International Science Index

International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences

3267
96233
The Social Structuring of Mate Selection: Assortative Marriage Patterns in the Israeli Jewish Population
Abstract:
Love, so it appears, is not socially blind. We show that partner selection is socially constrained, and the freedom to choose is limited by at least two major factors or capitals: on the one hand, material resources and education, locating the partners on a scale of personal achievement and economic independence. On the other, the partners' ascriptive belonging to particular ethnic, or origin, groups, differentiated by the groups' social prestige, as well as by their culture, history and even physical characteristics. However, the relative importance of achievement and ascriptive factors, as well as the overlap between them, varies from society to society, depending on the society's structure and the factors shaping it. Israeli social structure has been shaped by the waves of new immigrants who arrived over the years. The timing of their arrival, their patterns of physical settlement and their occupational inclusion or exclusion have together created a mosaic of social groups whose principal common feature has been the country of origin from which they arrived. The analysis of marriage patterns helps illuminate the social meanings of the groups and their borders. To the extent that ethnic group membership has meaning for individuals and influences their life choices, the ascriptive factor will gain in importance relative to the achievement factor in their choice of marriage partner. In this research, we examine Jewish Israeli marriage patterns by looking at the marriage choices of 5,041 women aged 15 to 49 who were single at the census in 1983, and who were married at the time of the 1995 census, 12 years later. The database for this study was a file linking respondents from the 1983 and the 1995 censuses. In both cases, 5 percent of household were randomly chosen, so that our sample includes about 4 percent of women in Israel in 1983. We present three basic analyses: (1) Who was still single in 1983, using personal and household data from the 1983 census (binomial model), (2) Who married between 1983 and a1995, using personal and household data from the 1983 census (binomial model), (3) What were the personal characteristics of the womens’ partners in 1995, using data from the 1995 census (loglinear model). We show (i) that material and cultural capital both operate to delay marriage and to increase the probability of remaining single; and (ii) while there is a clear association between ethnic group membership and education, endogamy and homogamy both operate as separate forces which constraint (but do not determine) the choice of marriage partner, and thus both serve to reproduce the current pattern of relationships, as well as identifying patterns of proximity and distance between the different groups.
3266
85838
Investigating Personal Information Management, Social Influence and Commitment in the Enterprise Systems Implementation
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Abstract:
A knowledge worker’s goal commitment is critical to the success of system implementation in the organization. This paper investigates an individual’s information formality motivation and social influence as important determinants in developing goal commitment in the system implementation based on the social psychology and information management literature. An empirical test of the proposed model was conducted in the field test. Partial Least Square (PLS) was used to analyze the model and supported the validity of the results. Social influence and information formality influence knowledge worker’s goal commitment as expected. Social influence has the higher effects on goal commitment than information formality motivation. The results of this study help us understand the antecedents of goal commitment in the system implementation based on the social influence theory and personal information management model. Based on the test results of this study, Information Systems (IS) practitioners will be able to understand the different roles of social and personal factors in developing successful system implementation.
3265
96106
Conjugal Relationship and Reproductive Decision-Making among Couples in Southwest Nigeria
Abstract:
This paper emphasizes the relevance of conjugal relationship and spousal communication towards enhancing men’s involvement in contraceptive use among the Yorubas of South Western Nigeria. An understanding of males influence and the role they play in reproductive decision making can throw better light on mechanisms through which egalitarianness of husband/wife decision making influences contraceptive use. The objective of this study was to investigate how close conjugal relationships can be a good indicator of joint decision making among couples using data derived from a survey conducted in three states of South Western Nigeria. The study sample consisted of five hundred and twenty one (521) male respondents aged 15-59 years and five hundred and forty seven (547) female respondents aged 15-49 years. The study used both quantitative and qualitative approached to elicit information from the respondents. In order that the study would be truly representative of the towns, each of the study locations in the capital cities was divided into four strata: The traditional area, the migrant area, the mixed area (i.e. traditional and migrant), and the elite area. In the rural areas, selection of the respondents was by simple random sampling technique. However, the random selection was made in such a way that all the different parts of the locations were represented. Generally, the data collected were analysed at univariate, bivariate, and multivariate levels. Logistic regression models were employed to examine the interrelationships between male reproductive behaviour, conjugal relationship and contraceptive use. The study indicates that current use of contraceptive is high among this major ethnic group in Nigeria because of the improved level of communication among couples. The problem, however, is that men still have lower exposure rate when it comes to question of family planning information, education and counseling. This has serious implications on fertility regulation in Nigeria.
3264
93041
Secondary Traumatic Stress and Related Factors in Australian Social Workers and Psychologists
Abstract:
Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is an indirect form of trauma affecting the psychological well-being of mental health workers; STS is found to be a prevalent risk in mental health occupations. Various factors impact the development of STS within the literature; including the level of trauma individuals are exposed to and their level of empathy. Research is limited on STS in mental health workers in Australia; therefore, this study examined STS and related factors of empathetic behavior and trauma caseload among mental health workers. The research utilized an online survey quantitative research design with a purposive sample of 190 mental health workers (176 females) recruited via professional websites and unofficial social media groups. Participants completed an online questionnaire comprising of demographics, the secondary traumatic stress scale and the empathy scale for social workers. A standard hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the significance of covariates, traumatized clients, traumatic stress within workload and empathy in predicting STS. The current research found 29.5% of participants to meet the criteria for a diagnosis of STS. Age and past trauma within the covariates were significantly associated with STS. Amount of traumatized clients significantly predicted 4.7% of the variance in STS, traumatic stress within workload significantly predicted 4.8% of the variance in STS and empathy significantly predicted 4.9% of the variance in STS. These three independent variables and the covariates accounted for 18.5% of the variance in STS. Practical implications include a focus on developing risk strategies and treatment methods that can diminish the impact of STS.
3263
93042
Using ePortfolios to Mapping Social Work Graduate Competencies
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Higher education is changing globally and there is increasing pressure from professional social work accreditation bodies for academic programs to demonstrate how students have successfully met mandatory graduate competencies. As professional accreditation organizations increase their demand for evidence of graduate competencies, strategies to document and recording learning outcomes becomes increasingly challenging for academics and students. Studies in higher education have found support for the pedagogical value of ePortfolios, a flexible personal learning space that is owned by the student and include opportunity for assessment, feedback and reflection as well as a virtual space to store evidence of demonstration of professional competencies and graduate attributes. Examples of institutional uses of ePortfolios include e-administration of a diverse student population, assessment of student learning, and the demonstration of graduate attributes attained and future student career preparation. The current paper presents a case study on the introduction of ePortfolios for social work graduates in Australia as part of an institutional approach to technology-enhanced learning and e-learning. Social work graduates were required to submit an ePortfolio hosted on PebblePad. The PebblePad platform was selected because it places the student at the center of their learning whilst providing powerful tools for staff to structure, guide and assess that learning. The ePortofolio included documentation and evidence of how the student met each graduate competency as set out by the social work accreditation body in Australia (AASW). This digital resource played a key role in the process of external professional accreditation by clearly documenting and evidencing how students met required graduate competencies. In addition, student feedback revealed a positive outcome on how this resource provided them with a consolidation of their learning experiences and assisted them in obtaining employment post-graduation. There were also significant institutional factors that were key to successful implementation such as investment in the digital technology, capacity building amongst academics, and technical support for staff and students.
3262
94721
The Importance of Changing the Traditional Mode of Higher Education in Bangladesh: Creating Huge Job Opportunities for Home and Abroad
Abstract:
Bangladesh has set its goal to reach middle-income country status by 2021. To attain this status, the country must satisfy the World Bank requirement of achieving minimum Gross National Income (GNI). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) predicts two million youths will join the labor force every year. So, the vital issue of this country is to understand how the GNI and jobs can be increased. The objective of this paper is to address these issues and find ways to create more job opportunities for youths at home and abroad which will increase the country’s GNI. The paper studies proportion of different goods Bangladesh exported, and also the percentage of employment in different sectors. The data used here for the purpose of analysis have been collected from the available literature. These data are then plotted and analyzed. Through these studies, it is concluded that growth in sectors like agricultural, ready-made garments (RMG), jute industries and fisheries are declining and business community is not interested in setting capital-intensive industries. Under this situation, the country needs to explore other business opportunities for higher economic growth rate. Knowledge can substitute the physical resource. Since the country consists of the large youth population, higher education will play a key role in economic development. It now needs graduates with higher-order skills with innovative quality. Such dispositions demand changes in a university’s curriculum, teaching and assessment method which will function young generations as active learners and creators. By bringing these changes in higher education, a knowledge-based society can be created. The application of such knowledge and creativity will then become the commodity of Bangladesh which will help to reach its goal as a middle-income country.
3261
96309
High Speed Rail vs Other Factors Affecting the Tourism Market in Italy
Abstract:
The analysis of the factors having an impact on destination image has been the subject of several papers in the international literature providing a significant contribution to the understanding of tourists' behaviour. The transportation industry is a global industry that meets the need for moving passengers as efficiently as possible. It is often argued that a country with a good transportation system can be considered a tourist destination. During the centuries, the transport modes have been changing according to the development of technology and discovery and application of steam and electricity in the 19th century and the internal combustion engine in the 20th century. The latter has recently experienced significant expansion and new projects all around the world are in the pipeline. Considering that Europe is among the most visited continents in the world, High Speed Rail (HRS) is likely to induce changes in tourists' behaviour. The objective of this manuscript is to investigate the relationship between the increase of accessibility brought by High-Speed Rail systems and the tourism market in Italy. The impacts of HSR projects on tourism can be quantified in different ways. In this manuscript, an empirical analysis has been carried out with the aid of a dataset containing information both on tourism and transport for 99 Italian provinces, during the 2006-2016 period. Panel data regression models have been considered since they allow modeling a wide variety of correlation patterns. Results show that High-Speed Rail has an impact on the choice of a given destination both for the Italian and Foreign tourists together with other variables such as Attractions at destination. The number of Hotels and Holiday_homes affect mainly foreign tourists. Variables concerning the Security, such as the number of Crimes, of a given destination affect negatively the choice of the destination itself.
3260
97218
An Advice Tool for the Better Time Use in a Tourism Area Using Sequence Alignment Methods and Decision Tables
Abstract:
Tourists often find it difficult to optimally conduct their holiday trip due to the limited information on tourism sites or unexpected delay of tourism activities. There have been tools to advise tourists to better use their time in an unfamiliar tourism area by learning and updating tourists experience and preference. This artificial intelligence-based tools highlight behavioral explanation of tourist activities and potentially enhances the sales of regional tourism business by increasing additional visitations in the tourism area. A problem of the tools is however that the investigation and estimation of a learning and updating algorithm typically demands a tremendous burden of collecting the data and model complexity. The paper aims at suggesting a tourist advice tool that is simple to develop and maintain. The suggested tool finds the association between tourism behavior and behavioral condition using a tourist survey data and offers tourists the better time use for tourism activities based on the association found. The tool assumes that the realized tourism behavior reflects reasonable past choices under particular behavioral conditions regarding the time use. To this end, the paper employs sequence alignment methods and decision table techniques. Sequence alignment methods classify a variety of tourist visitation sequences into a small number of distinctive clusters of homogeneous visitation sequences. A visitation sequence is an ordered series of tourism activities that detail the visited sites, travel modes, accompanying person, etc. Decision table techniques associate such visitation clusters with behavioral conditions of individual characteristics and tourism contexts. Individual characteristics are the information fixed with each tourist, while tourism contexts describe a variety of situations that are subject to change at each time of tourism behavior such as for example weather and the number of alternative tourism activities. The resultant association is represented as decision rules. The paper collected the data of tourism behavior and behavioral conditions by surveying a total of 200 tourists visiting a popular tourist site, Byunsan Peninsula, in the south-west part of South Korea in 2018. The analysis results show that different behavioral conditions suggest different visitation clusters. Each visitation cluster is involved with a set of important conditions of individual characteristics and tourism contexts that are different from other visitation clusters. It is to note that the level of details of behavioral conditions also differs between visitation clusters. Some visitation clusters are more importantly associated with variable tourism contexts than fixed personal characteristics. This implies that even the same group of people may behave differently under different tourism contexts, whereas different characteristics under certain contexts induce similar visitation sequences. Tourism authority and tourism development business would make the best use of these analysis results for the sales boost.
3259
97219
Decision Rules to Determine the Cognitive Boundary of a Tourist Attraction
Abstract:
A tourist destination has many tourist attractions. A tourist attraction consists of a number of tourism facilities of various functions such as sightseeing, eating, shopping, sleeping, etc. If certain facilities are regarded by tourists as a part of the attraction, such facilities would invite more visitations and have higher sales. Not all facilities in the area of a tourist attraction, however, are regarded so. Why do tourists then regard some facilities as a part of the tourist attraction while not some others? On what basis is a facility regarded as part of the tourist attraction? Spatial centrality is not the absolute condition for it. Some restaurants at the center of a tourist attraction may not find tourists while some others rather peripheral in the area of the attraction may invite many tourists. This phenomenon occurs because tourists have certain cognitive rather than physical boundaries that determine which facilities are to be included in a given tour. The paper aims to derive cognition contexts from a set of decision rules that define conditions under which individual tourists consider a particular tourism facility as a part of the tourist attraction of concern. Tourists are assumed to apply a set of decision rules that define cognition contexts. These contexts determine each facility's belonging to the spatial boundary of the tourist attraction as a function of cognitive and behavioral variables. The list of these variables includes cognitive centrality in the attraction and cognitive functional association with the attraction, cognitive landmark iconizing the area of the attraction, tourism plan of the day, and socio-economic characteristics. Cognition contexts may not be formed linearly with the selected variables, but be induced by dynamic combinations of the variables in the form of decision rules. The data was collected in 2018 from tourists at the exits of Myong-dong area, a popular tourist attraction of Seoul, where individual tourists’ selective recognition of the place, inducing attraction boundary, is necessary due to its complex characteristics. About 250 tourists provide valid answers to the survey questions concerned with their cognition contexts, including their socio-economic characteristics and tourism plan of the day, landmark (if any) they know in Myong-dong area, and for each facility the functional association with Myong-dong tour. The tourists were also asked to recall the facilities from the entrance to the exit of Myong-dong area. The facilities recalled are likely only a subset of all facilities in the attraction and assumed to be regarded by the surveyed tourist as a part of the attraction. To confirm this, the tourists were once again asked if each recalled facility was originally included in the tourism plan of the day, impulsively included or even not really regarded as a part of the attraction. The analysis results indicate that tourists do have decision rules that make it obvious whether a certain facility belongs to the attraction boundary. The implication of the results is paramount to tourism planning and development.
3258
94083
Social Enterprise Strategies for Financial Sustainability in the Economic Literature
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Abstract:
Due to persistent socioeconomic problems regarding sustainability and labour market equilibrium in Europe, the subjects of social economy gained considerable academic attention recently. At the meantime, social enterprises pursuing the double bottom line criteria, struggling to find the proper management philosophies and strategies to make their social purpose business financially sustainable. Despite the strategic management literature was developed mainly on the bases of large corporations, in the past years, the interpretation of strategy concepts became a frequent topic in scientific discussions in the case of small and medium-sized enterprises also. The topic of strategic orientations is a good example of the trend. However, less is known about the case of social enterprises, despite the fact, the majority of them are small businesses engaged in real business activities. The main purpose of this work is to give a comprehensive summary of different perspectives regarding the interpretations of strategic orientations of social enterprises. The novelty of this work is it shows the previous outcomes and models of scholars from various fields of economic science who tried to intertwine the two spheres in different forms, methodize the findings and draw attention to the shortcomings.
3257
97376
Understanding Natural Resources Governance in Canada: The Role of Institutions, Interests, and Ideas in Alberta's Oil Sands Policy
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Abstract:
As a federal state, Canada’s constitutional arrangements regarding the management of natural resources is unique because it gives complete ownership and control of natural resources to the provinces (subnational level). However, the province of Alberta—home to the third largest oil reserves in the world—lags behind comparable jurisdictions in levying royalties on oil corporations, especially oil sands royalties. While Albertans own the oil sands, scholars have argued that natural resource exploitation in Alberta benefits corporations and industry more than it does Albertans. This study provides a systematic understanding of the causal factors affecting royalties in Alberta to map dynamics of power and how they manifest themselves during policy-making. Mounting domestic and global public pressure led Alberta to review its oil sands royalties twice in less than a decade through public-commissioned Royalty Review Panels, first in 2007 and again in 2015. The Panels’ task was to research best practices and to provide policy recommendations to the Government through public consultations with Albertans, industry, non-governmental organizations, and First Nations peoples. Both times, the Panels recommended a relative increase to oil sands royalties. However, irrespective of the Reviews’ recommendations, neither the right-wing 2007 Progressive Conservative Party (PC) nor the left-wing 2015 New Democratic Party (NDP) government—both committed to increase oil sands royalties—increased royalty intake. Why did two consecutive political parties at opposite ends of the political spectrum fail to account for the recommendations put forward by the Panel? Through a qualitative case-study analysis, this study assesses domestic and global causal factors for Alberta’s inability to raise oil sands royalties significantly after the two Reviews through an institutions, interests, and ideas framework. Indeed, causal factors can be global (e.g. market and price fluctuation) or domestic (e.g. oil companies’ influence on the Alberta government). The institutions, interests, and ideas framework is at the intersection of public policy, comparative studies, and political economy literatures, and therefore draws multi-faceted insights into the analysis. To account for institutions, the study proposes to review international trade agreements documents such as the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) because they have embedded Alberta’s oil sands into American energy security policy and tied Canadian and Albertan oil policy in legal international nods. To account for interests, such as how the oil lobby or the environment lobby can penetrate governmental decision-making spheres, the study draws on the Oil Sands Oral History project, a database of interviews from government officials and oil industry leaders at a pivotal time in Alberta’s oil industry, 2011-2013. Finally, to account for ideas, such as how narratives of Canada as a global ‘energy superpower’ and the importance of ‘energy security’ have dominated and polarized public discourse, the study relies on content analysis of Alberta-based pro-industry newspapers to trace the prevalence of these narratives. By mapping systematically the nods and dynamics of power at play in Alberta, the study sheds light on the factors that influence royalty policy-making in one of the largest industries in Canada.
3256
95395
An Analysis on Aid for Migrants: A Descriptive Analysis on Official Development Assistance During the Migration Crisis
Abstract:
Migration has recently become a mainstream development sector and is currently at the forefront in institutional and civil society context. However, no consensus exists on how the link between migration and development operates, that is how development is related to migration and how migration can promote development. On one hand, Official Development Assistance is recognized to be one of the levers to development. On the other hand, the debate is focusing on what should be the scope of aid programs targeting migrants groups and in general the migration process. This paper provides a descriptive analysis on how development aid for migration was allocated in the recent past, focusing on the actions that were funded and implemented by the international donor community. In the absence of an internationally shared methodology for defining the boundaries of development aid on migration, the analysis based on lexical hypotheses on the title or on the short description of initiatives funded by several Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Moreover, the research describes and quantifies aid flows for each country according to different criteria. The terms migrant and refugee are used to identify the projects in accordance with the most internationally agreed definitions and only actions in countries of transit or of origin are considered eligible, thus excluding the amount sustained for refugees in donor countries. The results show that the percentage of projects targeting migrants, in terms of amount, has followed a growing trend from 2009 to 2016 in several European countries, and is positively correlated with the flows of migrants. Distinguishing between programs targeting migrants and programs targeting refugees, some specific national features emerge more clearly. A focus is devoted to actions targeting the root causes of migration, showing an inter-sectoral approach in international aid allocation. The analysis gives some tentative solutions to the lack of consensus on language on migration and development aid, and emphasizes the need to internationally agree on a criterion for identifying programs targeting both migrants and refugees, to make action more transparent and in order to develop effective strategies at the global level.
3255
95464
The Role of British Public Opinion in the Process of the Great Britain’s Involvement in the Crimean War
Abstract:
As a result of the policies constituted and pursued by Russia which aimed to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense, Crimean War broke out in 1853. Nevertheless, the Eastern policies of Russia were in contradiction with the interests of Great Britain which was the great power of the era. Yet, it did hesitate to be confronted with Russian on its route to India, so the Ottoman territorial integrity was defended. In that period, Tzar Nicholas II, to begin with, tried to eliminate a probable opposition coming from the British side, and then tried its chance to build up cooperation with Britain on the territories of the sick man. As a more positive relation was being observed between these two states before the Crimean War, Great Britain initially had adopted a neutral policy. However, in the end, Britain entered the war against Russia due to the efforts of the opposing side in the British Parliament and the rising pressure of the public opinion. The article aims to examine the role of British public opinion in the process of Great Britain’s Involvement in this war. Also, the article will try to find an answer to the following question: to what extent did the public opinion become effective on the foreign policy-making of Great Britain before the war?
3254
96227
Mothers and Moneymakers: A Case Study of How Citizen-Women Shape U.S. Marriage Migration Politics Online
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Abstract:
Social media, internet technology, and affordable travel have created avenues like tourism and internet chatrooms for Western women to meet foreign partners without paid, third-party intermediaries in regions like the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) and Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where men from mid-level developing countries meet and marry Western women and try to relocate. Foreign nationals who marry U.S. citizens have an expedited track to naturalization. U.S. immigration officials require that “green card” petitioning couples demonstrate that their relationships are “valid and subsisting” (i.e., for love) and not fraudulent (i.e., for immigration papers). These requirements are ostensibly gender- and racially-neutral, but migration itself is not; black and white women petitioners who seek partners from these regions and solicit advice from similar others about the potential obstacles to their petitions’ success online. Using an online ethnography and textual analysis of conversation threads on a large on-line immigration forum where U.S. petitioners exchange such information, this study examines how gendered and racialized standards of legitimacy are applied to family and sexuality and used discursively online among women petitioners differently to achieve “genuineness” and define “red flags” indicating potential marriage fraud. This paper argues that forum-women members police immigration requests even before cases reach an immigration officer, and use this social media platform to reconstruct gendered and racialized hierarchies of U.S. citizenship. Women petitioners use the formal criteria of U.S. immigration in ways that reveal gender and racial ideologies, expectations for conformity to a gendered hegemonic family ideal, and policing of women’s sexual agency, fertility, and desirability. These intersectional norms shape their online discussions about the suitability of marriages and of the migration of non-citizen male partners of color to the United States.
3253
96863
Descriptive Analysis of the Relationship between State and Civil Society in Hegel's Political Thought
Abstract:
Civil society is one of the most important concepts of the twentieth century and even so far. Modern and postmodern thinkers have provided different definitions of civil society. Of course, the concept of civil society has undergone many changes over time. The relationship between government and civil society is one of the relationships that attracted the attention of many contemporary thinkers. Hegel, the thinker we discussed in this article also explores the relationship between these concepts and emphasizing the dialectical method, he has drawn three lines between family, state, and civil society. In Hegel's view, the creation of civil society will lead to a reduction of social conflict and increased social cohesion. The importance of the issue is due to the study of social cohesion and the ways to increase it. The importance of the issue is due to the study of social cohesion and the ways to increase it. This paper, which uses a descriptive-analytic method to examine Hegel's dialectical theory of civil society, after examining the relationship between the family and the state and finding the concept of civil society as the interface and the interconnected circle of these two, investigates tripartite economic, legal, and pluralistic systems. In this article, after examining the concepts of the market, the right and duty, the individual interests and the development of the exchange economy, Hegel's view is to examine the concept of freedom and its relation with civil society. The results of this survey show that, in Hegel's thought, the separation between the political system and the social system is a natural and necessary thing. In Hegel's view, because of those who are in society, they have selfish features; the community is in tension and contradiction. Therefore, the social realms within which conflicts emerge must be identified and controlled by specific mechanisms. It can also be concluded that the government can act to reduce social conflicts by legislating, using force or forming trade unions. The bottom line is that Hegel wants to reconcile between the individual, the state and civil society and it is not possible to rely on ethics.
3252
95997
Attention and Memory in the Music Learning Process in Individuals with Visual Impairments
Abstract:
Introduction: The influence of visual impairments on several cognitive processes used in the music learning process is an increasingly important area in special education and cognitive musicology. Many children have several visual impairments due to the refractive errors and irreversible inhibitors. However, based on the compensatory neuroplasticity and functional reorganization, congenitally blind (CB) and early blind (EB) individuals use several areas of the occipital lobe to perceive and process auditory and tactile information. CB individuals have greater memory capacity, memory reliability, and less false memory mechanisms are used while executing several tasks, they have better working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM). Blind individuals use several strategies while executing tactile and working memory n-back tasks: verbalization strategy (mental recall), tactile strategy (tactile recall) and combined strategies. Methods and design: The aim of the pilot study was to substantiate similar tendencies while executing attention, memory and combined auditory tasks in blind and sighted individuals constructed for this study, and to investigate attention, memory and combined mechanisms used in the music learning process. For this study eight (n=8) blind and eight (n=8) sighted individuals aged 13-20 were chosen. All respondents had more than five years music performance and music learning experience. In the attention task, all respondents had to identify pitch changes in tonal and randomized melodic pairs. The memory task was based on the mismatch negativity (MMN) proportion theory: 80 percent standard (not changed) and 20 percent deviant (changed) stimuli (sequences). Every sequence was named (na-na, ra-ra, za-za) and several items (pencil, spoon, tealight) were assigned for each sequence. Respondents had to recall the sequences, to associate them with the item and to detect possible changes. While executing the combined task, all respondents had to focus attention on the pitch changes and had to detect and describe these during the recall. Results and conclusion: The results support specific features in CB and EB, and similarities between late blind (LB) and sighted individuals. While executing attention and memory tasks, it was possible to observe the tendency in CB and EB by using more precise execution tactics and usage of more advanced periodic memory, while focusing on auditory and tactile stimuli. While executing memory and combined tasks, CB and EB individuals used passive working memory to recall standard sequences, active working memory to recall deviant sequences and combined strategies. Based on the observation results, assessment of blind respondents and recording specifics, following attention and memory correlations were identified: reflective attention and STM, reflective attention and periodic memory, auditory attention and WM, tactile attention and WM, auditory tactile attention and STM. The results and the summary of findings highlight the attention and memory features used in the music learning process in the context of blindness, and the tendency of the several attention and memory types correlated based on the task, strategy and individual features.
3251
96053
Surveyed Emotional Responses to Musical Chord Progressions Imbued with Binaural Pulsations
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Applications of the binaural sound experience are wide-ranged. This paper focuses on the interaction between binaural tones and human emotion with an aim to apply the resulting knowledge artistically. For the purpose of this study, binaural music is defined as musical arrangements of sound which are made of combinations of binaural difference tones. Here, the term ‘binaural difference tone’ refers to the pulsating tone heard within the brain which results from listening to slightly differing audio frequencies or pure pitches in each ear. The frequency or tempo of the pulsations is the sum of the precise difference between the frequencies two tones and is measured in beats per second. Polyrhythmic pulsations that can be heard within combinations of these differences tones have shown to be able to entrain or tune brainwave patterns to frequencies which have been linked to mental states which can be characterized by different levels of attention and mood.
3250
96342
Emergency Risk Communication in Mass Gatherings: Interacting with Crowds
Abstract:
Mass gatherings are vulnerable events. Dense concentration of attendees from different countries, high visibility, event popularity, public attention, media coverage and VIPs participation pose the potential of security threats for the crowds. In this scenario, an effective communication is of prime importance for running an event smoothly and safely. Emergency Risk Communication is a social process, aiming at preventing and mitigating harm caused by critical situations. In case of mass gatherings, it consists in preparing the people attending the event and disseminating safety and security information both in the pre-event and the execution phases. It also includes the communication capabilities of who is in charge of interacting with the crowd (e.g. event organizers, Law Enforcement Agencies – LEAs) to understand the target audience and their socio-cultural characteristics, deliver effective messages and enable a two-way dialogue with the public. The aim is to reach a common understanding of the message and the on-going situation, in other terms a shared experience of what is happening. This is not an obvious scope, especially in case of international events, where multicultural crowds are expected to come and many different socio-cultural factors filter the communication and the mutual comprehension. This paper presents the main results of a study aiming at providing a human-centred toolkit to LEAs for the security and protection of CROWDs in mass gatherings. It comprises the development of guidelines to communicate with multicultural crowds. The process for building-up them included the analysis of the existing LEAs’ communication procedures, a workshop and qualitative interviews with LEAs involved in LETSCROWD. Data collection aimed at identifying communication practices currently applied to different types of mass gatherings, unsatisfied needs and gaps concerning communication with crowds and socio-cultural issues affecting the communication. Major findings concern the influence of the people’s social identity (i.e. large group identity; subgroup membership/ belongingness; transitory belongingness shared by people attending a specific event in a given time and place) and cultural background on the communication process. These elements filter the understanding of verbal messages (e.g. public announcements in the event venue) and signs comprehension (i.e. safety signs; hand code). LEAs usually are not trained in this domain. Also socio-cultural aspects are not taken into account when communication measures and solutions are developed. The LETSCROWD communication guidelines - to which this paper refers – try to address this issue and presents an overview of the existing communication measures applied by a number of LEAs in different countries.
3249
97106
Experiments to Improve Disaster Relief Services in Korea Focusing on Temporary Housing Facilities and Relief Goods
Abstract:
Under the Disaster Relief Law, the government has provided temporary housing facilities and relief goods (daily necessities such as food, clothing, bedding), medical services, prevention of epidemics, hygiene guidance, funeral services and psychological recovery, and protect the victims and contribute to the stability of their lives. It is necessary to provide customized relief service that reflects comprehensive policy judgment and personal characteristics of victims in order to actively assist the victims of the disaster. The purpose of this study is to find ways to improve the prefabricated temporary housing facilities and disaster relief items, which are provided at the early stage of the disaster. For this purpose, this study conducted experiment on prefabricated temporary housing facilities and disaster relief goods. Experiments were conducted by a participant living with a disaster relief item(emergency relief sets, catering relief sets) in a temporary housing facility for a day or a week. Experiment participants investigate (I) appropriate space review of prefabricated temporary housing facilities, (II) complaints about furnishings and fixtures of prefabricated temporary housing facilities, and (III) the relief items to be added or improved. A total of 70 participants (43 males, 27 females) participated in the questionnaire survey and additional interviews. As a result of the experiment, most of the experimenters felt that the inside and outside of the temporary residence were comparatively clean, but some were mistakenly handled, and the high porch and narrow restroom made the actual life uncomfortable. In addition, it is vulnerable to security, crime prevention and soundproofing, and is somewhat dangerous and uneasy for the elderly, children and women to use. Regarding the space of the prefabricated temporary residential facility, there was not a minimum of furniture and fixtures, and they complained about the inconvenience of living such as eating on the floor and storing the goods in the relief set box. Household appliances to be installed in the prefabricated temporary housing facilities are in the order of refrigerator, TV, radio, table, microwave oven, etc. Next, we used the IPA (Importance-Performance Analysis) analysis, which compares the user's satisfaction and importance for each attribute simultaneously in order to improve the disaster relief items. As a result of the analysis, the pillow, mattress, toilet soap, clothing, and underwear were the main items to be improved in the emergency relief set. In the set of culinary relief, gas stove, butane gas, and rice were derived as the items that should be improved most. Currently, the relief supplies to disaster victims are based on flood damage and are inadequate for various types of disaster, and do not reflect the needs of various types of victims, such as the elderly or the disabled. In the future, continuous research should be conducted to provide relief goods or services considering disaster type or characteristics of victims.
3248
97233
Suggestion on Efficient Evacuation Information through Experiment of Road Surface Information
Abstract:
Due to the nature of the earthquake, if the initial evacuation can’t be made smoothly, there is a high possibility that additional person name damage will occur due to aftershocks and the like. 2016 After the 9.12 earthquake, the provision for designation of earthquake evacuation centers and facility signs has been established, but there is a limit to the evacuation route transmission. Facility signs only convey information such as outdoor evacuation centers and indoor evacuation centers and do not provide information on evacuation routes such as the direction and distance of evacuation centers. Therefore, in this research, we conducted experiments to derive the optimum evacuation information offering bill for the purpose of prompt and smooth evacuation support. The experiment proceeded to the 1.3 km section in September 2017 and analyzed the effectiveness of evacuation guidance through setting up the road surface of evacuation information guide board. The effectiveness of road guidance has analyzed the evacuation rate increase rate, route withdrawal rate, evacuation information reliability of the test subject, and confirmed the visibility of evacuation guidance information using an eye tracker. Also, we measured evacuation completion time to outdoor evacuation centers and measured evacuation effect. The experiment progressed by providing road surface evacuation information at 20m, 40m intervals, and composed of 20 persons participating in the experiment. As a result, when evacuation information was provided to the road surface at 40 m intervals, it was found that evacuation was completed in the shortest time on the optimum evacuation route without departing from the path. It is judged that the evacuation information on the road surface is more effective for evacuation guidance than existing evacuation information means. Also, the average evacuation completion tie and the evacuation success rate are closely related, and it is understood that evacuation information transmission means is very important for quick evacuation. The most important thing when an earthquake occurs is to evacuate residents within the affected area to a safe place. Securing evacuation routes that can safely and quickly move to safe areas and provide adequate evacuation information will reduce damage and are very important conditions. Measures for safe evacuation route guidance are needed through minimizing disruption of people at the time of earthquake occurrence through the fabrication of Road evacuation information and experiment results conducted in this research.
3247
97248
Research on the Development of Administrative Manuals for Earthquake Evacuation Shelters
Abstract:
The earthquake in Pohang(Korea) 2017 caused many evacuees and evacuation shelters. So on the day of the earthquake, temporary evacuees and victims of the earthquake gathered at evacuation shelters and overcrowded their storage spaces, causing a shortage of toilet and lavatory facilities. In addition, the noise caused by the absence of the active space for infants and children, caused conflict within the evacuation shelters. In addition, it was not possible to provide the services required by students and children as an adult standard article and a meal provision. Psychological and medical support was also provided in an open space, and due to the invasion of privacy and noise from the surrounding areas, support and consultation could not be carried out smoothly, and the victims felt a psychological burden. Therefore, in this study, based on actual cases of operation of evacuation shelters, important items and contents to be applied to the standards were derived for the purpose of developing the management and operation standards of earthquake evacuation shelters. It is a prerequisite to have a washroom, toilet, and air conditioning available in order to establish an earthquake shelter. To preferentially set up a place having a wide space such as a gymnasium suitable for accommodating victims because a sufficient space for temporarily evacuees or the victims to live is required. In addition, when operating an earthquake shelter, a toilet and a washroom should be provided so that a simple washroom can be used. And It is necessary to secure additional incidental facilities in anticipation of long-term living in shelters and shortages of facilities. After the opening of the earthquake evacuation center, it is necessary to deal with disaster registration, provision of meal and articles, establishment of Information Counter, medical and insurance support, information transmission, placement of volunteers, establishment of a consultation, provision of welfare support service, privacy protection and security according to time series.
3246
95895
Deconstructing Reintegration Services for Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Feminist Analysis of Australian and Thai Government and Non-Government Responses
Abstract:
Awareness of the tragedy that is human trafficking has increased exponentially over the past two decades. The four pillars widely recognised as global solutions to the problem are prevention, prosecution, protection, and partnership between government and non-government organisations. While ‘sex-trafficking’ initially received major attention, this focus has shifted to other industries that conceal broader experiences of exploitation. However, within the regions of focus for this study, namely Australia and Thailand, trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation remains the commonly uncovered narrative of criminal justice investigations. In these regions anti-trafficking action is characterised by government-led prevention and prosecution efforts; whereas protection and reintegration practices have received criticism. Typically, non-government organisations straddle the critical chasm between policy and practice; therefore, they are perfectly positioned to contribute valuable experiential knowledge toward understanding how both sectors can support survivors in the post-trafficking experience. The aim of this research is to inform improved partnerships throughout government and non-government post-trafficking services by illuminating gaps in protection and reintegration initiatives. This research will explore government and non-government responses to human trafficking in Thailand and Australia, in order to understand how meaning is constructed in this context and how the construction of meaning effects survivors in the post-trafficking experience. A qualitative, three-stage methodology was adopted for this study. The initial stage of enquiry consisted of a discursive analysis, in order to deconstruct the broader discourses surrounding human trafficking. The data included empirical papers, grey literature such as publicly available government and non-government reports, and anti-trafficking policy documents. The second and third stages of enquiry will attempt to further explore the findings of the discourse analysis and will focus more specifically on protection and reintegration in Australia and Thailand. Stages two and three will incorporate process observations in government and non-government survivor support services, and semi-structured interviews with employees and volunteers within these settings. Two key findings emerged from the discursive analysis. The first exposed conflicting feminist arguments embedded throughout anti-trafficking discourse. Informed by conflicting feminist discourses on sex-work, a discursive relationship has been constructed between sex-industry policy and anti-trafficking policy. In response to this finding, data emerging from the process observations and semi-structured interviews will be interpreted using a feminist theoretical framework. The second finding progresses from the construction in the first. The discursive construction of sex-trafficking appears to have had influence over perceptions of the legitimacy of survivors, and therefore the support they receive in the post-trafficking experience. For example; women who willingly migrate for employment in the sex-industry, and on arrival are faced with exploitative conditions, are not perceived to be deserving of the same support as a woman who is not coerced, but rather physically forced, into such circumstances, yet both meet the criteria for a victim of human trafficking. The forthcoming study is intended to contribute toward building knowledge and understanding around the implications of the construction of legitimacy; and contextualise this in reference to government led protection and reintegration support services for survivors in the post-trafficking experience.
3245
96715
A Qualitative Study of Knowledge Sharing in the Workplace: The Role of Trust, Interest and Power
Abstract:
Employees’ professional knowledge is increasingly seen as a primary organizational resource. The effective management of this resource is an important challenge in today’s organizations, where the sharing of knowledge between individuals and groups of employees is essential to the long-term sustainability and success of organizations. The aim of this study is to explore the factors that promote or impede the process of knowledge sharing between individuals, groups and departments. The empirical base for the study comprises interviews with employees about their experiences of knowledge sharing in the workplace, and about how the interpersonal context influences the distribution of knowledge. A constant comparative analysis revealed three categories that describe rationales of knowledge sharing: (1) trust, (2) interest and (3) power. To employees, trust is the foundation for sharing knowledge, and for some employees, the interpersonal context does not have qualities to help them meet this basic requirement. Furthermore, interest is found to be a double-edged sword. The organization encourages knowledge sharing. At the same time, employees find themselves in a competitive situation and only share knowledge when colleagues are willing and able to provide knowledge that adds to the situation at hand in ways that fulfill the interests of both parties. Power is also a rationale of knowledge sharing since knowledge is found to be closely connected to power. For example, experienced employees are reluctant to share knowledge with new colleagues, and the new colleagues understand this as a way of consolidating the power relations within the department. All three categories describe how the interpersonal context promotes or impedes the sharing of knowledge in the workplace. Furthermore, the categories describe how knowledge sharing is a key to the creation, dissemination and management of knowledge at all levels within the organization. The findings implies that knowledge sharing can be understood as a social interaction culture involving the exchange of employee knowledge, experiences and skills within departments and between departments within an organization.
3244
79593
The Image of Egypt in CNN, BBC and Al Jazeera News Channels in Terms of Democracy, Economic Status and Stability
Abstract:
Egypt has been the focus of international media since 2011 revolution and its repercussions. By the end of 2017, President Abdel Fattah El Sisi will have finished his first term of presidency. With an upcoming presidential election, all eyes are returning back to Egypt as there are speculations about whether the current regime will uphold or change points in the constitution determining the years of presidency term and the allowed number or reelections. In this paper, the researcher examines the reports related to Egypt in three international news channels with different ideologies. The research aims to identify the frames used to portray major issues in Egypt like the economic struggle, democracy levels and stability and safety of the country. All available reports from these three channels in 2017 on YouTube were analyzed which is the year before the presidential elections.
3243
96259
Analyzing Social Media Network’s Roles: A Study of the Main Speakers, Linkers, Sources, Mediators, and Influencers of K-Pop’s BTS on Twitter
Abstract:
Social media platforms like Twitter can give users the power to influence the people who are connected to their network. This study provides a meaningful insight about the users’ powerful influence in a digital world on which anybody could perform any roles such the sources and influencers- anyone has the freedom to play a role in a network. On the other hand, traditional media is a one-way broadcasting system that is controlled through gatekeeping of messages- the roles are predetermined. A big data network analysis using the NodeXL program was used to identify the ‘who’ plays a role of a speaker, linker, influencer, mediator, and source of one of the most successful K-pop boy bands, the BTS on Twitter. There are three datasets conducted in determining the roles on a social media network: BTS AMAS’ international debut performance, the release of BTS’s Mic Drop song, and the BTS’s online program- Bantang Bomb. Results indicate that the main speakers, linkers, sources, mediators, and influencers have similar entities- the celebrities, media, fans and music producers, however, the fans emerged as the main linkers of BTS in all three category events while celebrities and media are the main influencers. Based on these findings, we present valuable insight on how these roles affect the success of the band in the contexts of fandom, para-social relationship and stakeholders of social media. Also, the important implications of the users’ roles in a network have been discussed for future research on the changing of roles on social media.
3242
96181
Gendering the Political Crisis in Hong Kong: A Cultural Analysis of Spectatorship on Marvel Superhero Movies in Hong Kong
Authors:
Abstract:
Marvel superhero movies have obtained its unprecedented popularity around the globe. It is a dominant narrative in current scholarship on superhero studies that the political trauma of America, such as attack of September 11, and the masculinity represented in superhero genre are symbolically connected in a way of remasculinization, a standardized plot that before becoming a superhero, a man has to overcome its trauma in his life. Through this standardized plot, American audience finds their pleasure in the spectatorship of equating this plot of remasculinization with the situation of America, rewriting their traumatic memory and resolving around the economic, social, political, and psychological instability of precarity in their own context. Shifting the context to Hong Kong, where Marvel superhero movies have been reaching its dominant status in the local film market, this analysis finds its limitation in explaining the connection between text and context. This article aims to retain this connection through investigation of the Hong Kong audience’s spectatorship. It is argued that the masculinity represented in Marvel superhero movies no longer fits into the stereotypical image of superhero, but presents itself in crisis. This crisis is resolved by the technological excess of the superpower, namely, technological remasculinization. The technological remasculinization offers a sense of futurity through which it is felt that this remasculinization can be achieved in the foreseeable future instead of remaining imaginary and fictional. In this way, the political crisis of Hong Kong is gendered as masculinity in crisis which is worth being remasculinized in the future. This gendering process is a historical product as the symbolic equation between politics and masculinity has for long been encoded in the colonial history of Hong Kong. In short, Marvel superhero’s masculinity offers a sense of masculine hope for the Hong Kong audiences to overcome the political crisis they confront in reality through a postponed identification with the superhero’s masculinity. After the discussion of the Hong Kong audience’s spectatorship on Marvel superhero movies with the insights casted by spectatorship theory, above idea is generated.
3241
86432
The Paradox of Decentralization and Civic Culture: An Exploratory Study Applied to Local Governments in Papua New Guinea
Abstract:
Since gaining independence in 1975, Papua New Guinea`s core challenge has been the consolidation of democracy against a backdrop of enormous social, political and territorial diversity. Consequently, the government has implemented several political reforms including decentralization. Constitutional planners believed that national unity, would be better achieved by sharing state power over centralization. They anticipated that this would institutionalize a democratic civic culture by providing opportunities to groups and individuals to make political decisions within their jurisdiction. This would then eventually lead to confidence and participation in the larger entity of the state. In retrospect, civil society and community based groups are largely underrated and have had minimal influence on decisions at the local level, consequently contributing to nepotism, patronism and cynicism. By applying an elitist approach to analyze how national political leaders exert their influence and power within the local government system and local communities, this paper argues that decentralization has fragmented local communities. With an absence of political party roots and deeply divided ethnic groups, national political leaders have used divide and rule tactics resulting in mistrust among citizens. Through their influence and power within local governments to dictate projects and services to certain areas, this has resulted in skepticism and divisions among civil society along different cultural cleavages. This has been a contributing factor to anomalies in democratic consolidation and democratic political culture in Papua New Guinea.
3240
94837
Fluctuations in Radical Approaches to State Ownership of the Means of Production Over the Twentieth Century
Authors:
Abstract:
The recent financial crisis in 2008 and the growing inequality in developed industrial societies would appear to present significant challenges to capitalism and the free market. Yet there have been few substantial mainstream political or economic challenges to the dominant capitalist and market paradigm to-date. There is no dearth of critical and theoretical (academic) analyses regarding the prevailing systems failures. Yet despite the growing inequality in the developed industrial societies and the financial crisis in 2008 few commentators have advocated the comprehensive socialization or state ownership of the means of production to our knowledge – a core principle of radical Marxism in the 19th and early part of the 20th century. Undoubtedly the experience in the Soviet Union and satellite countries in the 20th century has cast a dark shadow over the notion of centrally controlled economies and state ownership of the means of production. In this paper, we explore the history of a doctrine advocating the socialization or state ownership of the means of production that was central to Marxism and socialism generally. Indeed this doctrine provoked an intense and often acrimonious debate especially for left-wing parties throughout the 20th century. The debate within the political economy tradition has historically tended to divide into a radical and a revisionist approach to changing or reforming capitalism. The radical perspective views the conflict of interest between capital and labor as a persistent and insoluble feature of a capitalist society and advocates the public or state ownership of the means of production. Alternatively, the revisionist perspective focuses on issues of distribution rather than production and emphasizes the possibility of compromise between capital and labor in capitalist societies. Over the 20th century, the radical perspective has faded and even the social democratic revisionist tradition has declined in recent years. We conclude with the major challenges that confront both the radical and revisionist perspectives in the development of viable policy agendas in mature developed democratic societies. Additionally, we consider whether state ownership of the means of production still has relevance in the 21st century and to what extent state ownership is off the agenda as a political issue in the political mainstream in developed industrial societies. A central argument in the paper is that state ownership of the means of production is unlikely to feature as either a practical or theoretical solution to the problems of capitalism post the financial crisis among mainstream political parties of the left. Although the focus here is solely on the shifting views of the radical and revisionist socialist perspectives in the western European tradition the analysis has relevance for the wider socialist movement.
3239
95009
Capital vs. Labour in the Post-Industrial Information Age: A Marxist Analysis
Abstract:
In the third millennium AD, humanity has reached the phase of the Post-Industrial Information age. This age is characterized by the ubiquitous usage of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) in all aspects of social reality. ICTs are not just a tool for automation of social production but are qualitatively different from other preceding technologies. It can be understood that ICTs are situated at the cutting edge of current global capitalism. There is a danger that ICTs are enhancing capitalist consumerism by converting the 'complete human being' into the 'complete consumer'. In this information age, a paradoxical social reality characterized by geography without distance, history without time, value without weight and transactions without cash seems to be unfolding. The current 'Post-Fordist' mode of production is qualitatively different from the earlier Fordist mode of production. In this historical context it becomes imperative to understand the dialectical relation between capital and labour. Rather than the 'factory' being the locus of struggle between capital and labour, since service sector and white-collar work have become important, the locus of struggle between capital and labour has in some sense shifted to the 'office'. ICT based workers can currently be considered as a 'class-in-itself', rather than a 'class-for-itself'. A large proportion of the global workforce are increasingly working for the same transnational corporations. So, it is possible to some extent to unify the global proletariat under the soul stirring Marxist slogan 'workers of the world unite'. ICT enabled 'telework' changes the 'political economy of the home’, so that more surplus value can be extracted. ICTs have influenced the contestation of time between capital and labour that has been happening all through the history of capitalism. ‘Telework’ and flexible production have influenced workers powers of collective bargaining. There are new challenges in organizing workers in the gig economy. When the ontological roots of ICTs are situated within the neo-Marxist Habermasian framework of critical theory, its potential for human emancipation is understood. But on the contrary, there is also a danger that ICTs may end up as a tool to consolidate and strengthen the existing powers of the bourgeoisie. The Gramscian notion of hegemony and Althusser’s concept of ISA (Ideological State Apparatus) may be getting reinforced by ICTs for social reproduction of the capitalist relations of production. After engaging with such issues, this paper surmises that the nature of the relation between capital and labour in the post-industrial information age is qualitatively different from the earlier industrial age. But nevertheless, it concludes that the possibilities of labour getting into a more just relation with capital and in the process bring about a more equitable global social order still exists.
3238
93277
A Study of SocioEconomic Problems Faced by Labors in Brick Kiln: A Case Study of District Hyderabad (Rural)
Abstract:
The present study investigateyhs the socio-economic problems of the labors in Brick Kilns which are situated in the vicinities of district Hyderabad (Rural). Eighty three respondents from twenty five brick kilns were selected for interview. It is found that majority of the respondents was illiterate and never visited educational, technical and religious institutions. The economic categorization of the labors revealed that majority was categorized as ‘poorest of poor’ (living below poverty line), having semi-pacca houses, earning less than 10,000 rupees per month to manage their entire family. Due to very low income they spent least amount on education and health while more on food and utilities. The general problems reported by the labors are: poor quality of drinking water, no shelter at work place, child labor, low and late payment of wages, long working hours etc. Besides these, both male and female labors informed about misbehave and use of abusive language by the owner/manager, even few of them also complained about physical abuse. Stomach problem was found as common disease in men followed by Anemia whereas in women Anemia was ranked first followed by Backache.