International Science Index

International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

Wave powered airlift pump for primarily artificial upwelling
The invention (patent pending) relates to the field of devices aimed to harness wave energy (WEC) especially for artificial upwelling, forced downwelling, production of compressed air. In its basic form, the pump consists of a hydro-pneumatic machine, driven by wave energy, characterised by the fact that it has no moving mechanical parts, and is made up of only two structural components: an hollow body, which is open at the bottom to the sea and partially immersed in sea water, and a tube, both joined together to form a single body. The shape of the hollow body is like a mushroom whose cap and stem are hollow; the stem is open at both ends and the lower part of its surface is crossed by holes; the tube is external and coaxial to the stem and is joined to it so as to form a single body. This shape of the hollow body and the type of connection to the tube allows the pump to operate simultaneously as an air compressor (OWC) on the cap side, and as an airlift on the stem side. The pump can be implemented in four versions, each of which provides different variants and methods of implementation: 1) firstly, for the artificial upwelling of cold, deep ocean water; 2) secondly, for the lifting and transfer of these waters to the place of use (above all, fish farming plants), even if kilometres away; 3) thirdly, for the forced downwelling of surface sea water; 4) fourthly, for the forced downwelling of surface water, its oxygenation, and the simultaneous production of compressed air. The transfer of the deep water or the downwelling of the raised surface water (as for pump versions indicated in points 2 and 3 above), is obtained by making the water raised by the airlift flow into the upper inlet of another pipe, internal or adjoined to the airlift; the downwelling of raised surface water, oxygenation, and the simultaneous production of compressed air (as for the pump version indicated in point 4), is obtained by installing a venturi tube on the upper end of the pipe, whose restricted section is connected to the external atmosphere, so that it also operates like a hydraulic air compressor (trompe). Furthermore, by combining one or more pumps for the upwelling of cold, deep water, with one or more pumps for the downwelling of the warm surface water, the system can be used in an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plant to supply the cold and the warm water required for the operation of the same, thus allowing to use, without increased costs, in addition to the mechanical energy of the waves, for the purposes indicated in points 1 to 4, the thermal one of the marine water treated in the process.
Suicide Conceptualization in Adolescents through Semantic Networks
Suicide is a global, multidimensional and dynamic problem of mental health, which requires a constant study for its understanding and prevention. When research of this phenomenon is done, it is necessary to consider the different characteristics it may have because of the individual and sociocultural variables, the importance of this consideration is related to the generation of effective treatments and interventions. Adolescents are a vulnerable population due to the characteristics of the development stage. The investigation was carried out with the objective of identifying and describing the conceptualization of adolescents of suicide, and in this process, find possible differences between men and women. The study was carried in Saltillo, Coahuila, Mexico. The sample was composed of 418 volunteer students between 11 and 18 years. The ethical aspects of the research were reviewed and considered in all the process of the investigation, with the participants, their parents and the schools to which they belonged, psychological attention was offered to the participants and preventive workshops were carried in the educational institutions. Natural semantic networks were the instrument used, since this hybrid method allows to find and analyze the social concept of a phenomenon, in this case the word suicide was used as an evocative stimulus and participants were asked to evoke at least five words and maximum ten that they thought were related to suicide, and then hierarchize them according to the closeness whit the construct. The subsequent analysis was carried with Excel, yielding the semantic weights, affective loads and the distances between each of the semantic fields established according to the words reported by the subjects. The results showed similarities in the conceptualization of suicide in adolescents, men and women. Seven semantic fields were generated, the words were related in the discourse analysis: 1) death, 2) possible triggering factors, 3) associated moods, 4) methods used to carry it out, 5) psychological symptomatology that could affect, 6) words associated with a rejection of suicide and finally 7) specific objects to carry it out. One of the necessary aspects to consider in the investigations of complex issues such as suicide is to have a diversity of instruments and techniques that adjust to the characteristics of the population and that allow to understand the phenomena from the social constructs and not only theoretical. The constant study of suicide is a pressing need, the loss of a life from emotional difficulties that can be solved through psychiatry and psychological methods requires governments and professionals to pay attention and work with the risk population.
A Hard Day's Night: Persistent Within-Individual Effects of Job Demands and the Role of Recovery Processes
This study aims to examine recovery from work as an important daily activity with implications for workplace behavior. Building on affective events theory and the stressor-detachment model as frameworks, this paper proposes and tests a comprehensive within-individual model that uncovers the role of recovery processes at home in linking workplace demands (e.g., workload) and stressors (e.g., workplace incivility) to next-day organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). Our sample consisted of 126 full-time employees in a large Midwestern University. For a period of 16 working days, these employees were asked to fill out 3 electronic surveys while at work. The first survey (sent out in the morning) measured self-reported sleep quality, recovery experiences the previous day at home, and momentary effect. The second survey (sent out close to the end of the workday) measured job demands and stressors as well as OCBs, while the third survey in the evening assessed job strain. Data were analyzed using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). Results indicated that job demands and stressors at work made it difficult to unwind properly at home and have a good night’s sleep, which had repercussions for next day’s morning effect, which, in turn, influenced OCBs. It can be concluded that processes of recovery are vital to an individual’s daily effective functioning and behavior at work, but recovery may become impaired after a hard day’s work. Thus, our study sheds light on the potentially persistent nature of strain experienced as a result of work and points to the importance of recovery processes to enable individuals to avoid such cross-day spillover. Our paper will discuss this implication0 for theory and practice as well as potential directions for future research.
Trajectories of Depression Anxiety and Stress among Breast Cancer Patients: Assessment at First Year of Diagnosis
Little information is available about the development of psychological well being over time among women who have been undergoing treatment for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to identify the trajectories of depression anxiety and stress among women with early-stage breast cancer. Of the 48 Indian women with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer recruited from surgical oncology unit, 39 completed an interview and were assessed for depression anxiety and stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-DASS 21) before their first course of chemotherapy (baseline) and follow up interviews at 3, 6 and 9 months thereafter. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify distinct trajectories of Depression Anxiety and Stress symptoms. Logistic Regression analysis was used to evaluate the characteristics of women in distinct groups. Most women showed mild to moderate level of depression and anxiety (68%) while normal to mild level of stress (71%). But one in 11 women was chronically anxious (9%) and depressed (9%). Young age, having a partner, shorter education and receiving chemotherapy but not radiotherapy might characterize women whose psychological symptoms remain strong nine months after diagnosis. By looking beyond the mean, it was found that several socio-demographic and treatment factors characterized the women whose depression, anxiety and stress level remained severe even nine months after diagnosis. The results suggest that support provided to cancer patients should have a special focus on a relatively small group of patient most in need.
Disrupting Microaggressions in the Academic Workplace: The Role of Bystanders
Microaggressions are small, everyday verbal and behavioral slights that communicate derogatory messages to individuals on the basis of their group membership. They are often unintentional and not intended to do harm, and yet research has shown that their cumulative effect can be quite detrimental. The current pilot study focuses on the role of bystanders disrupting gender microaggressions and potential barriers of challenging them in the academic workplace at University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML). The participants in this study included 9 male and 20 female from faculty of different disciplines at UML. A Barriers to Intervening Questionnaire asks respondents 1) to rate barriers to intervening in situations described in three short vignettes and 2) to identify more general factors that make it more or less likely that UML faculty will intervene in microaggressions as bystanders through response to an open-ended question. Responses to the questionnaire scales that ask about respondents’ own reactions to the vignettes indicated that faculty may hesitate to interrupt gender microaggressions to avoid being perceived as offensive, losing their relationship with their coworkers, and engaging possible arguments. Responses to the open-ended question, which asked more generally about perceived barriers, revealed a few additional barriers; lack of interpersonal and institutional support, repercussion to self, personal orientation/personality, and privilege. Interestingly, participants tended to describe the obstacles presented in the questionnaire as unlikely to prevent them from intervening, yet the same barriers were suggested to be issues for others on the open-ended questions. Limitations and future directions are discussed. The barriers identified in this research can inform efforts to create bystander trainings to interrupt microaggressions in the academic workplaces.
Efficacy of Resilience-Enhancing Program for Parents, Focused on Emotion Regulation of Anger: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Japan
Background: Harsh verbal discipline is one of the common maltreatment parents tend to apply in times of stress. It gives a long-term adverse impact on children’s physical and psycho-social well-being. Along with appropriate parenting skills, stress management and emotion regulation training with an emphasis on areas of strength is crucially important but has yet to be done. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the resilience-enhancing program for parents, focused on emotion regulation of anger with a randomized controlled trial. Method: Mothers and their partners with a child between 3 – 6 were recruited at kindergartens in two prefectures in Japan. The intervention group received four 120-minute sessions of the group-based program from a trained facilitator biweekly. The program focused on emotion regulation of anger by applying cognitive reappraisal based on ABC theory. It included skills to improve the relationship with children and partners and to enhance protective factors of resilience, namely, self-esteem, positive outlook, problem-solving strategy, and assertive communication. They were encouraged to apply and share them at home. Control group participated in free group discussions. The primary outcome was Resilience Scale at two-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes were State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Kessler’s Psychological Distress Scale, Family APGAR, Cognition of Children’s Misbehavior Scale. The assessment was conducted through web-based self-reported questionnaires at baseline, post-intervention, and 2-month follow-up. Partners were assessed with the same measurements to explore the indirect influence of the mothers. Intention-to-Treat analysis was conducted. Two groups were compared, applying the analysis of covariate (ANCOVA). The protocol was approved by Ethical Committee of the University of Tokyo. This trial was registered at UMIN Clinical Trials Registry. Result: Participants were randomly allocated to either intervention group (n=62) or control group (n=61). Among 56 mothers who participated in the intervention program, 54 completed and were satisfied with the program. Mothers in intervention group statistically significantly improved in resilience, anger control, self-esteem, distress, family functioning, and cognition on children’s misbehavior at post-intervention and 2-month follow-up. There were no significant differences between groups among partners. Discussion: Applying cognitive reappraisal enabled mothers to have realistic and rational perspective on themselves and children. They learned to accept and appropriately express negative emotions rather than having angry outbursts and feeling guilt or suppressing them. Understanding that resilience can be enhanced at any age and parental resilience is strongly related to that of children motivated and strengthened mothers to change their perspective and behavior. Having a positive, skill-building framework of resilience intervention addressing several protective factors might have enhanced performance in multiple areas This program can be a practical tool to prevent maltreatment. Conclusion: A brief training program to enhance resilience focused on emotion regulation of anger was efficient and feasible among mothers. The intervention provided the statistically significant improvement in resilience, anger control, self-esteem, distress, family functioning, and cognition on children’s misbehavior at post-intervention and 2-month follow-up. In the future, larger clinical trials with longer follow-up and possibly wider dissemination of this intervention are warranted.
Orange Leaves and Rice Straw on Methane Emission and Milk Production in Murciano-Granadina Dairy Goat Diet
Many foods resulting from processing and manufacturing end up as waste, most of which is burned, dumped into landfills or used as compost, which leads to wasted resources, and environmental problems due to unsuitable disposal. Using residues of the crop and food processing industries to feed livestock has the advantage to obviating the need for costly waste management programs. The main residue generated in citrus cultivations and rice crop are pruning waste and rice straw, respectively. Within Spain, the Valencian Community is one of the world's oldest citrus and rice production areas. The objective of this experiment found out the effects of including orange leaves and rice straw as ingredients in the concentrate diets of goats, on milk production and methane (CH₄) emissions. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats (45 kg of body weight, on average) in mid-lactation were selected in a crossover design experiment, where each goat received two treatments in 2 periods. Both groups were fed with 1.7 kg pelleted mixed ration; one group (n= 5) was a control (C) and the other group (n= 5) used orange leaves and rice straw (OR). The forage was alfalfa hay, and it was the same for the two groups (1 kg of alfalfa was offered by goat and day). The diets employed to achieve the requirements during lactation period for caprine livestock. The goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages. After 14 days of adaptation, feed intake and milk yield were recorded daily over a 5 days period. Physico-chemical parameters and somatic cell count in milk samples were determined. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded individually by an open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. The data were analyzed by mixed model with diet and digestibility as fixed effect and goat as random effect. No differences were found for dry matter intake (2.23 kg/d, on average). Higher milk yield was found for C diet than OR (2.3 vs. 2.1 kg/goat and day, respectively) and, greater milk fat content was observed for OR than C (6.5 vs. 5.5%, respectively). The cheese extract was also greater in OR than C (10.7 vs. 9.6%). Goats fed OR diet produced significantly fewer CH₄ emissions than C diet (27 vs. 30 g/d, respectively). These preliminary results (LIFE Project LOWCARBON FEED LIFE/CCM/ES/000088) suggested that the use of these waste by-products was effective in reducing CH₄ emission without detrimental effect on milk yield.
African Swine Fewer Situation and Diagnostic Methods in Lithuania
On 24th January 2014, Lithuania notified two primary cases of African swine fever (ASF) in wild boars. The animals were tested positive for ASF virus (ASFV) genome by real-time PCR at the National Reference Laboratory for ASF in Lithuania (NRL), results were confirmed by the European Union Reference Laboratory for African swine fever (CISA-INIA). Intensive wild and domestic animal monitoring program was started. During the period of 2014-2017 ASF was confirmed in two large commercial pig holding with the highest biosecurity. Pigs were killed and destroyed. Since 2014 ASF outbreak territory from east and south has expanded to the middle of Lithuania. Diagnosis by PCR is one of the highly recommended diagnostic methods by World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) for diagnosis of ASF. The aim of the present study was to compare singleplex real-time PCR assays to a duplex assay allowing the identification of ASF and internal control in a single PCR tube and to compare primers, that target the p72 gene (ASF 250 bp and ASF 75 bp) effectivity. Multiplex real-time PCR assays prove to be less time consuming and cost-efficient and therefore have a high potential to be applied in the routine analysis. It is important to have effective and fast method that allows virus detection at the beginning of disease for wild boar population and in outbreaks for domestic pigs. For experiments, we used reference samples (INIA, Spain), and positive samples from infected animals in Lithuania. Results show 100% sensitivity and specificity.
Economic Impacts of Nitrogen Fertilizer Use into Tropical Pastures for Beef Cattle in Brazil
Brazilian beef cattle production systems are an important profitability source for the national gross domestic product. The main characteristic of these systems is forage utilization as the exclusive feed source. Forage utilization had been causing on owners the false feeling of low production costs. However, this low cost is followed to low profit causing a lot times worst animal index what can result in activities changes or until land sold. Aiming to evaluate economic impacts into Brazilian beef cattle systems were evaluated four nitrogen fertilizer (N) application levels (0, 90, 180 and 270 kg per hectare [kg.ha-1]). Research was developed during 2015 into Forage Crops and Grasslands section of São Paulo State University, “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (Unesp) (Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil). Pastures were seeded with Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. ‘Marandu’ (Palisade grass) handled using continuous grazing system, with variable stocking rate, sward height maintained at 25 cm. The economic evaluation was developed in rearing e finishing phases. We evaluated the cash flows inside each phase on different N levels. Economic valuations were considering: cost-effective operating (CEO), cost-total operating (CTO), gross revenue (GR), operating profit (OP) and net income (NI), every measured in US$. Complementary analyses were developed, profitability was calculated by [OP/GR]. Pay back (measured in years) was calculated considering average capital stocktaking pondered by area in use (ACS) divided by [GR-CEO]. And the internal rate of return (IRR) was calculated by 100/(pay back). Input prices were prices during 2015 and were obtained from Anuário Brasileiro da Pecuária, Centro de Estudos Avançados em Economia Aplicada and quotation in the same region of animal production (northeast São Paulo State) during the period above mentioned. Values were calculated in US$ according exchange rate US$1.00 equal R$3.34. The CEO, CTO, GR, OP and NI per hectare for each N level were respectively US$1,919.66; US$2,048.47; US$2,905.72; US$857.25 and US$986.06 to 0 kg.ha-1; US$2,403.20; US$2,551.80; US$3,530.19; US$978.39 and US$1,126.99 to 90 kg.ha-1; US$3,180.42; US$3,364.81; US$4,985.03; US$1,620.23 and US$1,804.62 to 180 kg.ha-1andUS$3,709.14; US$3,915.15; US$5,554.95; US$1,639.80 and US$1,845.81 to 270 kg.ha-1. Relationship to another economic indexes, profitability, pay back and IRR, the results were respectively 29.50%, 6.44 and 15.54% to 0 kg.ha-1; 27.72%, 6.88 and 14.54% to 90 kg.ha-1; 32.50%, 4.08 and 24.50% to 180 kg.ha-1 and 29.52%, 3.42 and 29.27% to 270 kg.ha-1. Values previously presented in this evaluation allowing to affirm that the best result was obtained to N level 270 kg.ha-1. These results among all N levels evaluated could be explained by improve occurred on stocking rate caused by increase on N level. However, a crucial information about high N level application into pastures is the efficiency of N utilization (associated to environmental impacts) that normally decrease with the increase on N level. Hence, considering all situations (efficiency of N utilization and economic results) into tropical pastures used to beef cattle production could be recommended N level equal to 180kg.ha-1, which had better profitability and cause lesser environmental impacts, proved by other studies developed in the same area.
Role of 78 kDa SG2NA Isoform in Cancer Development: A Transgenic Approach
SG2NA was initially identified as an autoantigen in a Bladder and Lung cancer patient whose expression is augmented during S to G2 phases of the Cell Cycle. SG2NA is a member of multidomain containing protein family Striatin. They are also characterized by WD40 repeats in the C-terminal with potential scaffolding functions. Five isoforms of mouse SG2NA, viz., 87, 82, 78, 52 and 35 kDa have characterized that are generated by alternative splicing, RNA editing, and intron retention. Knockdown of SG2NA reduces the cancer cell proliferation rate, suggesting its role in cancer progression. To ascertain the role of SG2NA in the in vivo context, transgenic mice over-expressing 78 kDa SG2NA in somatic cells under constitutive CMV promoter was developed by electroporation of testis. Among various tissues tested, only brain and the lung had the protein expressed while liver and kidney had the mRNA but no protein. This result corroborates with the earlier observation that while transcripts for 78 kDa isoform are present abundantly in brain, lung, liver, and kidney; the protein is expressed mainly in brain and lung with a little expression in liver. So the regulation of expression of 78 kDa SG2NA remained similar in normal and transgenic animals. Overexpression of 78 kDa isoform of SG2NA in vivo leads to granuloma as well as tumor nodules in the lung parenchyma. This study has definitely contributed in developing an approach for studying the role of SG2NA in Cancer.
Identification and Molecular Profiling of A Family I Cystatin Homologue from Sebastes schlegeli Deciphering Its Putative Role in Host Immunity
Cystatins are a large superfamily of proteins which act as reversible inhibitors of cysteine proteases. Papain proteases and cysteine cathepsins are predominant substrates of cystatins. Cystatin superfamily can be further clustered into three groups as Stefins, Cystatins, and Kininogens. Among them, stefines are also known as family 1 cystatins which harbors cystatin Bs and cystatin As. In this study, a homologue of family one cystatins more close to cystatin Bs was identified from Korean black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) using a prior constructed cDNA (complementary deoxyribonucleic acid) database and designated as RfCyt1. The full-length cDNA of RfCyt1 consisted of 573 bp, with a coding region of 294 bp. It comprised a 5´-untranslated region (UTR) of 55 bp, and 3´-UTR of 263 bp. The coding sequence encodes a polypeptide consisting of 97 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 11kDa and theoretical isoelectric point of 6.3. The RfCyt1 shared homology with other teleosts and vertebrate species and consisted conserved features of cystatin family signature including single cystatin-like domain, cysteine protease inhibitory signature of pentapeptide (QXVXG) consensus sequence and N-terminal two conserved neighboring glycine (⁸GG⁹) residues. As expected, phylogenetic reconstruction developed using the neighbor-joining method showed that RfCyt1 is clustered with the cystatin family 1 members, in which more closely with its teleostan orthologues. An SYBR Green qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) assay was performed to quantify the RfCytB transcripts in different tissues in healthy and immune stimulated fish. RfCyt1 was ubiquitously expressed in all tissue types of healthy animals with gill and spleen being the highest. Temporal expression of RfCyt1 displayed significant up-regulation upon infection with Aeromonas salmonicida. Recombinantly expressed RfCyt1 showed concentration-dependent papain inhibitory activity. Collectively these findings evidence for detectable protease inhibitory and immunity relevant roles of RfCyt1 in Sebastes schlegeli.
Effects of Environmental and Genetic Factors on Growth Performance, Fertility Traits and Milk Yield/Composition in Saanen Goats
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of some environmental and genetic factors on growth, fertility traits, milk yield and composition in Saanen goats. For this purpose, the total of 173 Saanen goats and kids were investigated for growth, fertility and milk traits in Marmara Region of Turkey. Fertility parameters (n=70) were evaluated during two years. Milk samples were collected during the lactation and the milk yield/components (n=59) of each goat were calculated. In terms of CSN3 and AGPAT6 gene; the genotypes were defined by PCR-RFLP. Saanen kids (n=86-112) were measured from birth to 6 months of life. The birth, weaning, 60ᵗʰ, 90ᵗʰ, 120ᵗʰ and 180tᵗʰ days of average live weights were calculated. The effects of maternal age on pregnancy rate (p < 0.05), birth rate (p < 0.05), infertility rate (p < 0.05), single born kidding (p < 0.001), twinning rate (p < 0.05), triplet rate (p < 0.05), survival rate of kids until weaning (p < 0.05), number of kids per parturition (p < 0.01) and number of kids per mating (p < 0.01) were found significant. The impacts of year on birth rate (p < 0.05), abortion rate (p < 0.001), single born kidding (p < 0.01), survival rate of kids until weaning (p < 0.01), number of kids per mating (p < 0.01) were found significant for fertility traits. The impacts of lactation length on all milk yield parameters (lactation milk, protein, fat, totally solid, solid not fat, casein and lactose yield) (p < 0.001) were found significant. The effects of age on all milk yield parameters (lactation milk, protein, fat, total solid, solid not fat, casein and lactose yield) (p < 0.001), protein rate (p < 0.05), fat rate (p < 0.05), total solid rate (p < 0.01), solid not fat rate (p < 0.05), casein rate (p < 0.05) and lactation length (p < 0.01), were found significant too. However, the effect of AGPAT6 gene on milk yield and composition was not found significant in Saanen goats. The herd was found monomorphic (FF) for CSN3 gene. The effects of sex on live weights until 90ᵗʰ days of life (birth, weaning and 60ᵗʰ day of average weight) were found significant statistically (p < 0.001). The maternal age affected only birth weight (p < 0,001). The effects month at birth on all of the investigated day [the birth, 120ᵗʰ, 180ᵗʰ days (p < 0.05); the weaning, 60ᵗʰ, 90ᵗʰ days (p < 0,001)] were found significant. The birth type was found significant on the birth (p < 0,001), weaning (p < 0,01), 60ᵗʰ (p < 0,01) and 90ᵗʰ (p < 0,01) days of average live weights. As a result, screening the other regions of CSN3, AGPAT6 gene and also investigation the phenotypic association of them should be useful to clarify the efficiency of target genes. Environmental factors such as maternal age, year, sex and birth type were found significant on some growth, fertility and milk traits in Saanen goats. So consideration of these factors could be used as selection criteria in dairy goat breeding.
Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of Pasteurella multocida Subspecies multocida Serotype A Strain PMTB2.1
Pasteurella multocida (PM) is an important veterinary opportunistic pathogen particularly associated with septicemic pasteurellosis, pneumonic pasteurellosis and hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle and buffaloes. P. multocida serotype A has been reported to cause fatal pneumonia and septicemia. Pasteurella multocida subspecies multocida of serotype A Malaysian isolate PMTB2.1 was first isolated from buffaloes died of septicemia. In this study, the genome of P. multocida strain PMTB2.1 was sequenced using third-generation sequencing technology, PacBio RS2 system and analyzed bioinformatically via de novo analysis followed by in-depth analysis based on comparative genomics. Bioinformatics analysis based on de novo assembly of PacBio raw reads generated 3 contigs followed by gap filling of aligned contigs with PCR sequencing, generated a single contiguous circular chromosome with a genomic size of 2,315,138 bp and a GC content of approximately 40.32% (Accession number CP007205). The PMTB2.1 genome comprised of 2,176 protein-coding sequences, 6 rRNA operons and 56 tRNA and 4 ncRNAs sequences. The comparative genome sequence analysis of PMTB2.1 with nine complete genomes which include Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis, Escherichia coli and five P. multocida complete genome sequences including, PM70, PM36950, PMHN06, PM3480, PMHB01 and PMTB2.1 was carried out based on OrthoMCL analysis and Venn diagram. The analysis showed that 282 CDs (13%) are unique to PMTB2.1and 1,125 CDs with orthologs in all. This reflects overall close relationship of these bacteria and supports the classification in the Gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. In addition, genomic distance analysis among all nine genomes indicated that PMTB2.1 is closely related with other five Pasteurella species with genomic distance less than 0.13. Synteny analysis shows subtle differences in genetic structures among different P.multocida indicating the dynamics of frequent gene transfer events among different P. multocida strains. However, PM3480 and PM70 exhibited exceptionally large structural variation since they were swine and chicken isolates. Furthermore, genomic structure of PMTB2.1 is more resembling that of PM36950 with a genomic size difference of approximately 34,380 kb (smaller than PM36950) and strain-specific Integrative and Conjugative Elements (ICE) which was found only in PM36950 is absent in PMTB2.1. Meanwhile, two intact prophages sequences of approximately 62 kb were found to be present only in PMTB2.1. One of phage is similar to transposable phage SfMu. The phylogenomic tree was constructed and rooted with E. coli, A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis based on OrthoMCL analysis. The genomes of P. multocida strain PMTB2.1 were clustered with bovine isolates of P. multocida strain PM36950 and PMHB01 and were separated from avian isolate PM70 and swine isolates PM3480 and PMHN06 and are distant from Actinobacillus and Haemophilus. Previous studies based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) and Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) unable to show a clear phylogenetic relatedness between Pasteurella multocida and the different host. In conclusion, this study has provided insight on the genomic structure of PMTB2.1 in terms of potential genes that can function as virulence factors for future study in elucidating the mechanisms behind the ability of the bacteria in causing diseases in susceptible animals.
Pathomorphological Features of Lungs from Brown Hares Infected with Parasites
Seven hundred and ninety lungs from brown hares (Lepus europeus L.) from different regions of Bulgaria were investigated during the period 2009-2017. The parasitological status and pathomorphological features in the lungs were recorded. The following parasite species were established: one nematode - Protostrongylus tauricus (7.59% prevalence), one tapeworm – larva of Taenia pisiformis – Cysticercus pisiformis (3.04% prevalence) and one arthropod – larva of Linguatula serrata – Pentastomum dentatum (0.89% prevalence). Macroscopic lesions in the lungs were different depending on the causative agents. The infections with C. pisiformis and P. dentatum were attended with small, mainly superficial changes in the lungs. Protostrongylid infections were connected with different in appearance and burden macroscopic changes. In 77.7% they were nodular and in the rest of cases diffuse. The consistency of the lesions was compact. In most of the cases alterations were grey in colour, rarely were dark-red or marble-like. In 91.7% of these cases they were spread on the apical parts of large lung lobes. In 36.7% middle parts of the large lung lobes and in 26.7% small lung lobes were also affected. The small lung lobes were never independently infected.
Molecular Characterization of White Spot Syndrome Virus in Some Cultured Penaeid Shrimps of Coastal Regions in Bangladesh
Bangladesh is earning a lot of foreign currency by exporting shrimp, but this industry is facing a tremendous problem due to the infection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). This study was undermined to develop rapid detection method of WSSV. A total of shrimp samples 240 collected from the 12 shrimp farms of different coastal regions (Satkhira, Khulna, and Bagerhat) were analyzed by conventional PCR using VP28 and VP664 gene-specific primers. In satkhira, Bagerhat and Khulna 39, 41 and 29 samples were found WSSV positive respectively. Real-time PCR using 71-bp amplicon for VP664 gene correlated well with conventional PCR data. The prevalence rates of WSSV among the collected 240 samples were Satkhira 38%, Khulna 47% and Bagerhat 50%. Molecular analysis of the VP28 gene sequences of WSSV revealed that Bangladeshi strains phylogenetically affiliated to the strains belong to India. This work concluded that WSSV infections are widely distributed in the coastal regions cultured shrimp in Bangladesh. Physico-chemical parameters were within the range of fish culture.
Assessing Functional Structure in European Marine Ecosystems Using a Vector-Autoregressive Spatio-Temporal Model
In marine ecosystems, spatial and temporal species structure is an important component of ecosystems’ response to anthropological and environmental factors. Although spatial distribution patterns and fish temporal series of abundance have been studied in the past, little research has been allocated to the joint dynamic spatio-temporal functional patterns in marine ecosystems and their use in multispecies management and conservation. Each species represents a function to the ecosystem, and the distribution of these species might not be random. A heterogeneous functional distribution will lead to a more resilient ecosystem to external factors. Applying a Vector-Autoregressive Spatio-Temporal (VAST) model for count data, we estimate the spatio-temporal distribution, shift in time, and abundance of 140 species of the Eastern English Chanel, Bay of Biscay and Mediterranean Sea. From the model outputs, we determined spatio-temporal clusters, calculating p-values for hierarchical clustering via multiscale bootstrap resampling. Then, we designed a functional map given the defined cluster. We found that the species distribution within the ecosystem was not random. Indeed, species evolved in space and time in clusters. Moreover, these clusters remained similar over time deriving from the fact that species of a same cluster often shifted in sync, keeping the overall structure of the ecosystem similar overtime. Knowing the co-existing species within these clusters could help with predicting data-poor species distribution and abundance. Further analysis is being performed to assess the ecological functions represented in each cluster.
Ecosystem Approach in Aquaculture: From Experimental Recirculating Multi-Trophic Aquaculture to Operational System in Marsh Ponds
Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) is used to reduce waste from aquaculture and increase productivity by co-cultured species. In this study, we designed a recirculating multi-trophic aquaculture system which requires low energy consumption, low water renewal and easy-care. European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were raised with co-cultured sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), deteritivorous polychaete fed on settled particulate matter, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) used to extract suspended matters, macroalgae (Ulva sp.) used to uptake dissolved nutrients and gastropod (Phorcus turbinatus) used to clean the series of 4 tanks from fouling. Experiment was performed in triplicate during one month in autumn under an experimental greenhouse at the Institute Océanographique Paul Ricard (IOPR). Thanks to the absence of a physical filter, any pomp was needed to pressure water and the water flow was carried out by a single air-lift followed by gravity flow.Total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), turbidity, phytoplankton estimation and dissolved nutrients (ammonium NH₄, nitrite NO₂⁻, nitrate NO₃⁻ and phosphorus PO₄³⁻) were measured weekly while dissolved oxygen and pH were continuously recorded. Dissolved nutrients stay under the detectable threshold during the experiment. BOD5 decreased between fish and macroalgae tanks. TSS highly increased after 2 weeks and then decreased at the end of the experiment. Those results show that bioremediation can be well used for aquaculture system to keep optimum growing conditions. Fish were the only feeding species by an external product (commercial fish pellet) in the system. The others species (extractive species) were fed from waste streams from the tank above or from Ulva produced by the system for the sea urchin. In this way, between the fish aquaculture only and the addition of the extractive species, the biomass productivity increase by 5.7. In other words, the food conversion ratio dropped from 1.08 with fish only to 0.189 including all species. This experimental recirculating multi-trophic aquaculture system was efficient enough to reduce waste and increase productivity. In a second time, this technology has been reproduced at a commercial scale. The IOPR in collaboration with Les 4 Marais company run for 6 month a recirculating IMTA in 8000 m² of water allocate between 4 marsh ponds. A similar air-lift and gravity recirculating system was design and only one feeding species of shrimp (Palaemon sp.) was growth for 3 extractive species. Thanks to this joint work at the laboratory and commercial scales we will be able to challenge IMTA system and discuss about this sustainable aquaculture technology.
Evaluation of Malaysia Marine Fishery Sustainability in Strengthening National Food Security
This study aims to present a document review of sustainable marine fishery in Malaysia to strengthen national food security. The increase in Malaysia population is parallel with world population growth that expected to reach 9.6 billion by 2050. This situation needs a stable marine fisheries resources. However, the trend shows landing marine fishes around the world is increasing at a small scale or almost constant compared to the population growth. This study conducted content analysis on factors contribute to marine fisheries sustainability. The study presenting the major works of past literature, how their works could support future studies, and what aspects need to be enhanced for the marine fisheries sustainability. The comprehensive review has provided an in depth understanding on factors affecting sustainability of marine fisheries in Malaysia such as resource management, climate change and economic growth.
Effects of Imuno-2865® as a New Immune Supplement for the Aquaculture Industry
IMUNO-2865® is a commercially available, β–glucan based, natural hemicellulose compound with proven immunostimulative properties in people, domestic and some aquatic animals. During the experimental feeding trial with IMUNO-2865® in juvenile wild-caught chub under laboratory conditions, supplementation resulted in overall higher growth performance for all experimental groups regardless of the concentration of the added compound. The maximum, 5% concentration of the supplement, resulted in highest weight gain and calculated specific growth rate. In sea bream, as economically most important species in the Mediterranean aquaculture, significant increases in numbers of monocytes and heterophils were observed in the group supplemented with 2.5 % of IMUNO-2865® in the feed. An overall increase of erythrocytes was noted by the end of the experiment, although with variable distribution among groups. Blood Ca++ levels, total proteins, and total NH3, were significantly higher after 60 days of feeding in all treatment groups compared to the control, and remained elevated in the treated group following secession of supplementation. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and serum paraoxonase PON1 (U/L) showed similar trends. All these parameters are playing a significant role in either oxygen supplementation of tissues, or anabolic and catabolic processes that on molecular levels contribute to the overall health and immune-building capacity of cells and tissues. The complete lack of mortality in sea bream and presented increases in cellular, biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in the blood suggest that the IMUNO-2865® represents a safe dietary supplement for in aquaculture, with an overall positive and potentially immunostimulative effect on farmed fish.
Social Licence to Operate Methodology to Secure Commercial, Community and Regulatory Approval for Small and Large Scale Fisheries
Futureye has a bespoke social licence to operate methodology which has successfully secured community approval and commercial return for fisheries which have faced regulatory and financial risk. This unique approach to fisheries management focuses on delivering improved social and environmental outcomes to support the fishing industry make steps towards achieving the United Nations SDGs. An SLO is the community’s implicit consent for a business or project to exist. An SLO must be earned and maintained alongside regulatory licences. In current and new operations, it helps you to anticipate and measure community concerns around your operations – leading to more predictable and sensible policy outcomes that will not jeopardise your commercial returns. Rising societal expectations and increasing activist sophistication mean the international fishing industry needs to resolve community concerns at each stage their supply chain. Futureye applied our tested social licence to operate (SLO) methodology to help Austral Fisheries who was being attacked by activists concerned about the sustainability of Patagonian Toothfish. Austral was Marine Stewardship Council certified, but pirates were making the overall catch unsustainable. Austral wanted to be carbon neutral. SLO provides a lens on the risk that helps industries and companies act before regulatory and political risk escalates. To do this assessment, we have a methodology that assesses the risk that we can then translate into a process to create a strategy. 1) Audience: we understand the drivers of change and the transmission of those drivers across all audience segments. 2) Expectation: we understand the level of social norming of changing expectations. 3) Outrage: we understand the technical and perceptual aspects of risk and the opportunities to mitigate these. 4) Inter-relationships: we understand the political, regulatory, and reputation system so that we can understand the levers of change. 5) Strategy: we understand whether the strategy will achieve a social licence through bringing the internal and external stakeholders on the journey. Futureye’s SLO methodologies helped Austral to understand risks and opportunities to enhance its resilience. Futureye reviewed the issues, assessed outrage and materiality and mapped SLO threats to the company. Austral was introduced to a new way that it could manage activism, climate action, and responsible consumption. As a result of Futureye’s work, Austral worked closely with Sea Shepherd who was campaigning against pirates illegally fishing Patagonian Toothfish as well as international governments. In 2016 Austral launched the world’s first carbon neutral fish which won Austral a thirteen percent premium for tender on the open market. In 2017, Austral received the prestigious Banksia Foundation Sustainability Leadership Award for seafood that is sustainable, healthy and carbon neutral. Austral’s position as a leader in sustainable development has opened doors for retailers all over the world. Futureye’s SLO methodology can identify the societal, political and regulatory risks facing fisheries and position them to proactively address the issues and become an industry leader in sustainability.
Autophagy in the Midgut Epithelium of Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae Exposed to Various Cadmium Concentration - 6-Generational Exposure
Autophagy is a form of cell remodeling in which an internalization of organelles into vacuoles that are called autophagosomes occur. Autophagosomes are the targets of lysosomes, thus causing digestion of cytoplasmic components. Eventually, it can lead to the death of the entire cell. However, in response to several stress factors, e.g., starvation, heavy metals (e.g., cadmium) autophagy can also act as a pro-survival factor, protecting the cell against its death. The main aim of our studies was to check if the process of autophagy, which could appear in the midgut epithelium after Cd treatment, can be fixed during the following generations of insects. As a model animal, we chose the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a well-known polyphagous pest of many vegetable crops. We analyzed specimens at final larval stage (5th larval stage), due to its hyperfagy, resulting in great amount of cadmium assimilate. The culture consisted of two strains: a control strain (K) fed a standard diet, and a cadmium strain (Cd), fed on standard diet supplemented with cadmium (44 mg Cd per kg of dry weight of food) for 146 generations, both strains. In addition, the control insects were transferred to the Cd supplemented diet (5 mg Cd per kg of dry weight of food, 10 mg Cd per kg of dry weight of food, 20 mg Cd per kg of dry weight of food, 44 mg Cd per kg of dry weight of food). Therefore, we obtained Cd1, Cd2, Cd3 and KCd experimental groups. Autophagy has been examined using transmission electron microscope. During this process, degenerated organelles were surrounded by a membranous phagophore and enclosed in an autophagosome. Eventually, after the autophagosome fused with a lysosome, an autolysosome was formed and the process of the digestion of organelles began. During the 1st year of the experiment, we analyzed specimens of 6 generations in all the lines. The intensity of autophagy depends significantly on the generation, tissue and cadmium concentration in the insect rearing medium. In the Ist, IInd, IIIrd, IVth, Vth and VIth generation the intensity of autophagy in the midguts from cadmium-exposed strains decreased gradually according to the following order of strains: Cd1, Cd2, Cd3 and KCd. The higher amount of cells with autophagy was observed in Cd1 and Cd2. However, it was still higher than the percentage of cells with autophagy in the same tissues of the insects from the control and multigenerational cadmium strain. This may indicate that during 6-generational exposure to various Cd concentration, a preserved tolerance to cadmium was not maintained. The study has been financed by the National Science Centre Poland, grant no 2016/21/B/NZ8/00831.
Apoptosis in the Midgut Epithelium of 6- Generation of Spodoptera Exigua HüBner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Exposed to Various Cadmium Concentration
The digestive system of insects is composed of three distinct regions: fore-, mid- and hingut. The middle region (the midgut) is treated as one of the barriers which protects the organism against any stressors which originate from external environment, e.g. toxic metals. Such factors can activate the cell death in epithelial cells to preserve the entire tissue/organs against the degeneration. Different mechanisms involved in homeostasis maintenance have been described, but the studies of animals under field conditions do not give the opportunity to conclude about potential ability of subsequent generation to inherit the tolerance mechanisms. It is possible only by a multigenerational strain of an animal led under laboratory conditions, exposed to a selected toxic factor, present also in polluted ecosystems. The main purpose of the project was to check if changes, which appear in the midgut epithelium after Cd treatment, can be fixed during the following generations of insects with the special emphasis on apoptosis. As the animal for these studies we chose 5th larval stage of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is one of pest of many vegetable crops. Animals were divided into some experimental groups: K, Cd, KCd, Cd1, Cd2, Cd3. A control group (K) fed a standard diet, and was conducted for XX generations, a cadmium group (Cd), fed on standard diet supplemented with cadmium (44 mg Cd per kg of dry weight of food) for XXX generations. A reference Cd group (KCd) has been initiated: control insects were fed with Cd supplemented diet (44 mg Cd per kg of dry weight of food). Experimental groups Cd1, Cd2, Cd3 developed from the control one: 5 mg Cd per kg of dry weight of food, 10 mg Cd per kg of dry weight of food, 20 mg Cd per kg of dry weight of food. We were interested in the activation of apoptosis during following generations in all experimental groups. Therefore, during the 1st year of the experiment, the measurements were done for 6 generations in all experimental group. The intensity and the course of apoptosis have been examined using transmission electron microscope (TEM), confocal microscope and flow cytometry. During apoptosis the cell started to shrink, extracellular spaces appeared between digestive and neighboring cells, the nucleus achieved a lobular shape. Eventually, the apoptotic cells was discharged into the midgut lumen. A quantitative analysis revealed that the number of apoptotic cells depends significantly on the generation, tissue and cadmium concentration in the insect rearing medium. In the following 6 generations, we observed that the percentage of apoptotic cells in the midguts from cadmium-exposed groups decreased gradually according to the following order of strains: Cd1, Cd2, Cd3 and KCd. At the same time, it was still higher than the percentage of apoptotic cells in the same tissues of the insects from the control and multigenerational cadmium strain. The results of our studies suggest that changes caused by cadmium treatment were preserved during 6-generational development of lepidopteran larvae. The study has been financed by the National Science Centre Poland, grant no 2016/21/B/NZ8/00831.
Effect of Climate Change on the Genomics of Invasiveness of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Species Complex by Estimating the Effective Population Size via a Coalescent Method
Invasive species represent an increasing threat to food biosecurity, causing significant economic losses in agricultural systems. An example is the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, which is a complex of morphologically indistinguishable species causing average annual global damage estimated at US$2.4 billion. The Bemisia complex represents an interesting model for evolutionary studies because of their extensive distribution and potential for invasiveness and population expansion. Within this complex, two species, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) have invaded well beyond their home ranges whereas others, such as Indian Ocean (IO) and Australia (AUS), have not. In order to understand why some Bemisia species have become invasive, genome-wide sequence scans were used to estimate population dynamics over time and relate these to climate. The Bayesian Skyline Plot (BSP) method as implemented in BEAST was used to infer the historical effective population size. In order to overcome sampling bias, the populations were combined based on geographical origin. The datasets used for this particular analysis are genome-wide SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) called separately in each of the following groups: Sub-Saharan Africa (Burkina Faso), Europe (Spain, France, Greece and Croatia), USA (Arizona), Mediterranean-Middle East (Israel, Italy), Middle East-Central Asia (Turkmenistan, Iran) and Reunion Island. The non-invasive ‘AUS’ species endemic to Australia was used as an outgroup. The main findings of this study show that the BSP for the Sub-Saharan African MED population is different from that observed in MED populations from the Mediterranean Basin, suggesting evolution under a different set of environmental conditions. For MED, the effective size of the African (Burkina Faso) population showed a rapid expansion ≈250,000-310,000 years ago (YA), preceded by a period of slower growth. The European MED populations (i.e., Spain, France, Croatia, and Greece) showed a single burst of expansion at ≈160,000-200,000 YA. The MEAM1 populations from Israel and Italy and the ones from Iran and Turkmenistan are similar as they both show the earlier expansion at ≈250,000-300,000 YA. The single IO population lacked the latter expansion but had the earlier one. This pattern is shared with the Sub-Saharan African (Burkina Faso) MED, suggesting IO also faced a similar history of environmental change, which seems plausible given their relatively close geographical distributions. In conclusion, populations within the invasive species MED and MEAM1 exhibited signatures of population expansion lacking in non-invasive species (IO and AUS) during the Pleistocene, a geological epoch marked by repeated climatic oscillations with cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. These expansions strongly suggested the potential of some Bemisia species’ genomes to affect their adaptability and invasiveness.
Rates of Hematophagous Ectoparasite Consumption during Grooming by an Endemic Madagascar Fruit Bat
Few details are available on the consumption of ectoparasites, specifically bat flies (Diptera: Nycteribiidae and Streblidae), by their chiropteran hosts while grooming. Such details could provide information on the dynamics of host-parasite interactions. This study presents data on ectoparasite ingestion rates for an endemic Malagasy fruit bat (Pteropodidae: Rousettus madagascariensis) occupying a cave day roost colony in northern Madagascar. Using quantified behavioral analyses, grooming and associated ingestion rates were measured from infrared videos taken in close proximity to day-roosting bats. The recorded individual bats could be visually identified to age (adult, juvenile) and sex (male, female), allowing analyses of the proportion of time these different classes allocated to consuming ectoparasites via auto-grooming (self) or allo-grooming (intraspecific) per 10 min video recording session. These figures could then be extrapolated to estimates of individual daily consumption rates. Based on video recordings, adults spent significantly more time auto-grooming and allo-grooming than juveniles. The latter group was not observed consuming ectoparasites. Grooming rates and the average number of ectoparasites consumed per day did not differ between adult males and females. The mean extrapolated number consumed on a daily basis for individual adults was 37 ectoparasites. When these figures are overlaid on the estimated number of adult Rousettus occurring at the roost site during the dry season, the projected daily consumption rate was 57,905 ectoparasites. To the best knowledge of the authors of this study, the details presented here represent the first quantified data on bat consumption rates of their ectoparasites, specifically dipterans. These results provide new insights into host-parasite predation dynamics. More research is needed to explore the mechanism zoonotic diseases isolated from bat flies might be transmitted to their bat hosts, specifically those pathogens that can be communicated via an oral route.
Effects of Moringa oleifera Leaf Powder on the Feed Intake and Average Weight of Pullets
The study was carried out to determine the effects of Moringa oleifera leaf powder additive on the feed intake and average weight of pullets. A completely Randomized Design (CRD) was adopted for the study. On the procedure of the experiment, 240 chicks were randomly selected from 252 Isa Brown day-old chicks. The chicks were equally randomly allotted to 12 pens with 20 chicks each. The pens were randomly assigned to four different treatment groups with three replicates each. T1 was fed with control feed while T2, T3, and T4 were fed with 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% Moringa oleifera leaf powder fortified feed respectively. The chicks were fed with uniform feed up to week four. From week five, experimental feeds were given to the pullet up to 20 weeks of age. The birds were placed on the same treatment conditions except different experimental feeds given to different groups. Data on the feed intake were collected daily while the average weight of the pullets was collected weekly using weighing scale. Data collected were analyzed using mean, bar charts and Analysis of Variance. The layers fed with control feed consumed the highest amount of feed in most of the weeks under study. The average weights of all the treatment groups were equal from week 1 to week 4. Little variation in average weight started in week 5 with T2 topping the groups. However, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the feed intake and average weight of layers fed with different inclusion rates of Moringa oleifera leaf powder in feeds.
Effect of Yeast Culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, and Blood Metabolites in Beetal Male Goats
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of different levels of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Beetal male goats diets on growth performance, digestibility of nutrients and selected blood metabolites. Another objective was to determine the inclusion level of yeast culture for optimal growth performance of Beetal male goats. Eighteen (n=18) Beetal male goats were randomly assigned to three total mixed ration treatments (n=6 goats/treatment): T1, T2 and T3 containing 0gm, 3gm and 6gm/day yeast culture (YC) mixed with total mixed ration (TMR). The diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric having crude protein 15.2% and ME 2.6Mcal/kg. The total duration of the experiment was 8 weeks. Beetal bucks were fed on TMR diets (T1, T2 and T3) having blend of oat silage, Lucerne hay and concentrate mixed with yeast culture (YC). Bucks were housed individually and feed was offered @ 4% of body weight on dry matter basis. Samples of fresh feed and refusal were collected twice weekly of moisture percentage using hot air oven. Data for daily dry matter intake, body weight gain, nutrient digestibility and selected blood metabolites were analyzed through one-way ANOVA technique under Complete randomised design (SAS Institute Inc, 2002-03). Results were declared significant at P≤0.05. Overall, DMI was not affected (P≥0.05) by dietary treatments. Body weight gain, digestibility of crude protein and crude fibre were improved. Blood glucose concentration was detected higher in the group having supplementation of yeast culture (YC) 6gm/day compared to other two dietary treatments. This study suggested the positive impact of inclusion of yeast culture (YC) up to 6gm/day in the TMR diet for optimal growth performance and digestibility of nutrients in Beetal male goats.
The Effects of Production, Transportation and Storage Conditions on Mold Growth in Compound Feeds
The objective of the present study is to determine the critical control points during the production, transportation and storage conditions of compound feeds to be used in the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) feed safety management system. A total of 40 feed samples were taken after 20 and 40 days of storage periods from the 10 dairy and 10 beef cattle farms following the transportation of the compound feeds from the factory. In addition, before transporting the feeds from factory immediately after production of dairy and beef cattle compound feeds, 10 from each total 20 samples were taken as 0 day. In all feed samples, chemical composition was determined by AOAC methods and total aflatoxin levels were determined by direct competitive ELISA method. The determined mean values for CP%, CF%, EE%, Ash%, OM% and DM % of beef and dairy cattle feed samples in pellet form were 14,45±1,11; 9,45±1,29; 4,45±1,56; 9,05±1,03; 92,03±3,05 and 88,03±1,05; 21,13±1,41; 13,00±1,77; 5,28±1,54; 9,54±1,92; 91,46±2,92 and 89,83±0,95 respectively. The aflatoxin levels in all feed samples with the exception of 2 dairy cattle feeds was below the maximum acceptable level. With the increase in storage period in dairy feeds, the aflatoxin level were increased to 4.96 ppb only in a BS8 dairy farm. This value is below the maximum permissible level (10 ppb) in beef cattle feed. The aflatoxin levels of dairy feed samples taken after production were varied between 0.44-2.01 ppb. Aflatoxin levels were found to be between 0.89 and 3.01 ppb in dairy cattle feeds taken on the 20th day of storage at 10 dairy cattle farm. On the 40th day, feed aflatoxin levels in the same dairy cattle farm were found between 1.12-7.83 ppb. The aflatoxin levels were increased to 7.83 and 6.31 ppb in 2 dairy farms, after a storage period of 40 days with increasing storage time. These obtained aflatoxin values are above the maximum permissible level in dairy cattle feeds. The 40 days storage in pellet form in the HACCP feed safety management system can be considered as a critical control point.
An Investigation on the Predominant Diseases, Its Diagnosis and Commonly Used Drugs in the Poultry Farms in the North-Eastern Regions of Algeria
An investigation was carried out to assess the occurrence of diseases, its method of diagnosis and commonly used drugs in poultry farms in North-Eastern regions of Algeria. A total of 265 veterinary doctors were surveyed to obtain information on the dominant diseases, its frequency of occurrence, method of diagnosis and commonly used drugs in poultry farms. The study revealed about 68% of bacterial diseases are due to colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, salmonellosis, 22% of viral diseases are due to Newcastle, Gumboro, Infectious bronchitis and 10% others including coccidiosis and ascites syndrome. The study also showed that about 57% of cases were diagnosed by clinical signs, 36% by necropsy findings and remaining 7% through therapeutic and laboratory analysis. Antibiotics, a predominance of the anarchic veterinary drugs were massively used to control the diseases. Hence, there is a need for strict regulations on the use of veterinary drugs in order to guarantee food safety. These results remain non-exhaustive but contribute strongly to determine the state of health of the birds in the region.
Efficiency of an Algae-Zinc Complex Compared to Inorganic Zinc Sulfate on Broilers Performance
Trace minerals play an essential role in vital processes and are essential to many biological and physiological functions of the animal. They are usually incorporated in the form of inorganic salts such as sulfates and oxides. Most of these inorganic salts are excreted undigested by the animal causing economic losses as well as environmental pollution. In this context, the use of alternative organic trace minerals with higher bioavailability is emerging. This study was set up to evaluate the effect of using an algae-zinc complex in replacement of zinc sulfate in the feed, on growth performance of broiler chickens. One-thousand-two-hundred 1-day-old chicks were randomly distributed to 30 pens, allocated to 1 of 3 groups receiving different diets: the standard diet containing 35ppm of inorganic zinc sulfate (C+), a test diet containing 35ppm of algae-based zinc (T+), and a test diet containing half dose (16ppm) of algae-based zinc (T-). Three different feeds were distributed from D0-D11, D11-D21 and D21-D35. Individual weighing of the animals (D21 and D35), feed consumption (D11, D21 and D35) and pododermatitis occurrence (D35) were monitored. Data were submitted to analysis of variance. Results show that in finishing period the ADWG of the T+ and T- groups are significantly higher than the control C+ (+6%, P = 0.03). On the other hand, the FCR for the total period is lower for both the T+ and T- groups than the control C+ (-1.2%, P = 0.04). Pododermatitis scoring also shows less lesions for the test groups with algae-based zinc compared to the control group receiving inorganic one. In the end, this study shows a positive effect of the algae zinc-complex on growth performance of broilers compared to inorganic zinc, both when using full dose (35 ppm) or half dose (16 ppm). The use of algae-zinc complex in the premix shows to be a good alternative to reduce zinc excretion while maintaining performance.
Challenges of Sustainable Marine Fishing in Ghana
Traditionally, Ghana is a marine fishing country. Marine fishing accounts for over 80 percent of Ghana’s total fish consumption. Currently, the fishing industry dominated by the artisanal marine fishing industry provides employment to about 2.5 million people and contribute to about five percent of Agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Nonetheless, the marine fishing industry is confronted with challenges that have contributed to a declining fish production in recent past decade. Bad fishing practices and the general limited knowledge on sustainable management of fisheries resources are limiting factors that affect sustainable fish production and sustainable marine biodiversity management in Ghana. This paper discusses the challenges and strategies for attaining and maintaining sustainable marine fishing in Ghana as well as the state of marine fishing in Ghana. It concludes that an increase in the level of involvement of local fishers in the management of fisheries resources of the country could help local fishers to employ sustainable fisheries resources exploitation methods that could result in an improvement in the spatio-economic development and wellbeing of affected fishing communities in particular and Ghana in general.