how to support the child and do co-parenting. At the groups and in given information for divorced parents, is used a method called the 'Irreversible triangle'. It's a way to picture the intimate relationship and parenthood after the divorce and what is the difference between these two things. 'Irreversible triangle' is used to help parents and professionals to understand, what happens if a child loses the relationship to the other parent or if parents co-parenting doesn't work well. From the largely collected feedback, group members tell that they feel themselves relieved after taking part of the group. Parents also experience that talking with other parents helps to survive. Group members learn to co-operate with the other parent, and they'll also learn to see the best interest of the child after the divorce. Parents would highly recommend these groups to other parents.
Civilian and Military Responses to Domestic Security Threats: A Cross-Case Analysis of Belgium, France, and the United Kingdom
The domestic security environment in Europe has changed dramatically in recent years. Since January 2015, a significant number of domestic security threats that emerged in Europe were located in Belgium, France and the United Kingdom. While some threats were detected in the planning phase, many also resulted in terrorist attacks. Authorities in all three countries instituted special or emergency measures to provide additional security to their populations. Each country combined an additional policing presence with a specific military operation to contribute to a comprehensive security response to domestic threats. This study presents a cross-case analysis of three countries’ civilian and military responses to domestic security threats in Europe. Each case study features a unique approach to combining civilian and military capabilities in similar domestic security operations during the same time period and threat environment. The research design focuses on five variables relevant to the relationship between civilian and military roles in each security response. These are the distinction between policing and military roles, the legal framework for the domestic deployment of military forces, prior experience in civil-military coordination, the institutional framework for threat assessments, and the level of public support for the domestic use of military forces. These variables examine the influence of domestic social, political, and legal factors on the design of combined civil-military operations in response to domestic security threats. Each case study focuses on a specific operation: Operation Vigilant Guard in Belgium, Operation Sentinel in France, and Operation Temperer in the United Kingdom. The results demonstrate that the level of distinction between policing and military roles and the existence of a clear and robust legal framework for the domestic use force by military personnel significantly influence the design and implementation of civilian and military roles in domestic security operations. The findings of this study indicate that Belgium, France and the United Kingdom experienced different design and implementation challenges for their domestic security operations. Belgium and France initially had less-developed legal frameworks for deploying the military in domestic security operations than the United Kingdom. This was offset by public support for enacting emergency measures and the strength of existing civil-military coordination mechanisms. The United Kingdom had a well-developed legal framework for integrating civilian and military capabilities in domestic security operations. However, its experiences in Ireland also made the government more sensitive to public perceptions regarding the domestic deployment of military forces.
Cryptocurrency Forensics: Analysis on Bitcoin E-Wallet from Computer Source Evidence
Nowadays cryptocurrency has become a global phenomenon known to most people. People using this alternative digital money to do a transaction in many ways (e.g. Used for online shopping, wealth management, and fundraising). However, this digital asset also widely used in criminal activities since its use decentralized control as opposed to centralized electronic money and central banking systems and this makes a user, who used this currency invisible. The high-value exchange of these digital currencies also has been a target to criminal activities. The cryptocurrency crimes have become a challenge for the law enforcement to analyze and to proof the evidence as criminal devices. In this paper, our focus is more on bitcoin cryptocurrency and the possible artifacts that can be obtained from the different type of digital wallet, which is software and browser-based application. The process memory and physical hard disk are examined with the aims of identifying and recovering potential digital evidence. The stage of data acquisition divided by three states which are the initial creation of the wallet, transaction that consists transfer and receiving a coin and the last state is after the wallet is being deleted. Findings from this study suggest that both data from software and browser type of wallet process memory is a valuable source of evidence, and many of the artifacts found in process memory are also available from the application and wallet files on the client computer storage.