International Science Index

International Journal of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Analysis of Cultural Influences on Quality Management by Comparison of Japanese and German Enterprises
Quality is known to be the accordance of product characteristics and customer requirements. Both the customer requirements and the assessment of the characteristics of the product with regard to the fulfillment of customer requirements are subject to cultural influences. Of course, the processes itself which lead to product manufacturing is also subject to cultural influences. In the first point, the cultural background of the customer influences the quality, in the second point, it is the cultural background of the employees and the company that influences the process itself. In times of globalization products are manufactured at different locations around the world, but typically the quality management system of the country in which the mother company is based is used. This leads to significantly different results in terms of productivity, product quality and process efficiency at the different locations, although the same quality management system is in use. The aim of an efficient and effective quality management system is therefore not doing the same at all locations, but to have the same result at all locations. In the past, standardization was used to achieve the same results. Recent investigations show that this is not the best way to achieve the same characteristics of product quality and production performance. In the present work, it is shown that the consideration of cultural aspects in the design of processes, production systems, and quality management systems results in a significantly higher efficiency and a quality improvement. Both Japanese and German companies were investigated with comparative interviews. The background of this selection is that in most cases the cultural difference regarding industrial processes between Germany and Japan is high. At the same time, however, the customer expectations regarding the product quality are very similar. Interviews were conducted with experts from German and Japanese companies; in particular, companies were selected that operate production facilities both in Germany and in Japan. The comparison shows that the cultural influence on the respective production performance is significant. Companies that adapt the design of their quality management and production systems to the country where the production site is located have a significantly higher productivity and a significantly higher quality of the product than companies that work with a centralized system.
Strategic Public Procurement: A Lever for Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation
To inform government about how gender gaps in SME ( small and medium-sized enterprise) contracting might be redressed, the research question was: What are the key obstacles to, and response strategies for, increasing the engagement of women business owners among SME suppliers to the government of Canada? Thirty-five interviews with senior policymakers, supplier diversity organization executives, and expert witnesses to the Canadian House of Commons, Standing Committee on Government Operations and Estimates. Qualitative data were conducted and analysed using N’Vivo 11 software. High order response categories included: (a) SME risk mitigation strategies, (b) SME procurement program design, and (c) performance measures. Primary obstacles cited were government red tape and long and complicated requests for proposals (RFPs). The majority of 'common' complaints occur when SMEs have questions about the federal procurement process. Witness responses included use of outcome-based rather than prescriptive procurement practices, more agile procurement, simplified RFPs, making payment within 30 days a procurement priority. Risk mitigation strategies included provision of procurement officers to assess risks and opportunities for businesses and development of more agile procurement procedures and processes. Recommendations to enhance program design included: improved definitional consistency of qualifiers and selection criteria, better co-ordination across agencies; clarification about how SME suppliers benefit from federal contracting; goal setting; specification of categories that are most suitable for women-owned businesses; and, increasing primary contractor awareness about the importance of subcontract relationships. Recommendations also included third-party certification of eligible firms and the need to enhance SMEs’ financial literacy to reduce financial errors. Finally, there remains the need for clear and consistent pre-program statistics to establish baselines (by sector, issuing department) performance measures, targets based on percentage of contracts granted, value of contract, percentage of target employee (women, indigenous), and community benefits including hiring local employees. The study advances strategies to enhance federal procurement programs to facilitate socio-economic policy objectives.
From Avatars to Humans: A Hybrid World Theory and Human Computer Interaction Experimentations with Virtual Reality Technologies
Employing a communication studies perspective and a socio-technological approach, this paper introduces a theoretical framework for understanding the concept of hybrid world; the avatarization phenomena; and the communicational archetype of co-hybridization. This analysis intends to make a contribution to future design of virtual reality experimental applications. Ultimately, this paper presents an ongoing research project that proposes the study of human-avatar interactions in digital educational environments, as well as an innovative reflection on inner digital communication. The aforementioned project presents the analysis of human-avatar interactions, through the development of an interactive experience in virtual reality. The goal is to generate an innovative communicational dimension that could reinforce the hypotheses presented throughout this paper. Being thought for its initial application in educational environments, the analysis and results of this research are dependent and have been prepared in regard of a meticulous planning of: the conception of a 3D digital platform; the interactive game objects; the AI or computer avatars; the human representation as hybrid avatars; and lastly, the potential of immersion, ergonomics and control diversity that can provide the virtual reality system and the game engine that were chosen. The project is divided in two main axes: The first part is the structural one, as it is mandatory for the construction of an original prototype. The 3D model is inspired by the physical space that belongs to an academic institution. The incorporation of smart objects, avatars, game mechanics, game objects, and a dialogue system will be part of the prototype. These elements have all the objective of gamifying the educational environment. To generate a continuous participation and a large amount of interactions, the digital world will be navigable both, in a conventional device and in a virtual reality system. This decision is made, practically, to facilitate the communication between students and teachers; and strategically, because it will help to a faster population of the digital environment. The second part is concentrated to content production and further data analysis. The challenge is to offer a scenario’s diversity that compels users to interact and to question their digital embodiment. The multipath narrative content that is being applied is focused on the subjects covered in this paper. Furthermore, the experience with virtual reality devices proposes users to experiment in a mixture of a seemingly infinite digital world and a small physical area of movement. This combination will lead the narrative content and it will be crucial in order to restrict user’s interactions. The main point is to stimulate and to grow in the user the need of his hybrid avatar’s help. By building an inner communication between user’s physicality and user’s digital extension, the interactions will serve as a self-guide through the gameworld. This is the first attempt to make explicit the avatarization phenomena and to further analyze the communicational archetype of co-hybridization. The challenge of the upcoming years will be to take advantage from these forms of generalized avatarization, in order to create awareness and establish innovative forms of hybridization.
Towards a Conceptual Framework for Managing Supply Chain Risk in the Australian Red Meat Industry: A Resource-Based View Approach
The beef sector in Australia is undergoing rapid change because of globalization, a highly competitive beef market (local and export). Risk management in the Australian red meat supply chain has become increasingly important as companies both large and small seek to extend their global reach. It is important to manage these supply chain risks. The purpose of the conceptual paper is to present a framework for managing supply chain risk in the Australian red meat industry. The supply chain risk management strategy is critical and significant to strategically support the supply chain and business success in the long run. However, little research has been conducted in the industry so far. Based on the resource based view (RBV) approach, the firms’ capability is considered as effective tools for mitigating the supply chain risk in the real operational environment. The paper identified major types of supply chain risks in the red meat industry. The conceptual framework focuses on the relationships among the firms capabilities and supply chain risks. This provides insights into the supply chain risk management. Although the study focuses on the Australian red meat industry, the proposed framework can be validated with an empirical work in different sectors. Moreover, this paper contributes to the supply chain risk management literature.
A Mixed Integer Linear Programming Model for Container Collection
In the light of the transition towards a more circular economy, recovery of products, parts or materials will gain in importance. Additionally, the EU proximity principle related to waste management and emissions generated by transporting large amounts of end-of-life products, shift attention to local recovery networks. The Flemish inter-communal cooperation for municipal solid waste management Meetjesland (IVM) is currently investigating the set-up of such a network. More specifically, the network encompasses the recycling of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), which is collected in separate containers. When these containers are full, a truck should transport them to the processor which can recycle the PVC into new products. This paper proposes a model to optimize the container collection. The containers are located at different Civic Amenity sites (CA sites) in a certain region. Since people can drop off their waste at these CA sites, the containers will gradually fill up during a planning horizon. If a certain container is full, it has to be collected and replaced by an empty container. The collected waste is then transported to a single processor. To perform this collection and transportation of containers, the responsible firm has a set of vehicles stationed at a single depot and different personnel crews. A vehicle can load exactly one container. If a trailer is attached to the vehicle, it can load an additional container. Each day of the planning horizon, the different crews and vehicles leave the depot to collect containers at the different sites. After loading one or two containers, the crew has to drive to the processor for unloading the waste and to pick up empty containers. Afterwards, the crew can again visit sites or it can return to the depot to end its collection work for that day. All along the collection process, the crew has to respect the opening hours of the sites. In order to allow for some flexibility, a crew is allowed to wait a certain amount of time at the gate of a site until it opens. The problem described can be modelled as a variant to the PVRP-TW (Periodic Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows). However, a vehicle can at maximum load two containers, hence only two subsequent site visits are possible. For that reason, we will refer to the model as a model for building tactical waste collection schemes. The goal is to a find a schedule describing which crew should visit which CA site on which day to minimize the number of trucks and the routing costs. The model was coded in IBM CPLEX Optimization studio and applied to a number of test instances. Good results were obtained, and specific suggestions concerning route and truck costs could be made. For a large range of input parameters, collection schemes using two trucks are obtained.
Effect of Environmental Changes in Working Heart Rate among Industrial Worker: An Ergonomic Interpretation
Occupational health hazard is a very common term in every emerging country. Along with unorganized sector, most of the organized sectors including Government industries are suffering from this disease. In addition with workload, the seasonal changes also have some impacts on working environment. Focusing this in mind hundred male industrial workers, who are directly involved to the Periodic Overhauling Job (P.O.H.) in a fabricating workshop in public domain, are selected for this research work. They have been studied during working throughout different seasons in a year and in each and every seasons their working heart rate (W H R) is measured and compared with the standards given by different national and internationally recognized agencies i.e., World Health Organization (WHO) , American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) etc. The different environmental parameters i.e. dry bulb temperature (DBT), wet bulb temperature (WBT), globe temperature (GT), natural wet bulb temperature (NWB), relative humidity (RH), wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), air velocity (AV), effective temperature (ET) are recorded throughout the seasons to critically observe the effect of seasonal changes on WHR of the workers. The effect of changes in environment to the WHR of the workers is very much surprising. It is found that the percentages of workers who belong to ‘very heavy’ workload category are 83.33%, 66.66% and 16.66% in summer, rainy and winter season respectively. Ongoing undertaking this type of job profile forces the worker towards occupational disorders causing absenteeism. This occurrence turns the production rate lower than the previous and on the other hand cost due to medical claim also makes weak the industry’s health. In this circumstance, the authors are trying to focus on some remedial measures from the ergonomic angle by proposing new work/ rest regimen and introducing engineering control along with management control which may help the worker and consequently the management also.
Taguchi Based Design of Experiments for Optimization of Closed Loop Production Systems
Sustainable production system requires optimal utilization of resources. The raw material acquisition is one of the costly processes in a production system. End-of-Life (EOL) and products re-manufacturing through reverse logistics can help in decreasing excessive raw material cost. In this study, we consider production system of closed loop supply chain in which both forward and reverse production systems are active. Design of experiments (DOE) methodology is incorporated which is a statistical approach adopted in dealing with complex workplace problems. We employ L9 orthogonal array using Taguchi experiment in Minitab 17 and Design experts for plotting the results. Dependent variable used in this study is the quality accuracy of product (measured in percentage of deviation from reference standards). Control variables used in the analysis are tools employed in the production system (tu), a number of machines being used (m) and dedicated manufacturing cells (dc). We use three levels of analysis for each control factor. Optimum result conditions are calculated using the signal to noise ratio with smaller-the-better criteria and study is concluded with main effects of the mean plots.
Working Posture Improvement in Maintenance Department of Maintenance and Service Company
The maintenance and after service company has duty on maintenance and fix mixing beverage equipment and machines. Eight Workers in maintenance department have to fix many mixing beverage machines that placed on the floor. From the survey of working postures in maintenance department, the result showed that workers have to work in a way to bend over their back to repair or change some parts of the machine all their working time. Additionally, workers always pick up the equipment from the toolbox that placed on the floor. These working postures can risk health’s problems of workers such as back muscle injuries. The healthy survey of workers showed that workers have lower back pain problems are 4.30 on average. Furthermore, the result from the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) showed that the average score up to 12.16 which was in a high-risk criterion should be improved immediately. This study aims to improve the working posture of workers in maintenance department by using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) and designing new ergonomic tools. Therefore, this study has designed a toolbox shelf in order to reduce the bend over posture while working in standing posture and designed a chair with tray that can put many tools on it. Workers can fix the machine while sitting. After using the new toolbox shelf and chair, the healthy survey showed that the lower back pain score reduced to 2.46 in average and the REBA assessment score reduced to 2.83 in average which is located in a little risk.
Determination of the Abstraction Level in Production Network Models
In recent years the importance of production network modeling has increased significantly, as complexity and dynamics companies face have risen. Quantitative models can be used to gain understanding and support strategic decision making in production network management. The identification of the right abstraction level for those models largely relied on model builder expertise. This work presents an effort at structuring and streamlining the determination of the abstraction level. A basic concept is presented, that enables systematic definition of the abstraction level for a given model framework. A process implementing the concept is proposed, that helps to identify the right abstraction level based on case-specific requirements and restrictions and tailor the model to solve the examined problem. The process has been tested in a case study at a globally operating tooling machine company.
A PROMETHEE-BELIEF Approach for Multi-Criteria Decision Making Problems with Incomplete Information
Multi-criteria decision aid methods consider decision problems where numerous alternatives are evaluated on several criteria. These methods are used to deal with perfect information. However, in practice, it is obvious that this information requirement is too much strict. In fact, the imperfect data provided by more or less reliable decision makers usually affect decision results since any decision is closely linked to the quality and availability of information. In this paper, a PROMETHEE-BELIEF approach is proposed to help multi-criteria decisions based on incomplete information. This approach solves problems with incomplete decision matrix and unknown weights within PROMETHEE method. On the base of belief function theory, our approach first determines the distributions of belief masses based on PROMETHEE’s net flows and then calculates weights. Subsequently, it aggregates the distribution masses associated to each criterion using Murphy’s modified combination rule in order to infer a global belief structure. The final action ranking is obtained via pignistic probability transformation. A case study of real-world application concerning the location of a waste treatment center from healthcare activities with infectious risk in the center of Tunisia is studied to illustrate the detailed process of the BELIEF-PROMETHEE approach.
Enhancing Single Channel Minimum Quantity Lubrication through Bypass Controlled Design for Deep Hole Drilling with Small Diameter Tool
Due to significant energy savings, enablement of higher machining speed as well as environmentally friendly features, Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) has been used for many machining processes efficiently. However, in the deep hole drilling field (small tool diameter D < 5 mm) and long tool (length L > 25xD) it is always a bottle neck for a single channel MQL system. The single channel MQL, based on the Venturi principle, faces a lack of enough oil quantity caused by dropped pressure difference during the deep hole drilling process. In this paper, a system concept based on a bypass design has explored its possibility to dynamically reach the required pressure difference between the air inlet and the inside of aerosol generator, so that the deep hole drilling demanded volume of oil can be generated and delivered to tool tips. The system concept has been investigated in static and dynamic laboratory testing. In the static test, the oil volume with and without bypass control were measured. This shows an oil quantity increasing potential up to 1000%. A spray pattern test has demonstrated the differences of aerosol particle size, aerosol distribution and reaction time between single channel and bypass controlled single channel MQL systems. A dynamic trial machining test of deep hole drilling (drill tool D=4.5mm, L= 40xD) has been carried out with the proposed system on a difficult machining material AlSi7Mg. The tool wear along a 100 meter drilling was tracked and analyzed. The result shows that the single channel MQL with a bypass control can overcome the limitation and enhance deep hole drilling with a small tool. The optimized combination of inlet air pressure and bypass control results in a high quality oil delivery to tool tips with a uniform and continuous aerosol flow.
Development of Concurrent Engineering through the Application of Software Simulations of Metal Production Processing and Analysis of the Effects of Application
Concurrent engineering technologies are a modern concept in manufacturing engineering. One of the key goals in designing modern technological processes is further reduction of production costs, both in the prototype and the preparatory part, as well as during the serial production. Thanks to many segments of concurrent engineering, these goals can be accomplished much more easily. In this paper, we give an overview of the advantages of using modern software simulations in relation to the classical aspects of designing technological processes of metal deformation. Significant savings are achieved thanks to the electronic simulation and software detection of all possible irregularities in the functional-working regime of the technological process. In order for the expected results to be optimal, it is necessary that the input parameters are very objective and that they reliably represent the values ​of these parameters in real conditions. Since it is a metal deformation treatment here, the particularly important parameters are the coefficient of internal friction between the working material and the tools, as well as the parameters related to the flow curve of the processing material. The paper will give a presentation for the experimental determination of some of these parameters.
Jagiellonian University Medical College
This paper considers a retailer dominated reverse logistics network design problem for construction machinery remanufacturing under uncertainty. In this special network, the retailer takes charge of the remanufacturing activities and collects the cores from its network, and third-party collectors, the quantity and quality of the cores are both uncertain. A modal interval based method is proposed to characterize the uncertain parameters, and it is combined with the genetic algorithm to solve the target interval linear programming problem. Moreover, the robustness of the network configuration under uncertainty is verified by conducting a sensitivity analysis. The results confirm that the proposed method can successfully determine the location of different facilities and the allocation of the products and components, and the network configuration under the uncertain scenario has the better robustness than that under the certain scenario.
Work in the Industry of the Future-Investigations of Human-Machine Interactions
Since a bit over a year ago, Festo AG and Co. KG, Festo Didactic SE, robomotion GmbH, the researchers of the Cybernetics-Lab IMA/ZLW and IfU, as well as the Human-Computer Interaction Center at the RWTH Aachen University, have been working together in the focal point of assembly competences to realize different scenarios in the field of human-machine interaction (HMI). In the framework of project ARIZ, questions concerning the future of production within the fourth industrial revolution are dealt with. There are many perspectives of human-robot collaboration that consist Industry 4.0 on an individual, organization and enterprise level, and these will be addressed in ARIZ. The aim of the ARIZ projects is to link AI-Approaches to assembly problems and to implement them as prototypes in demonstrators. To do so, island and flow based production scenarios will be simulated and realized as prototypes. These prototypes will serve as applications of flexible robotics as well as AI-based planning and control of production process. Using the demonstrators, human interaction strategies will be examined with an information system on one hand, and a robotic system on the other. During the tests, prototypes of workspaces that illustrate prospective production work forms will be represented. The human being will remain a central element in future productions and will increasingly be in charge of managerial tasks. Questions thus arise within the overall perspective, primarily concerning the role of humans within these technological revolutions, as well as their ability to act and design respectively to the acceptance of such systems. Roles, such as the 'Trainer' of intelligent systems may become a possibility in such assembly scenarios.
A Modified NSGA-II Algorithm for Solving Multi-Objective Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem
NSGA-II is one of the most well-known and most widely used evolutionary algorithms. In addition to its new versions, such as NSGA-III, there are several modified types of this algorithm in the literature. In this paper, a hybrid NSGA-II algorithm has been suggested for solving the multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling problem. For a better search, new neighborhood-based crossover and mutation operators are defined. To create new generations, the neighbors of the selected individuals by the tournament selection are constructed. Also, at the end of each iteration, before sorting, neighbors of a certain number of good solutions are derived, except for solutions protected by elitism. The neighbors are generated using a constraint-based neural network that uses various constructs. The non-dominated sorting and crowding distance operators are same as the classic NSGA-II. A comparison based on some multi-objective benchmarks from the literature shows the efficiency of the algorithm.
Investigation of Beam Defocusing Impact in Millisecond Laser Drilling for Variable Operational Currents
Owing to its exceptional performance and precision, laser drilling is being widely used in modern manufacturing industries. This experimental study mainly addressed the defocusing of laser beam along with different operational currents. The performance has been evaluated in terms of tapering phenomena, entrance and exit diameters etc. The operational currents have direct influence on laser power which ultimately affected the shape of the drilled hole. Different operational currents in low, medium and high ranges are used for laser drilling of 18CrNi8. Experiment results have depicted that there is an increase in entrance diameter with an increase in defocusing distance. However, the exit diameter first decreases and then increases with respect to increasing defocusing length. The evolution of drilled hole from tapered to straight hole has been explained with defocusing at different levels. The optimum parametric combinations for attaining perfect shape of drilled hole is proposed along with lower heat treatment effects for higher process efficiency.
Classification Framework of Production Planning and Scheduling Solutions from Supply Chain Management Perspective
In today’s business environments, frequent change of customer requirements is a tough challenge to manufacturing company. To cope with these challenges, a production planning and scheduling (PP&S) function might be established to provide accountability for both customer service and operational efficiency. Nowadays, many manufacturing firms have utilized PP&S software solutions to generate a realistic production plan and schedule to adapt to external changes efficiently. However, companies which consider the introduction of PP&S software solution, still have difficulties for selecting adequate solution to meet their specific needs. Since the task of PP&S is the one of major building blocks of SCM (Supply Chain Management) architecture, which deals with short term decision making in the production process of SCM, it is needed that the functionalities of PP&S should be analysed within the whole SCM process. The aim of this paper is to analyse the PP&S functionalities and its system architecture from the SCM perspective by using the criteria of level of planning hierarchy, major 4 SCM processes and problem-solving approaches, and finally propose a classification framework of PP&S solutions to facilitate the comparison among various commercial software solutions. By using proposed framework, several major PP&S solutions are classified and positioned according to their functional characteristics in this paper. By using this framework, practitioners who consider the introduction of computerized PP&S solutions in manufacturing firms can prepare evaluation and benchmarking sheets for selecting the most suitable solution with ease and in less time.
Lean Manufacturing Implementation in Fused Plastic Bags Industry
Lean manufacturing is concerned with the implementation of several tools and methodologies that aim for the continuous elimination of wastes throughout manufacturing process flow in the production system. This research addresses the implementation of lean principles and tools in a small-medium industry focusing on 'fused' plastic bags production company in Amman, Jordan. In this production operation, the major type of waste to eliminate include material, waiting-transportation, and setup wastes. The primary goal is to identify and implement selected lean strategies to eliminate waste in the manufacturing process flow. A systematic approach was used for the implementation of lean principles and techniques, through the application of Value Stream Mapping analysis. The current state value stream map was constructed to improve the plastic bags manufacturing process through identifying opportunities to eliminate waste and its sources. Also, the future-state value stream map was developed describing improvements in the overall manufacturing process resulting from eliminating wastes. The implementation of VSM, 5S, Kanban, Kaizen, and Reduced lot size methods have provided significant benefits and results. Productivity has increased to 95.4%, delivery schedule attained at 99-100%, reduction in total inventory to 1.4 days and the setup time for the melting process was reduced to about 30 minutes.
Multi-Criteria Decision Making Network Optimization for Green Supply Chains
Modern supply chains are typically linear, transforming virgin raw materials into products for end consumers, who then discard them after use to landfills or incinerators. Nowadays, there are major efforts underway to create a circular economy to reduce non-renewable resource use and waste. One important aspect of these efforts is the development of Green Supply Chain (GSC) systems which enables a reverse flow of used products from consumers back to manufacturers, where they can be refurbished or remanufactured, to both economic and environmental benefit. This paper develops novel multi-objective optimization models to inform GSC system design at multiple levels: (1) strategic planning of facility location and transportation logistics; (2) tactical planning of optimal pricing; and (3) policy planning to account for potential valuation of GSC emissions. First, physical linear programming was applied to evaluate GSC facility placement by determining the quantities of end-of-life products for transport from candidate collection centers to remanufacturing facilities while satisfying cost and capacity criteria. Second, disassembly and remanufacturing processes have received little attention in industrial engineering and process cost modeling literature. The increasing scale of remanufacturing operations, worth nearly $50 billion annually in the United States alone, have made GSC pricing an important subject of research. A non-linear physical programming model for optimization of pricing policy for remanufactured products that maximizes total profit and minimizes product recovery costs were examined and solved. Finally, a deterministic equilibrium model was used to determine the effects of internalizing a cost of GSC greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into optimization models. Changes in optimal facility use, transportation logistics, and pricing/profit margins were all investigated against a variable cost of carbon, using case study system created based on actual data from sites in the Boston area. As carbon costs increase, the optimal GSC system undergoes several distinct shifts in topology as it seeks new cost-minimal configurations. A comprehensive study of quantitative evaluation and performance of the model has been done using orthogonal arrays. Results were compared to top-down estimates from economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) models, to contrast remanufacturing GHG emission quantities with those from original equipment manufacturing operations. Introducing a carbon cost of $40/t CO2e increases modeled remanufacturing costs by 2.7% but also increases original equipment costs by 2.3%. The assembled work advances the theoretical modeling of optimal GSC systems and presents a rare case study of remanufactured appliances.
A Multi-criteria Decision Making Approach for Disassembly-to-Order Systems Under Uncertainty
In order to minimize the negative impact on the environment, it is essential to manage the waste that generated from the premature disposal of end-of-life (EOL) products properly. Consequently, government and international organizations introduced new policies and regulations to minimize the amount of waste being sent to landfills. Moreover, the consumers’ awareness regards environment has forced original equipment manufacturers to consider being more environmentally conscious. Therefore, manufacturers have thought of different ways to deal with waste generated from EOL products viz., remanufacturing, reusing, recycling, or disposing of EOL products. The rate of depletion of virgin natural resources and their dependency on the natural resources can be reduced by manufacturers when EOL products are treated as remanufactured, reused, or recycled, as well as this will cut on the amount of harmful waste sent to landfills. However, disposal of EOL products contributes to the problem and therefore is used as a last option. Number of EOL need to be estimated in order to fulfill the components demand. Then, disassembly process needs to be performed to extract individual components and subassemblies. Smart products, built with sensors embedded and network connectivity to enable the collection and exchange of data, utilize sensors that are implanted into products during production. These sensors are used for remanufacturers to predict an optimal warranty policy and time period that should be offered to customers who purchase remanufactured components and products. Sensor-provided data can help to evaluate the overall condition of a product, as well as the remaining lives of product components, prior to perform a disassembly process. In this paper, a multi-period disassembly-to-order (DTO) model is developed that takes into consideration the different system uncertainties. The DTO model is solved using Nonlinear Programming (NLP) in multiple periods. A DTO system is considered where a variety of EOL products are purchased for disassembly. The model’s main objective is to determine the best combination of EOL products to be purchased from every supplier in each period which maximized the total profit of the system while satisfying the demand. This paper also addressed the impact of sensor embedded products on the cost of warranties. Lastly, this paper presented and analyzed a case study involving various simulation conditions to illustrate the applicability of the model.
Entrepreneurial Creativity in Socio-Economic Context
Creativity is taken as a requirement for a personal anti-fragile career path in the context of regional competitive advantage in the terms of socio-economics creative environment. At the personal level, the competence and value-based approach to creativity are proposed, is an elaboration of the resource-based view of the group of individuals selected from given country. Entrepreneurial creativity competence (measured by the Schein anchor questionnaire) is based on an independent way of thinking and empowerment presents one aspect of creative capability, however quickly verified by the market, that’s why we treat this as a basic exemplification of average creative attitude combine with the entrepreneurial attitude. This introductory instrument enables further scientific research based on the same group in the context of multi-cultural external creative or the non-creative environment.
An Examination of the Role of Perceived Leadership Styles on Job Satisfaction among Selected Bank Employees
The study set out to investigate the role of perceived leadership style on achievement motivation of selected bank employees. The study was a cross-sectional survey. A total of 585 bank workers took part in the study; 283 (48.4%) were males while 302% (51.6%) were females. Mean age of 31.8 yrs (SD = 7.8 yrs) was reported for the participants for the study. Questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistic. The t- test for independent measures was used to test all the hypotheses, using the statistical package for social sciences version 21.0. The results in the study revealed that bank employees who perceived their leaders as high on consideration style of leadership reported more job satisfaction than bank employees who perceived their leaders as low on consideration style of leadership [t(583) = 16.43, p
Human Creativity through Dooyeweerd's Philosophy: The Case of Creative Diagramming
Human creativity knows no bounds. More than a millennia ago humans have expressed their knowledge on cave walls and on clay artefacts. Using visuals such as diagrams and paintings have always provided us with a natural and intuitive medium for expressing such creativity. Making sense of human generated visualisation has been influenced by western scientific philosophies which are often reductionist in their nature. Theoretical frameworks such as those delivered by Peirce dominated our views of how to make sense of visualisation where a visual is seen as an emergent property of our thoughts. Others have reduced the richness of human-generated visuals to mere shapes drawn on a piece of paper or on a screen. This paper introduces an alternate framework where the centrality of human functioning is given explicit and richer consideration through the multi aspectual philosophical works of Herman Dooyeweerd. Dooyeweerd's framework of understanding reality was based on fifteen aspects of reality, each having a distinct core meaning. The totality of the aspects formed a ‘rainbow’ like spectrum of meaning. The thesis of this approach is that meaningful human functioning in most cases involves the diversity of all aspects working in synergy and harmony. Illustration of the foundations and applicability of this approach is underpinned in the case of humans use of diagramming for creative purposes, particularly within an educational context. Diagrams play an important role in education. Students and lecturers use diagrams as a powerful tool to aid their thinking. However, research into the role of diagrams used in education continues to reveal difficulties students encounter during both processes of interpretation and construction of diagrams. Their main problems shape up students difficulties with diagrams. The ever-increasing diversity of diagrams' types coupled with the fact that most real-world diagrams often contain a mix of these different types of diagrams such as boxes and lines, bar charts, surfaces, routes, shapes dotted around the drawing area, and so on with each type having its own distinct set of static and dynamic semantics. We argue that the persistence of these problems is grounded in our existing ways of understanding diagrams that are often reductionist in their underpinnings driven by a single perspective or formalism. In this paper, we demonstrate the limitations of these approaches in dealing with the three problems. Consequently, we propose, discuss, and demonstrate the potential of a nonreductionist framework for understanding diagrams based on Symbolic and Spatial Mappings (SySpM) underpinned by Dooyeweerd philosophy. The potential of the framework to account for the meaning of diagrams is demonstrated by applying it to a real-world case study physics diagram.
A Holographic Infotainment System for Connected and Driverless Cars: An Exploratory Study of Gesture Based Interaction
In this paper, an interactive in-car interface called HoloDash is presented. It is intended to provide information and infotainment in both autonomous vehicles and ‘connected cars’, vehicles equipped with Internet access via cellular services. The research focuses on the development of interactive avatars for this system and its gesture-based control system. This is a case study for the development of a possible human-centred means of presenting a connected or autonomous vehicle’s On-Board Diagnostics through a projected ‘holographic’ infotainment system. This system is termed a Holographic Human Vehicle Interface (HHIV), as it utilises a dashboard projection unit and gesture detection. The research also examines the suitability for gestures in an automotive environment, given that it might be used in both driver-controlled and driverless vehicles. Using Human Centred Design methods, questions were posed to test subjects and preferences discovered in terms of the gesture interface and the user experience for passengers within the vehicle. These affirm the benefits of this mode of visual communication for both connected and driverless cars.
Automotive Emotions: An Investigation of Their Natures, Frequencies of Occurrence and Causes
Technological and sociological developments in the automotive sector are shifting the focus of design towards developing a better understanding of driver needs, desires and emotions. Human centred design methods are being more frequently applied to automotive research, including the use of systems to detect human emotions in real-time. One method for a non-contact measurement of emotion with low intrusiveness is Facial-Expression Analysis (FEA). This paper describes a research study investigating emotional responses of 22 participants in a naturalistic driving environment by applying a multi-method approach. The research explored the possibility to investigate emotional responses and their frequencies during naturalistic driving through real-time FEA. Observational analysis was conducted to assign causes to the collected emotional responses. In total 730 emotional responses were measured in the collective study time of 440 minutes. Causes were assigned to 92% of the measured emotional responses. This research establishes and validates a methodology for the study of emotions and their causes in the driving environment through which systems and factors causing positive and negative emotional effects can be identified.
Optimizing Usability Testing with Collaborative Method in an E-Commerce Ecosystem
Usability testing is one of the vital steps in UCD process during designing a product. In an E-commerce ecosystem, usability testing becomes primal as new product, features, and services are launched very frequently. And there are losses attached to the company if an unusable and inefficient product is put out to market and is rejected by customers. This paper tries to answer why usability testing is important in the product life-cycle of E-commerce ecosystem. Secondary user research was conducted to find out work patterns, development methods, type of stakeholders, technology constraints, etc. of a typical E-commerce company. User interviews in qualitative fashion were conducted with product managers and designers to find out the structure, project planning, product management method and role of the design team in a mid-level company. The paper tries to address the usual apprehensions of the company to inculcate usability testing within the team. And stresses upon the factors like monetary resources, lack of usability expert, narrow timelines, lack of understanding of higher management as some primary reasons. Outsourcing usability testing to vendors is also very prevalent with mid-level e-commerce companies, but it has its own severe repercussions like very little team involvement, huge cost, misinterpretation of the findings, elongated timelines, lack of empathy towards the customer, etc. The shortfalls of unavailability of usability testing process in place within the team and conducting usability testing through vendors are bad user experiences for customers while interacting with the product, badly designed products which are neither useful and not utilitarian. As result companies see dipping conversions rates in apps and websites, huge bounce rate and increased uninstall rates. So, there was a need for a more lean usability testing system in place which could solve all these issues for the company. This paper highlights on optimizing usability testing process with a collaborative method. The degree of optimization and structure of collaborative method is the highlight of this paper. Collaborative method of usability testing is one in which centralised design team of the company takes the responsibility of the conducting and analysing the usability testing. The usability testing is usually formative kind where designers take findings in to account and uses in the ideation process. The success of collaborative method of usability testing is due to its ability to sync with the product management method employed by the company or team. The collaborative methods focus on engaging various teams (design, marketing, product, admin, IT, etc.) each with its own defined roles and responsibility in conducting a smooth usability testing with users In-house. The paper finally highlights the positive results of collaborative usability testing method after conducting more than 100 In-lab interviews with users across the different line of businesses. Some of which are the improvement of interaction between stakeholders and design team, empathy towards users, improved design iteration, better sanity check of design solutions, optimization of time and money, effective and efficient design solution. The future scope of this method could be making is leaner and agile.
An Analysis Study of a Participatory Design Workshop from the Perspectives of Communication Strategies and Tools
Participatory design transfers the role of design team becoming the facilitator who manages to work collaboratively with the 'partners of innovation': users. This facilitator role not just concerns the users’ behaviors or insights under the common practice of user-centered design, it emphasizes the importance of communication experience conducted by various strategies and tools in a workshop session which could profoundly impact the quality of the co-creation process. To investigate the communication experience in the participatory design, this study proposed a qualitative research to analyze communication strategies and tools. A participatory design workshop and following in-depth interviews were carried out to explore how participants (facilitators, users) might apply different strategies and tools to enhance the communication process. The major study findings are as follows: (a) roles had influence on communication experience; facilitators’ principles and methods influenced the usage of facilitation strategies in various situations, while users put more emphasis on communication activities and goals aimed to complete the design tasks, (b) communication tools should be both fixed and changeable: participants had fixed cognition on different forms of communication tools; with the fundamental cognition, they could choose and make use of tools according to their needs, (c) the management of workshop communication should be flexible: controlling the schedule, stimulating innovations, and creating the space for conversation are crucial to facilitate in a participatory workshop.
Exploring the Impacts of Field of View on 3D Game Experiences and Task Performances
The present study attempted to explore how the range differences of ‘Geometric Field of Vision’ (GFOV) and differences in camera control in 3D simulation games, OMSI—The Bus Simulator of the 2013 PC version, affected players’ cognitive load, anxiety, and task performances. The study employed a between-subjects factorial experimental design. A total of 80 subjects completed experiment whose data were eligible for further analysis. The results of this study showed that in the difference of field of view, players had better task performances in a spacious view. Although cognitive resources consumed more of the players’ ‘mental demand,’ ‘physical demand’, and ‘temporal demand’, they had better performances in the experiment, and their anxiety was effectively reduced. On the other hand, in the narrow GFOV, players thought they spent more cognitive resources on ‘effort’ and ‘frustration degree,’ and had worse task performances, but it was not significant enough to reduce their anxiety. In terms of difference of camera control, players had worse performances since the fixed lens restricted their dexterous control. However, there was no significant difference in the players’ subjective cognitive resources or anxiety. The results further illustrated that task performances were affected by the interaction of GFOV and camera control.
Classification of Factors Influencing Buyer-Supplier Relationship: A Case Study from the Cement Industry
This paper examines the quantitative and qualitative factors influencing the buyer-supplier relationship. Understanding and acting on the right factors influencing supplier relationship management is crucial when a company outsource an important part of its business as it can be for engineering to order (ETO) company executing only the designing part in-house. Acting on these factors increase the quality of the relationship obtaining for both parties what they want and expect from an improved relationship. Best practices in supplier relationship management are considered and a case study of a large global company, called Cement A/S, operating in the cement business is carried out. One study is conducted including a large international company and hundreds of its suppliers. Data from the company is collected using semi-structured interviews and data from the suppliers is collected using a survey. Based on these inputs and an extensive literature review a classification of factors influencing the relationship buyer-supplier is presented and discussed. The results show that different managers among the company are assessing supplier from various perspectives, a standard approach to measure the performance of suppliers does not exist. The factors used nowadays in the company to measure performances of the suppliers are mostly related to time and cost. Quality is a key factor, but it has not been addressed properly since no data are available in the system. From a practical perspective, managers can learn from this paper which factors to consider when applying best practices of Supplier Relationship Management. Furthermore, from a theoretical perspective, this paper contributes with new knowledge in the area as limited research in collaboration with the company has been conducted. For this reason, a company, its suppliers and few studies for this type of industry have been conducted. For further research, it is suggested to define the correlation of factors to the profitability of the company and calculate its impact. When conducting this analysis it is important to focus on the efficient and effective use of factors that can be measurable and accepted from the supplier.
Aligning Cultural Practices through Information Exchange: A Taxonomy in Global Manufacturing Industry
With the rise of global supply chain network, the choice of supply chain orientation is critical. The alignment between cultural similarity and supply chain information exchange could help identify appropriate supply chain orientations, which would differentiate the stronger competitors and performers from the weaker ones. Through developing a taxonomy, this study examined whether the choices of action programs and manufacturing performance differ depending on the levels of attainment cultural similarity and information exchange. This study employed statistical tests on a large-scale dataset consisting of 680 manufacturing plants from various cultures and industries. Firms need to align cultural practices with the level of information exchange in order to achieve good overall business performance. There appeared to be consistent three major orientations: the Proactive, the Initiative and the Reactive. Firms are experiencing higher payoffs from various improvements are the ones successful alignment in both information exchange and cultural similarity The findings provide step-by-step decision making for supply chain information exchange and offer guidance especially for global supply chain managers. In including both cultural similarity and information exchange, this paper adds greater comprehensiveness and richness to the supply chain literature.