International Science Index

International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering

Nutrient Removal and Microalgal Biomass Growth of Chlorella Vulgaris in Response to Centrate Wastewater Loadings
The effects of wastewater, with four different nutrient loadings, from synthetic centrate on biomass production of Chlorella vulgaris, nutrient removal, microalgal settling, and lipid production were investigated in photobioreactors under both batches and, subsequently, semi-continuous operations. At higher centrate concentration factors (17.2% and 36.2%), hydraulic retention time and pH adjustments could be employed to sustain acceptable microalgal growth rates and wastewater treatment. Similar nutrient removals efficiencies (>95%) and biomass production (0.42-0.51 g/L) were observed for the four centrate concentrations. Both the lipid productivity and lipid content decreased with increasing nutrient loading in the wastewater. The results also demonstrated that the mass ratio of carbohydrate to protein could provide a good indication of microalgal settling performance, rather than sole component composition or total extracellular polymeric substances.
Comparative Studies of Distributed and Aggregated Energy Storage Configurations in Direct Current Microgrids
Energy storage system (ESS) is an essential part of a microgrid (MG) because of its immense benefits to the economics and the stability of MG. For a direct current (DC) MG (DCMG) in which the generating units are mostly variable renewable energy generators, DC bus voltage fluctuation is inevitable; hence ESS is vital in managing the mismatch between load demand and generation. Besides, to accrue the maximum benefits of ESS in the microgrid, there is the need for proper sizing and location of the ESSs. In this paper, a performance comparison is made between two configurations of ESS; distributed battery energy storage system (D-BESS) and an aggregated (centralized) battery energy storage system (A-BESS), on the basis of stability and operational cost for a DCMG. The configuration consists of four households with rooftop PV panels and a wind turbine. The objective is to evaluate and analyze the technical efficiencies, cost effectiveness as well as controllability of each configuration. The MG is first modelled with MATLAB Simulink then, a mathematical model is used to determine the optimal size of the BESS that minimizes the total operational cost of the MG. The performance of the two configurations would be tested with simulations. The two configurations are expected to reduce DC bus voltage fluctuations, but in the cases of voltage stability and optimal cost, the best configuration performance will be determined at the end of the research. The work is in progress, and the result would help MG designers and operators to make the best decision on the use of BESS for DCMG configurations.
Hydrogen Production from Auto-Thermal Reforming of Ethanol Catalyzed by Tri-Metallic Catalyst
The increasing of the world energy demand makes today biomass an attractive energy source, based on the minimizing of CO2 emission and on the global warming reduction purposes. Recently, COP-21, the international meeting on global climate change, defined the roadmap for sustainable worldwide development, based on low-carbon containing fuel. Hydrogen is an energy vector able to substitute the conventional fuels from petroleum. Ethanol for hydrogen production represents a valid alternative to the fossil sources due to its low toxicity, low production costs, high biodegradability, high H2 content and renewability. Ethanol conversion to generate hydrogen by a combination of partial oxidation and steam reforming reactions is generally called auto-thermal reforming (ATR). The ATR process is advantageous due to the low energy requirements and to the reduced carbonaceous deposits formation. Catalyst plays a pivotal role in the ATR process, especially towards the process selectivity and the carbonaceous deposits formation. Bimetallic or trimetallic catalysts, as well as catalysts with doped-promoters supports, may exhibit high activity, selectivity and deactivation resistance with respect to the corresponding monometallic ones. In this work, NiMoCo/GDC, NiMoCu/GDC and NiMoRe/GDC (where GDC is Gadolinia Doped Ceria support and the metal composition is 60:30:10 for all catalyst) have been prepared by impregnation method. The support, Gadolinia 0.2 Doped Ceria 0.8, was impregnated by metal precursors solubilized in aqueous ethanol solution (50%) at room temperature for 6 hours. After this, the catalysts were dried at 100°C for 8 hours and, subsequently, calcined at 600°C in order to have the metal oxides. Finally, active catalysts were obtained by reduction procedure (H2 atmosphere at 500°C for 6 hours). All sample were characterized by different analytical techniques (XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, CHNS, H2-TPR and Raman Spectorscopy). Catalytic experiments (auto-thermal reforming of ethanol) were carried out in the temperature range 500-800°C under atmospheric pressure, using a continuous fixed-bed microreactor. Effluent gases from the reactor were analyzed by two Varian CP4900 chromarographs with a TCD detector. The analytical investigation focused on the preventing of the coke deposition, the metals sintering effect and the sulfur poisoning. Hydrogen productivity, ethanol conversion and products distribution were measured and analyzed. At 600°C, all tri-metallic catalysts show the best performance: H2 + CO reaching almost the 77 vol.% in the final gases. While NiMoCo/GDC catalyst shows the best selectivity to hydrogen whit respect to the other tri-metallic catalysts (41 vol.% at 600°C). On the other hand, NiMoCu/GDC and NiMoRe/GDC demonstrated high sulfur poisoning resistance (up to 200 cc/min) with respect to the NiMoCo/GDC catalyst. The correlation among catalytic results and surface properties of the catalysts will be discussed.
Reuse of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Fly Ash for the Synthesis of Zeolite: Effects of Different Operation Conditions
This study tries to reuse the fly ash of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) for the synthesis of zeolites. The fly ashes were treated with NaOH alkali fusion at different temperatures for 40 mins and then synthesized the zeolites with hydrothermal method at 105oC for different operation times. The effects of different operation conditions and the optimum synthesis parameters were explored. The specific surface area, surface morphology, species identification, adsorption capacity, and the reuse potentials of the synthesized zeolites were analyzed and evaluated. Experimental results showed that the optimum operation conditions for the synthesis of zeolite from the mixed fly ash were Si/Al=20, alkali/ash=1.5, alkali fusion reaction with NaOH at 800oC for 40 mins, hydrolysis with L/S=200 at 105oC for 24 hr, and hydrothermal synthesis at 105oC for 48 hr. The largest specific surface area of synthesized zeolite could be increased to 943.05m2/g. The influence of different operation parameters on the synthesis of zeolite from mixed fly ash followed the sequence of Si/Al > hydrolysis L/S> hydrothermal time > alkali fusion temperature > alkali/ash ratio. The XRD patterns of synthesized zeolites were identified to be similar with the ZSM-23 zeolite. The adsorption capacities of synthesized zeolite for pollutants were increased as rising the specific surface area of synthesized zeolite. In summary, MSWI fly ash can be treated and reused to synthesize the zeolite with high specific surface area by the alkali fusion and hydrothermal method. The zeolite can be reuse for the adsorption of various pollutants. They have great potential for development.
Study of Two Adsorbent-Refrigerant Pairs for the Application of Solar-Powered Adsorption Refrigeration System
This article presents a detailed study of two working pairs intended for use in solar adsorption refrigeration (SAR) system. The study was based on two indicators: the daily production and coefficient of performance (COP). The thermodynamic cycle of the system is based on the adsorption phenomena at a constant temperature. A computer simulation program has been developed for modeling and performance evaluation for the solar-powered adsorption refrigeration cycle. It was found that maximal cycled mass is obtained by S40/water (0.280kg/kg) followed by CarboTech C40/1/methanol (0.260kg/kg). At a condenser temperature of 30°C, with an adsorbent mass of 38.59 kg, and an integrated collector/bed configuration, the couple CarboTech C40/1/methanol for the ice-maker purpose can reach cycle COP of 0.63 and can produce about 13.6kg ice per day, while the couple S40/water for the air-conditioning can reach cycle COP of 0.66 and 212kg as daily cold-water production. Additionally, adequate indicators are evaluated addressing the economic and environmental associated with each working pair.
A Cheap Mesoporous Silica from Fly Ash as an Adsorbent for Sulfate in Water
This research describes the development of a very cheap mesoporous silica material similar to hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) and using a silicate extract as precursor. This precursor is obtained from cheap fly ash by an easy calcination process at 850 °C and a green extraction with water. The obtained mesoporous fly ash material had a surface area of 282 m2 g-1 and a pore size of 5.7 nm. It was functionalized with ethylene diamino moieties via the well-known SAMMS method, followed by a DRIFT analysis that clearly showed the successful functionalization. An excellent adsorbent was obtained for the adsorption of sulfate anions by the solid’s modification with copper forming a copper-ethylenediamine complex. The adsorption of sulfates was studied in a batch system ( experimental conditions: pH=8.0; 5 min). The kinetics data were adjusted according to a pseudo-second order model with a high coefficient of linear regression at different initial concentrations. The adsorption isotherm that best fitted the experimental data was the Freundlich model. The maximum sulfate adsorption capacity of this very cheap fly ash based adsorbent was 146.1 mg g-1, 3 times greater than the values reported in literature and commercial adsorbent materials.
Evaluation of the Impact of Pavement Roughness on Vehicle Emissions by HDM-4
Vehicular emissions have increased in recent years due to rapid growth in world traffic resulting in an increase in associated problems such as air pollution and climate change, therefore it’s necessary to control vehicle emissions. This study looks at the effect of road maintenance on vehicle emissions. The Highway Development and Management Tool (HDM-4) was used to find the effect of road maintenance on vehicle emissions. Key data collected were traffic volume and composition, vehicle characteristics, pavement characteristics and climate data of the study area. Two options were analysed using the HDM-4 software; the base case or do nothing while the second is overlay maintenance. The study also showed a strong correlation between average roughness and yearly emission levels in both the alternatives. Finally, the study showed that proper maintenance reduces the roughness and emissions.
The Effect Of Glass Thickness On Stresses In Vacuum Glazing
Heat transfer through multiple pane windows can be reduced by creating a vacuum less than 0.1 Pa between the glass panes minimising conductive and convective heat losses. Low emittance coatings on the internal surface reduce radiation between the glass panes to a low level. Fabrication of vacuum glazing requires formation of a hermetic seal around the periphery of the glass panes to maintain the vacuum. An array of support pillars between the panes prevents them from collapsing and touching under atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure and temperature differentials induce stresses in vacuum glazing which can affect the integrity of the glazing. A number of parameters define the stresses in vacuum glazing including the glass thickness, pillar specifications, glazing dimensions and edge seal design. In the design of vacuum glazing, careful consideration should be given to each of these parameters. Using thinner glass panes in the fabrication of vacuum glazing has several advantages. They are light and thin, making them suitable for retrofit to existing buildings. This is of particular importance in historical building windows which are usually single glazed i.e. the window rebate is too narrow to accommodate standard double glazing. In addition, research has shown that vacuum glazing smaller than 0.5m by 0.5m (suitable for Georgian style windows) made of thinner glass panes exhibits better thermal performance in comparison with those made of thicker panes. Inherent stresses in vacuum glazing can result in fracture of the glass panes and failure of the edge seal. The glass thickness can also affect the stress profile in vacuum glazing. In this study, vacuum glazing with varying glass thicknesses is theoretically studied using Finite Element Modelling (FEM), and stresses in the edge seal region and on the glass surface over the support pillars are determined. For comparison purposes the simulation has been undertaken on four glass thicknesses: 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm and 6 mm. The study showed that vacuum glazing (0.5m by 0.5m) made from 3 mm and 6 mm thick glass exhibits the largest (1.5×10-6) and smallest (3.9×10-7) tensile stresses respectively on the glass surface over support pillars. Support pillars in vacuum glazing made of thinner glass panes experience smaller principal stress in comparison with those of vacuum glazing made of thicker glass panes. The edge seal in vacuum glazing made from 3 mm and 6 mm thick glass panes experiences a maximum deformation of 21.6×10-3mm and 25×10-3mm, respectively. It has been demonstrated that due to the thermal expansion/contraction of glass there is a total shear stress of up to 598 and 308 on a support pillar near the edge seal of vacuum glazing made of 3 mm and 6 mm thick glass, respectively. The support pillar design must be able to accommodate this stress as well as the stresses imposed by atmospheric pressure. Based on the findings of this study, suggestions are made to address problems resulting from the use of thinner glass panes in the fabrication of vacuum glazing. This can lead to the development of high performance, light and thin vacuum glazing.
A Novel All-Solid-State Microsupercapacitor Based on Carbon Nanotube Sheets
Supercapacitors which are also known as ultra supercapacitors play a significant role in development of energy storage devices owing to their high power density and rate capability. Nobel research has been conducted on micro scale energy storage systems currently to address the demand for smaller wearable technology and portable devices. Improving the performance of these microsupercapacitors have been always a challenge. Here, we demonstrate a facile fabrication of a microsupercapacitor (MSC) with interdigitated electrodes using novel structure of carbon nanotube sheets which are spun directly from as-grown carbon nanotube forests. Stability and performance of the device was tested using an aqueous PVA-H3PO4 gel electrolyte that also offers desirable electrochemical capacitive properties. High Coulombic efficiency around 100%, great rate capability and excellent capacitance retention over 15,000 cycles were obtained. Capacitive performance greatly improved with surface modification with acid and nitrogen doping of the CNT sheets. The high power density and stable cycling performance make this microsupercapacitor a suitable candidate for verity of energy storage application.
Hybrid Dynamic Approach to Optimize the Impact of Shading Design and Control on Electrical Energy Demand
Applying motorized shades have substantial effect on reducing energy consumption in building sector. Moreover, the combination of motorized shades with lighting systems and PV panels can lead to considerable reduction in the energy demand of buildings. In this paper, a model is developed to assess and find an optimum combination from shade designs, lighting control systems (dimming and on/off) and implementing PV panels in shades point of view. It is worth mentioning that annual saving for all designs is obtained during hourly simulation of lighting, solar heat flux and electricity generation with the use of PV panel. From 12 designs in general, three designs, two lighting control systems and PV panel option is implemented for a case study. The results illustrate that the optimum combination causes a saving potential of per year.
Comparative Analysis of Local Acceptance of Renewable Energy Facilities and Spent Nuclear Fuel Repositories
Public deliberation committee on Shin-Gori Nuclear Reactors No. 5 & 6 in South Korea recently suggested policy recommendation in July 2017 including complementary measures for resumption of construction: 1) nuclear power generation reduction, 2) expansion of investment to increase proportion of renewable energy, 3) repositories of spent nuclear fuel. Even when constructing eco-friendly renewable energy facilities such as solar and wind power plants, local residents are opposed to construction of these facilities due to environmental pollution and health impacts. In order to transform eco-friendly energy, it is necessary to convert nuclear energy into renewable energy and to take measures to increase the acceptance of residents through the participation of citizens. Therefore, this study aims to compare the factors of local acceptance of renewable energy facilities and spent nuclear fuel repositories through literature review and in-depth interview. The results show that environmental and economic concerns, risk perceptions, sociality, demographic characteristics and subjective recognition types affect the local acceptance for spent nuclear fuel repository. The factors of local acceptance for renewable energy facilities are partially coincide with those for spent nuclear fuel repository. The results of this study will contribute to improving residents' acceptance and reducing conflicts when determining the location of facilities in the future.
Analysis of the Factors of Local Acceptance of Wind Power Generation Facilities
The government that declared 'de-nuclearization' pushes up renewable energy policies such as solar power and wind power as an alternative to nuclear power generation. However, local residents who are concerned about the development and natural disasters have been hit by opposition, and related businesses around the country are experiencing difficulties. There is also a voice saying that installing a large wind power generator will cause landslides, low frequencies and noise, which will have a bad influence. Renewal is only a harmful and disgusting facility for the residents. In this way, it is expected that extreme social conflicts will occur in the decision making process related to the locally unwanted land-use (LULU). The government's efforts to solve this problem have been steadily progressing, but the systematic methodology for bringing in active participation and opinion gathering of the residents has not yet been established except for the simple opinion poll or referendum. Therefore, it is time to identify the factors that concern the local residents about the wind power generation facilities, and to find ways to make policy decision-making possible. In this study, we analyze the perception of people about offshore and onshore wind power facilities through questionnaires or interviews, and examine quantitative and qualitative precedent studies to analyze them. In addition, the study evaluates what factors affect the local acceptance of wind power facilities. As a result of the factor analysis of the questionnaire items, factors affecting the residents' acceptance of the wind power facility were extracted from four factors such as environmental, economic, risk, social, and management factor. The study also found that the influence of the determinants of local acceptance on the regional acceptability differs according to the demographic characteristics such as gender and income level. This study will contribute to minimizing the conflict on the installation of wind power facilities through communication among the local residents.
Analysis of Conflict and Acceptance Factors on Water and Land Photovoltaic Facility
Photovoltaic facility occurs conflicts and disputes over environmental issues such as soil runoff, landscapes damage, and ecosystems damage. Because of these problems, huge social and economic cost occurred. The purpose of this study is to analyze resident‘s acceptability and conflict factors on the location of PV facilities, and suggest ways to promote resident’s acceptability and solutions for conflicts. Literature review, cases analysis, and expert interview on the acceptance and conflict factors related to the location of PV facilities are used to derive results. The results of this study are expected to contribute to the minimization of environmental impact and social conflict due to the development of renewable energy in the future.
Quantifying Groundwater-Lake Exchanges within Lake Malawi Using a Water Balance Approach and Darcy's Law
Groundwater is a key component of the water balance of many lake systems. Accurate quantification of the role of groundwater and understanding of its interaction with lake levels is essential for the sustainable use of water resources. While this is a widely established concept, recognised in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 and by approaches such as Integrated Water Resources Management and Conjunctive Water Use, groundwater-lake interaction is generally ignored in many water balance studies. Groundwater is often assumed to be negligible in relation to the other components and equated to zero. Although pertinent to all countries, this is a particularly crucial issue in developing countries where exponential population growth is placing increasing stress on water resources. In this paper, Lake Malawi is used as a case study to determine groundwater-lake interactions. Two methods were employed. First, a traditional water balance equation for the lake system was used. Data were available for the water balance components of precipitation, evaporation, surface runoff and change in lake storage, which allowed the residual groundwater component to be solved. Second, hydrogeological cross-sections around the lake boundary were developed, allowing Darcy’s equation to be used to estimate the groundwater flow to and from the lake. Use of multiple methods was deemed appropriate as quantification of this nature can vary depending on the method selected. The results show that the groundwater component of the water balance, which varies on an annual basis, ranges from 10 - 12% of the total annual inputs to the lake. Seasonal variations were also found, where the lake gained water from the surrounding aquifers in some months and lost water to them in others. Losses occurred immediately following the wet season and are considered substantial. Darcy’s estimates show that groundwater flow around the lake boundaries varies spatially. It is concluded that lake water balance studies should seek to quantify the exchange of groundwater with the lake on temporal and spatial scales. Failure to do so risks overestimation of the amount of lake water that can be sustainably used.
Food Waste Utilization: A Contemporary Prospect of Meeting Energy Crisis Using Microbial Fuel Cell
Increased production of food waste (FW) is a global issue that is receiving more attention due to its environmental and economic impacts. The generation of electricity from food waste, known as energy recovery, is one of the effective solutions in food waste management. Food waste has high energy content which seems ideal to achieve dual benefits in terms of energy recovery and waste stabilization. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising technology for treating food waste and generate electricity. In this work, we will review energy utilization from different kind of food waste using MFC and factors which affected the process. We have studied the key technology of energy generated from food waste using MFC to enhance the food waste management. The power density and electricity production by each kind of food waste and challenges were identified. This work explored the conversion of FW into energy from different type of food waste, which aim to provide a theoretical analysis for energy utilization of food waste.
Combustion Characteristics of Ionized Fuels for Battery System Safety
Many electronic devices are powered by various rechargeable batteries such as lithium-ion today, but occasionally the batteries undergo thermal runaway and cause fire, explosion, and other hazards. If a battery fire should occur in an electronic device of vehicle and aircraft cabin, it is important to quickly extinguish the fire and cool the batteries to minimize safety risks. Attempts to minimize these risks have been carried out by many researchers but the number of study on the successful extinguishment is limited. Because most rechargeable batteries are operated on the ion state with electron during charge and discharge of electricity, and the reaction of this electrolyte has a big difference with normal combustion. Here, we focused on the effect of ions on reaction stability and pollutant emissions during combustion process. The other importance for understanding ionized fuel combustion could be found in high efficient and environment-friendly combustion technologies, which are used to be operated an extreme condition and hence results in unintended flame instability such as extinction and oscillation. The use of electromagnetic energy and non-equilibrium plasma is one of the way to solve the problems, but the application has been still limited because of lack of excited ion effects in the combustion process. Therefore, the understanding of ion role during combustion might be promised to the energy safety society including the battery safety. In this study, the effects of an ionized fuel on the flame stability and pollutant emissions were experimentally investigated in the hydrocarbon jet diffusion flames. The burner used in this experiment consisted of 7.5 mm diameter tube for fuel and the gaseous fuels were ionized with the ionizer (SUNJE, SPN-11). Methane (99.9% purity) and propane (commercial grade) were used as a fuel and open ambient air was used as an oxidizer. As the performance of ionizer used in the experiment was evaluated at first, ion densities of both propane and methane increased linearly with volume flow rate but the ion density of propane is slightly higher than that of methane. The results show that the overall flame stability and shape such as flame length has no significant difference even in the higher ion concentration. However, the fuel ionization affects to the pollutant emissions such as NOx and soot. NOx and CO emissions measured in post flame region decreased with increasing fuel ionization, especially at high fuel velocity, i.e. high ion density. TGA analysis and morphology of soot by TEM indicates that the fuel ionization makes soot to be matured.
Liquid Fuel Production via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Oil
Pyrolysis of waste oil is an effective process to produce high-quality liquid fuels. In this work, pyrolysis experiments of waste oil over Y zeolite were carried out in a semi-batch reactor under a flow of nitrogen at atmospheric pressure and at different reaction temperatures (350-450°C). The products were gas, liquid fuel, and residue. Only liquid fuel was further characterized its composition and properties by using gas chromatography, thermogravimetric analyzer, and bomb calorimeter. Experimental results indicated that the pyrolysis reaction temperature significantly affected on both yield and composition distribution of pyrolysis oil. An increase in reaction temperature resulted in increased fuel yield, especially gasoline fraction. To obtain high amount of fuel, the optimal reaction temperature should be higher than 350°C. A presence of Y zeolite in the system enhanced the cracking activity. In addition, the pyrolysis oil yield is proportional to the catalyst quantity.
Pyrolysis and Combustion Kinetics of Palm Kernel Shell Using Thermogravimetric Analysis
The combustion and pyrolysis behavior of Palm Kernel Shell (PKS) were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer. A 10 mg sample of each biomass was heated from 30 °C to 800 °C at four heating rates (within 5, 10, 15 and 30 °C/min) in nitrogen and dry air flow of 20 ml/min instead of pyrolysis and combustion process respectively. During pyrolysis, thermal decomposition occurred on three different stages include dehydration, hemicellulose-cellulose and lignin decomposition on each temperature range. The TG/DTG curves showed the degradation behavior and the pyrolysis/combustion characteristics of the PKS samples which led to apply in thermogravimetric analysis. The kinetic factors including activation energy and pre-exponential factor were determined by the Coats-Redfern method. The obtained kinetic factors are used to simulate the thermal decomposition and compare with experimental data. Rising heating rate leads to shift the mass loss towards higher temperature.
An Investigation on the Removal of Synthetic Dyes from Aqueous Solution by a Functional Polymer
The synthetic dyes, one of the most hazardous chemical compound classes, are important potential water pollutions since their presence in water bodies reduces light penetration, precluding the photosynthesis of aqueous flora and causing various diseases. Some the synthetic dyes are highly toxic and/or carcinogenic, and their biodegradation can produce even more toxic aromatic amines. The adsorption procedure is one of the most effective means of removing synthetic dye pollutants, and has been described in a number of previous studies by using the functional polymers. In this study, we investigated the removal of synthetic dyes from aqueous solution by using a functional polymer as an adsorbent material. The effect of initial solution concentration, pH, and contact time on the adsorption capacity of the adsorbent were studied in details. The results showed that functional polymer has a potential to be used as cost-effective and efficient adsorbent for the treatment of aqueous solutions from textile industries.
Acidic Dye Removal From Aqueous Solution Using Heat Treated and Polymer Modified Waste Containing Boron Impurity
In this study, we investigated the possibility of using waste containing boron impurity (BW) as an adsorbent for the removal of Orange 16 from aqueous solution. Surface properties of the BW, heat treated BW, and diblock copolymer coated BW were examined by using Zeta Meter and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The polymer modified sample having the highest positive zeta potential was used as an adsorbent. Batch adsorption studies were carried out. The operating variables studied were the initial dye concentration, contact time, solution pH, and adsorbent dosage. It was found that the dye adsorption largely depends on the initial pH of the solution with maximum uptake occurring at pH 3. The adsorption followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and the isotherm fit well to the Langmuir model.
Assessment of Air Pollution with Fine Particles PM-10, PM-2.5 and PM-1 in Algiers
The aim of the study is the assessment of the air pollution levels by fine particles PM-10, PM-2.5 and PM-1 in the urban area of Algiers. Samples are taken using an HVS-PM-10 sampler equipped with a Sierra-Andersen cascade impactor with four stages. The measurements were carried out during 9 months, from January to September 2014. Results show that air pollution by fine and very fine particles are high and exceed the European and WHO guidelines. The average content of PM-10 rises up to 66.8 µg/m3 with a maximum of 126.2 µg/m³. The PM-2.5 average content amounts to 36.2 µg/m³ and the PM-1 to 22.3 µg/m³. It is shown that PM-10 are distributed according to a bimodal distribution with a good correlation between very fine PM-1 and the respirable PM-2.5 fraction. Analysis of trace heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Pb,..) indicates a significant presence of lead. This atmospheric lead is related to emissions of leaded fuel that is still used in Algeria. The heavy metals of soil dust of earth's crust Fe and Mn are enriched in the coarse fraction (diameter range 2.5-10 µm). In Algiers, road traffic, vehicle fleet age, and particles resuspension are the main sources of air pollution by fine particles.
Effective Cooling of Photovoltaic Solar Cells by Inserting Triangular Ribs: A Numerical Study
In photovoltaic (PV) cells, most of the absorbed solar radiation cannot be converted into electricity. A large amount of solar radiation is converted to heat, which should be dissipated by any cooling techniques. In the present study, the cooling is achieved by inserting triangular ribs in the duct. A comprehensive two-dimensional thermo-fluid model for the effective cooling of photovoltaic cells has been developed. It has been first carefully validated against experimental and numerical results available in the literature. A parametric analysis was then carried out about the influence of the number and size of the ribs, wind speed, solar irradiance and inlet fluid velocity on the average solar cell and outlet air temperatures as well as the thermal and electrical efficiencies of the module. Results indicated that the use of triangular ribbed channels is a very effective cooling technique, which significantly reduces the average temperature of the PV cell, especially when increasing the number of ribs.
Understanding the Thermal Transformation of Random Access Memory Cards: A Pathway to Their Efficient Recycling
Globally, electronic waste (e-waste) continues to grow at an alarming rate. Several technologies have been developed to recover valuable materials from e-waste, however, their efficiency can be increased with a better knowledge of the e-waste components. Random access memory cards (RAMs) are considered as high value scrap for the e-waste recyclers. Despite their high precious metal content, RAMs are still recycled in a conventional manner resulting in huge loss of resources. Our research work highlights the precious metal rich components of a RAM. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis of RAMs of six different generations have been carried out and the trends in their metal content have been investigated. Over the past decade, the copper content of RAMs has halved and their tin content has increased by 70 %. The stricter environmental laws have facilitated ~96 % drop in the lead content of RAMs. To comprehend the fundamentals of thermal transformation of RAMs, our research provides their detailed kinetic study. This can assist the e-waste recyclers in optimising their metal recovery processes. Thus, understanding the chemical and thermal behaviour of RAMs can open new avenues for efficient e-waste recycling.
Adsorption of Cerium as One of the Rare Earth Elements Using Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes from Aqueous Solution: Modeling, Equilibrium and Kinetics
Carbon nanotube has shown great potential for the removal of various inorganic and organic components due to properties such as large surface area and high adsorption capacity. Central composite design is widely used method for determining optimal conditions. Also due to the economic reasons and wide application, the rare earth elements are important components. The analyses of cerium (Ce(III)) adsorption as one of the Rare Earth Elements (REEs) adsorption on Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been studied. The optimization process was performed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimum amount conditions were pH of 4.5, initial Ce (III) concentration of 90 mg/l and MWCNTs dosage of 80 mg. Under this condition, the optimum adsorption percentage of Ce (III) was obtained about 96%. Next, at the obtained optimum conditions the kinetic and isotherm studied and result showed the pseudo-second order and Langmuir isotherm are more fitted with experimental data than other models.
Energy Atlas: Geographic Information Systems-Based Energy Analysis and Planning Tool
Due to an increase in living standards along with global population growth and a trend of urbanization, municipalities and regions are faced with an ever rising energy demand. A challenge has arisen for cities around the world to modify the energy supply chain in order to reduce its consumption and CO₂ emissions. The aim of our work is the development of a computational-analytical platform for dynamic support in decision-making and the determination of economic and technical indicators of energy efficiency in a smart city, named Energy Atlas. Similar products in this field focuse on a narrower approach, whereas in order to achieve its aim, this platform encompasses a wider spectrum of beneficial and important information for energy planning on a local or regional scale. GIS based interactive maps provide an extensive database on the potential, use and supply of energy and renewable energy sources along with climate, transport and spatial data of the selected municipality. Beneficiaries of Energy atlas are local communities, companies, investors, contractors as well as residents. The Energy Atlas platform consists of three modules named E-Planning, E-Indicators and E-Cooperation. The E-Planning module is a comprehensive data service, which represents a support towards optimal decision-making and offers a sum of solutions and feasibility of measures and their effects in the area of efficient use of energy and renewable energy sources. The E-Indicators module identifies, collects and develops optimal data and key performance indicators and develops an analytical application service for dynamic support in managing a smart city in regards to energy use and sustainable environment. In order to support cooperation and direct involvement of citizens of the smart city, the E-cooperation is developed with the purpose of integrating the interdisciplinary and sociological aspects of energy end-users. Interaction of all the above-described modules contributes to regional development because it enables for a precise assessment of the current situation, strategic planning, detection of potential future difficulties and also the possibility of public involvement in decision-making. From the implementation of the technology in Slovenian municipalities of Ljubljana, Piran, and Novo mesto, there is evidence to suggest that the set goals are to be achieved to a great extent. Such thorough urban energy planning tool is viewed as an important piece of the puzzle towards achieving a low-carbon society, circular economy and therefore, sustainable society.
Impact of Zeolite NaY Synthesized from Kaolin on the Properties of Pyrolytic Oil Derived from Used Tire
Solid waste disposal, such as used tires is a global challenge as well as energy crisis due to rising energy demand amidst price uncertainty and depleting fossil fuel reserves. Therefore, the effectiveness of pyrolysis as a disposal method that can transform used tires into liquid fuel and other end-products has made the process attractive to researchers. Although used tires have been converted to liquid fuel using pyrolysis, there is the need to improve on the liquid fuel properties. Hence, this paper reports the investigation of zeolite NaY synthesized from kaolin, a locally abundant soil material in the Benin metropolis as a suitable catalyst and its effect on the properties of pyrolytic oil produced from used tires. The pyrolysis process was conducted for a range of 1 to 10 wt.% of catalyst concentration to used tire at a temperature of 600 oC, a heating rate of 15oC/min and particle size of 6mm. Although no significant increase in pyrolytic oil yield was observed compared to the previously investigated non-catalytic pyrolysis of a used tire. However, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR); and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) characterization results revealed the pyrolytic oil to possess an improved physicochemical and fuel properties alongside valuable industrial chemical species. This confirms the possibility of transforming kaolin into a catalyst suitable for improved fuel properties of the liquid fraction obtainable from thermal cracking of hydrocarbon materials.
Fabrication of LiNbO₃ Based Conspicuous Nanomaterials for Renewable Energy Devices
Optical and dielectric properties of lithium niobates have made them the fascinating materials to be used in optical industry for device formation such as Q and optical switching. Synthesis of lithium niobates was carried out by solvothermal process with and without temperature fluctuation at 200°C for 4 hrs, and behavior of properties for different durations was also examined. Prepared samples of LiNbO₃ were examined in a way as crystallographic phases by using XRD diffractometer, morphology by scanning electron microscope (SEM), absorption by UV-Visible Spectroscopy and dielectric measurement by impedance analyzer. A structural change from trigonal to spherical shape was observed by changing the time of reaction. Crystallite size decreases by the temperature fluctuation and increasing reaction time. Band gap decreases whereas dielectric constant and dielectric loss was increased with increasing time of reaction. Trend of AC conductivity is explained by Joschner’s power law. Due to these significant properties, it finds its applications in devices, such as cells, Q switching and optical switching for laser and gigahertz frequencies, respectively and these applications depend on the industrial demands.
Photovoltaic Solar Energy in Public Buildings: A Showcase for Society
This paper aims to mobilize and sensitize public administration leaders to good practices and encourage investment in the PV system in Brazil. It presents a case study methodology for dimensioning the PV system in the roofs of the public buildings of the Esplanade of the Ministries, Brasilia, capital of the country, with predefined resources, starting with the Sustainable Esplanade Project (SEP), of the exponential growth of photovoltaic solar energy in the world and making a comparison with the solar power plant of the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME), active since: 6/10/2016. In order to do so, it was necessary to evaluate the energy efficiency of the buildings in the period from January 2016 to April 2017, (16 months) identifying the opportunities to reduce electric energy expenses, through the adjustment of contracted demand, the tariff framework and correction of existing active energy. The instrument used to collect data on electric bills was the e-SIC citizen information system. The study considered in addition to the technical and operational aspects, the historical, cultural, architectural and climatic aspects, involved by several actors. Identifying the reductions of expenses, the study directed to the following aspects: Case 1) economic feasibility for exchanges of common lamps, for LED lamps, and, Case 2) economic feasibility for the implementation of photovoltaic solar system connected to the grid. For the case 2, PV*SOL Premium Software was used to simulate several possibilities of photovoltaic panels, analyzing the best performance, according to local characteristics, such as solar orientation, latitude, annual average solar radiation. A simulation of an ideal photovoltaic solar system was made, with due calculations of its yield, to provide a compensation of the energy expenditure of the building - or part of it - through the use of the alternative source in question. The study develops a methodology for public administration, as a major consumer of electricity, to act in a responsible, fiscalizing and incentive way in reducing energy waste, and consequently reducing greenhouse gases.
System Analysis on Compact Heat Storage in the Built Environment
An increased share of renewable energy sources in the built environment implies the usage of energy buffers to match supply and demand and to prevent overloads of existing grids. Compact heat storage systems based on thermochemical materials (TCM) are promising to be incorporated in future installations as an alternative for regular thermal buffers. This is due to the high energy density (1 – 2 GJ/m3). In order to determine the feasibility of TCM-based systems on building level several installation configurations are simulated and analyzed for different mixes of renewable energy sources (solar thermal, PV, wind, underground, air) for apartments/multistore-buildings for the Dutch situation. Thereby capacity, volume and financial costs are calculated. The simulation consists of options to include the current and future wind power (sea and land) and local roof-attached PV or solar-thermal systems. Thereby, the compact thermal buffer and optionally an electric battery (typically 10 kWhe) form the local storage elements for energy matching and shaving purposes. Besides, electric-driven heat pumps (air / ground) can be included for efficient heat generation in case of power-to-heat. The total local installation provides both space heating, domestic hot water as well as electricity for a specific case with low-energy apartments (annually 9 GJth + 8 GJe) in the year 2025. The energy balance is completed with grid-supplied non-renewable electricity. Taking into account the grid capacities (permanent 1 kWe/household), spatial requirements for the thermal buffer (< 2.5 m3/household) and a desired minimum of 90% share of renewable energy per household on the total consumption the wind-powered scenario results in acceptable sizes of compact thermal buffers with an energy-capacity of 4 - 5 GJth per household. This buffer is combined with a 10 kWhe battery and air source heat pump system. Compact thermal buffers of less than 1 GJ (typically volumes 0.5 - 1 m3) are possible when the installed wind-power is increased with a factor 5. In case of 15-fold of installed wind power compact heat storage devices compete with 1000 L water buffers. The conclusion is that compact heat storage systems can be of interest in the coming decades in combination with well-retrofitted low energy residences based on the current trends of installed renewable energy power.
Effect of Doping on Band Gap of Zinc Oxide and Degradation of Methylene Blue and Industrial Effluent
Effluent of dye industries contains chemicals and organic dyes. Sometimes they are thrown in the water bodies without any treatment. This leads to environmental pollution and is detrimental to flora and fauna. Semiconducting oxide zinc oxide with wide bandgap 3.37 eV is used as a photocatalyst in degrading organic dyes using UV radiations. It generates electron-hole pair on exposure to UV light. If degradation is aimed at solar radiations, bandgap of zinc oxide is to be reduced so as to utilize visible radiation. Thus, in present study, zinc oxide, ZnO is synthesized from zinc oxalate, N doped zinc oxide, ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ from hydrazinated zinc oxalate, cadmium doped zinc oxide Zn₀.₉Cd₀.₁₀ and magnesium-doped zinc oxide Zn₀.₉Mg₀.₁₀ from mixed metal oxalate and hydrazinated mixed metal oxalate. The precursors were characterized by FTIR. They were decomposed to form oxides and XRD were recorded. The compounds were monophasic. Bandgap was calculated using Diffuse Reflectance Spectrum. The bandgap of ZnO was reduced to 3.24 because of precursor method of synthesis leading large surface area. The bandgap of Zn₀.₉Cd₀.₁₀ was 3.11 eV and that of Zn₀.₉Mg₀.₁₀ 3.41 eV. The lowest value was of ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ 3.09 eV. These oxides were used to degrade methylene blue, a model dye in sunlight. ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ was also used to degrade effluent of industry manufacturing colours, crayons and markers. It was observed that ZnO₁₋ₓNₓ acts as a good photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue. It can degrade the solution within 120 minutes. Similarly, diluted effluent was decolourised using this oxide. Some colours were degraded using ZnO. Thus, the use of these two oxides could mineralize effluent. Lesser bandgap leads to more electro hole pair thus helps in the formation of hydroxyl ion radicals. These radicals attack the dye molecule, fragmentation takes place and it is mineralised.