International Science Index

International Journal of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering

1372
96928
Algorithm for Path Recognition in-between Tree Rows for Agricultural Wheeled-Mobile Robots
Abstract:
Machine vision has been widely used in recent years in agriculture, as a tool to promote the automation of processes and increase the levels of productivity. The aim of this work is the development of a path recognition algorithm based on image processing to guide a terrestrial robot in-between tree rows. The proposed algorithm was developed using the software Matlab and it uses several image processing operations, such as threshold detection, morphological erosion, histogram equalization and the Hough transform, to find edge lines along tree rows on an image and to create a path to be followed by a mobile robot. An images’ set of different types of orchards was used to develop the algorithm. The use of this set made possible the construction of a method capable of identifying paths between trees of different heights and aspects. The algorithm was evaluated using several images with different characteristics of quality and the results showed that the proposed method can successfully detect a path in different types of environments.
1371
96931
Standalone Docking Station with Combined Charging Methods for Agricultural Mobile Robots
Abstract:
One of the major concerns of precision agriculture is related to the energy efficiency of robots used in agriculture activities. In this paper, two different charging methods of agricultural standalone docking stations are shown. The design of the docking station considered parameters such as the field size and its irregularities, nature of the task performed by the autonomous terrestrial robot, field end lines of the terrain that must not be passed, among others. Its features also are dependent on the orchard, season, battery type and its technical specifications and cost. One of the charging methods focuses on wireless charging, presenting more benefits for small fields. The other charging method relies on battery replacement that is more suitable for large fields, thus avoiding the robot stop for a recharge. Existing many methods to charge a battery, the Constant Current and Constant Voltage (CC-CV) method was considered the most appropriate for either simplicity and effectiveness. The choice of the battery for agricultural purposes is if most importance. While the most common is the Li-ion battery, this study also discusses the use of a graphene-based new type of batteries with 45% over capacity. A Battery Management Systems (BMS) is applied for battery balancing. The combination of these charging approaches is a promising strategy for standalone docking stations for agricultural mobile robots.
1370
96932
Current Status and Future Trends of Mechanized Fruit Thinning Devices and Sensor Technology
Abstract:
This paper reviews the different concepts that have been investigated concerning the mechanization of fruit thinning as well as multiple working principles and solutions that have been developed for feature extraction of horticultural products, both in the field and industrial environments. The research should be committed towards selective methods, which inevitably need to incorporate some kind of sensor technology. Computer vision often comes out as an obvious solution for unstructured detection problems, although fruits are frequently occluded by leaves despite the chosen point of view. Further research on non-traditional sensors which are capable of object differentiation is needed. Ultrasonic and Near InfraRed (NIR) technologies have been investigated for applications related to horticultural produce and show a potential to satisfy this need while simultaneously providing spatial information as time of flight sensors. Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) technology also shows a huge potential but it implies much greater costs and the related equipment is usually much larger, making it less suitable for portable devices which may serve a purpose on smaller unstructured orchards. Portable devices may serve a purpose on these type of orchards. In what concerns sensor methods, on-tree fruit detection major challenge is to overcome the problem of fruits’ occlusion by leaves and branches. Hence, nontraditional sensors capable of providing some type of differentiation should be investigated.
1369
95115
Complete Chloroplast DNA Sequences of Georgian Endemic Polyploid Wheats
Abstract:
Three types of plasmon (A, B and G) is typical for genus Triticum. In polyploid species - Triticum turgidum L. and Triticum aestivum L. plasmon B is detected. In the forthcoming paper, complete nucleotide sequence of chloroplast DNA of 11 representatives of Georgian wheat polyploid species, carrying plasmon B was determined. Sequencing of chloroplast DNA was performed on an Illumina MiSeq platform. Chloroplast DNA molecules were assembled using the SOAPdenovo computer program. All contigs were aligned to the reference chloroplast genome sequence using BLASTN. For detection of SNPs and Indels and phylogeny tree construction computer programs Mafft and Blast were used. Using Triticum aestivum L. subsp. macha (Dekapr. & Menabde) Mackey var. paleocolchicum Dekapr. et Menabde as a reference, 5 SNPs can be identified in chloroplast DNA of Georgian endemic polyploid wheat. The number of noncoding substitutions is 2, coding substitutions - 3. In comparison with reference DNA two - 38 bp and 56 bp inversions were observed in paleocolchicum subspecies. There were six 1 bp indels detected in Georgian polyploid wheats, all of them at microsatellite stretches. The phylogeny tree shows that subspecies macha, carthlicum and paleocolchicum occupy different positions. According to the simplified scheme based on SNP and indel data, the ancestral, female parent of the all studied polyploid wheat is unknown X predecesor, from which four lines were formed. 1 SNP and two inversions (38 bp and 56 bp) caused the formation of subsp. paleocolchicum. Three other lines are macha, durum and carthlicum lines. Macha line is further divided into two sublines (M_1 and M_4). Carthlicum line includes subsp.carthlicum and T.aestivum - C_1 - C_2 - A_1. One of the central question of wheat domestication is which people(s) participated in wheat domestication? It is proposed that the predecessors of Georgian peoples (Proto-Kartvelians) must be placed, on the evidence of archaic lexical and toponymic data, in the mountainous regions of the western and central part of the Little Caucasus (the Transcaucasian foothills) at least 4,000 years ago. One of the possibility to explain the ‘wheat puzzle’ is that Kartvelian speakers brought domesticated wheat species and subspecis from Fertile Crescent further north to South Caucasus.
1368
95610
Organic Oils Fumigation and Ozonated Cold Storage Influence Storage Life and Fruit Quality in Granny Smith Apples
Abstract:
Ethylene management during storage life of organically grown apples is a challenging issue due to limited available options. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effects of lemon and cinnamon oils fumigation on storage life, the incidence of superficial scald and quality of Granny Smith apple which were kept in cold storage with and without ozone. The fruit was fumigated with 3µl L⁻¹ lemon or cinnamon oil for 24 h and untreated fruit was kept as a control. Following the treatments, the fruit was stored at (0.5 to -1°C) with and without ozone for 100 and 150 days. After each storage period, ethylene production and respiration rate, superficial scald and various fruit quality parameters were estimated. Lemon oil fumigated fruit showed significantly reduced the mean climacteric peak ethylene production rate in both 100 and 150 days stored fruit. Mean climacteric peak ethylene production rate was significantly reduced in the apples which were kept in an ozonated as compared to cold stored without ozone for 100 days only. The climacteric ethylene peak was delayed only in 100 days cold stored fruit with ozone (8.78 d) as compared to without ozone (3.89 d). Firmness was significantly higher in the fruit fumigated with lemon or cinnamon oil compared to control for both storage time. The fruit stored for 150 days in cold storage without ozone exhibited higher mean firmness than those stored in ozonated. Lemon or cinnamon oil fumigation significantly reduced superficial scald in both cold stored fruit with or without ozone. Levels of total phenols were significantly higher in cinnamon oil treated fruit and stored for 100 days as compared to all other treatments. In 150 days stored fruit fumigated with lemon oil showed the significantly higher level of total phenols compared to cinnamon oil fumigation and control. The fruit fumigated with lemon oil or cinnamon oil following 150 days cold storage resulted in significantly higher levels of ascorbic acid and antioxidant capacity as compared to the control fruit. In conclusion, lemon oil fumigation was more effective in suppressing ethylene production in 100-150 days cold stored fruit than cinnamon oil. Whilst, fumigation of both lemon or cinnamon oil were effective in reducing superficial scald and maintaining quality in 100-150 days cold stored fruit.
1367
91811
Assessment of the Egyptian Agricultural Foreign Trade with Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa Countries
Abstract:
The opening of new promising foreign markets is one of the objectives of Egypt’s foreign trade policies, especially for agricultural exports. This study aims at the examination of the commodity structure of the Egyptian agricultural imports and exports with the COMESA countries. In addition, estimation of the surplus/deficit of the Egyptian commodities and agricultural balance with these countries is made. Time series data covering the period 2004-2016 is used. Estimation of the growth function along with the derivation of the annual growth rates of the study’s variables is made. Some of the results of the study period display the following: (1) The average total Egyptian exports to the COMESA (Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa) countries is estimated at 1,491 million dollars, with an annual growth rate of 14.4% (214.7 million dollars). (2) The average annual Egyptian agricultural exports to these economies is estimated at 555 million dollars, with an annual growth rate of 19.4% (107.7 million dollars). (3) The average annual value of agricultural imports from the COMESA countries is set at 289 Million Dollars, with an annual growth rate of 14.4% (41.6 million dollars). (4) The study shows that there is a continuous surplus in the agricultural balance with these economies, whilst having a deficit in the raw-materials agricultural balance, as well as the balance of input requirements with these countries.
1366
95142
An Evaluation of the Effects of Special Safeguards in Meat upon International Trade and Brazilian Economy
Abstract:
This study identified the impact of special agricultural safeguards (SSG) for the global market of meat and for the Brazilian economy. The tariff lines subject to SSG were selected and the period of analysis was 1995 (when the rules about the SSGs were established) to 2015 (more recent period for which there are notifications). The value of additional tariff was calculated for each of the most important tariff lines. The import volume and the price elasticities for imports were used to estimate the impacts of each additional tariff estimated on imports. Finally, the effect of Brazilian exports of meat without SSG taxes was calculated as well as its impact in the country’s economy by using an input-output matrix. The most important markets that applied SSGs were the U.S. for beef and European Union for poultry. However, the additional tariffs could be estimated in only two of the sixteen years that the U.S. applied SSGs on beef imports, suggesting that its use has been enforced when the average annual price has been higher than the trigger price level. The results indicated that the value of the bovine and poultry meat that could not be exported by Brazil due to SSGs to both markets (EU and the U.S.) was equivalent to BRL 804 million. The impact of this loss in trade was about: BRL 3.7 billion of the economy’s production value (at 2015 prices) and almost BRL 2 billion of the Brazilian Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
1365
96317
Valuing Social Sustainability in Agriculture: An Approach Based on Social Outputs’ Shadow Prices
Abstract:
Interest in sustainability has gained ground among practitioners, academics and policy-makers due to growing stakeholders’ awareness of environmental and social concerns. This is particularly true for agriculture. However, relatively little research has been conducted on the quantification of social sustainability and the contribution of social issues to the agricultural production efficiency. This research's main objective is to propose a method for evaluating prices of social outputs, more precisely shadow prices, by allowing for the stochastic nature of agricultural production that is to say for production uncertainty. In this article, the assessment of social outputs’ shadow prices is conducted within the methodological framework of nonparametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). An output-oriented directional distance function (DDF) is implemented to represent the technology of a sample of Catalan arable crop farms and derive the efficiency scores the overall production technology of our sample is assumed to be the intersection of two different sub-technologies. The first sub-technology models the production of random desirable agricultural outputs, while the second sub-technology reflects the social outcomes from agricultural activities. Once a nonparametric production technology has been represented, the DDF primal approach can be used for efficiency measurement, while shadow prices are drawn from the dual representation of the DDF. Computing shadow prices is a method to assign an economic value to non-marketed social outcomes. Our research uses cross sectional, farm-level data collected in 2015 from a sample of 180 Catalan arable crop farms specialized in the production of cereals, oilseeds and protein (COP) crops. Our results suggest that our sample farms show high performance scores, from 85% for the bad state of nature to 88% for the normal and ideal crop growing conditions. This suggests that farm performance is increasing with an improvement in crop growth conditions. Results also show that average shadow prices of desirable state-contingent output and social outcomes for efficient and inefficient farms are positive, suggesting that the production of desirable marketable outputs and of non-marketable outputs makes a positive contribution to the farm production efficiency. Results also indicate that social outputs’ shadow prices are contingent upon the growing conditions. The shadow prices follow an upward trend as crop-growing conditions improve. This finding suggests that these efficient farms prefer to allocate more resources in the production of desirable outputs than of social outcomes. To our knowledge, this study represents the first attempt to compute shadow prices of social outcomes while accounting for the stochastic nature of the production technology. Our findings suggest that the decision-making process of the efficient farms in dealing with social issues are stochastic and strongly dependent on the growth conditions. This implies that policy-makers should adjust their instruments according to the stochastic environmental conditions. An optimal redistribution of rural development support, by increasing the public payment with the improvement in crop growth conditions, would likely enhance the effectiveness of public policies.
1364
96430
Economic Impact of Drought on Agricultural Society: Evidence Based on a Village Study in Maharashtra, India
Abstract:
Climate elements include surface temperatures, rainfall patterns, humidity, type and amount of cloudiness, air pressure and wind speed and direction. Change in one element can have an impact on the regional climate. The scientific predictions indicate that global climate change will increase the number of extreme events, leading to more frequent natural hazards. Global warming is likely to intensify the risk of drought in certain parts and also leading to increased rainfall in some other parts. Drought is a slow advancing disaster and creeping phenomenon– which accumulate slowly over a long period of time. Droughts are naturally linked with aridity. But droughts occur over most parts of the world (both wet and humid regions) and create severe impacts on agriculture, basic household welfare and ecosystems. Drought condition occurs at least every three years in India. India is one among the most vulnerable drought prone countries in the world. The economic impacts resulting from extreme environmental events and disasters are huge as a result of disruption in many economic activities. The focus of this paper is to develop a comprehensive understanding about the distributional impacts of disaster, especially impact of drought on agricultural production and income through a panel study (drought year and one year after the drought) in Raikhel village, Maharashtra, India. The major findings of the study indicate that cultivating area as well as the number of cultivating households reduced after the drought, indicating a shift in the livelihood- households moved from agriculture to non-agriculture. Decline in the gross cropped area and production of various crops depended on the negative income from these crops in the previous agriculture season. All the landholding categories of households except landlords had negative income in the drought year and also the income disparities between the households were higher in that year. In the drought year, the cost of cultivation was higher for all the landholding categories due to the increased cost for irrigation and input cost. In the drought year, agriculture products (50 per cent of the total products) were used for household consumption rather than selling in the market. It is evident from the study that livelihood which was based on natural resources became less attractive to the people to due to the risk involved in it and people were moving to less risk livelihood for their sustenance.
1363
95294
Development of DNDC Modelling Method for Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Emission from Arable Soils in European Russia
Abstract:
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main component of carbon biogeochemical cycle and one of the most important greenhouse gases (GHG). Agriculture, particularly arable soils, are one the largest sources of GHG emission for the atmosphere including CO2.Models may be used for estimation of GHG emission from agriculture if they can be adapted for different countries conditions. The only model used in officially at national level in United Kingdom and China for this purpose is DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition). In our research, the model DNDC is offered for estimation of GHG emission from arable soils in Russia. The aim of our research was to create the method of DNDC using for evaluation of CO2 emission in Russia based on official statistical information. The target territory was European part of Russia where many field experiments are located. At the first step of research the database on climate, soil and cropping characteristics for the target region from governmental, statistical, and literature sources were created. All-Russia Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information – World Data Centre provides open daily data about average meteorological and climatic conditions. It must be calculated spatial average values of maximum and minimum air temperature and precipitation over the region. Spatial average values of soil characteristics (soil texture, bulk density, pH, soil organic carbon content) can be determined on the base of Union state register of soil recourses of Russia. Cropping technologies are published by agricultural research institutes and departments. We offer to define cropping system parameters (annual information about crop yields, amount and types of fertilizers and manure) on the base of the Federal State Statistics Service data. Content of carbon in plant biomass may be calculated via formulas developed and published by Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation. At the second step CO2 emission from soil in this region were calculated by DNDC. Modelling data were compared with empirical and literature data and good results were obtained, modelled values were equivalent to the measured ones. It was revealed that the DNDC model may be used to evaluate and forecast the CO2 emission from arable soils in Russia based on the official statistical information. Also, it can be used for creation of the program for decreasing GHG emission from arable soils to the atmosphere. Financial Support: fundamental scientific researching theme 0148-2014-0005 No 01201352499 ‘Solution of fundamental problems of analysis and forecast of Earth climatic system condition’ for 2014-2020; fundamental research program of Presidium of RAS No 51 ‘Climate change: causes, risks, consequences, problems of adaptation and regulation’ for 2018-2020.
1362
97494
RNA Interference-Mediated Knockdown of Voltage Gated Sodium Channel (Mpnav) Gene Causes Mortality in Peach-Potato Aphid, Myzus Persicae
Abstract:
Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) are transmembrane protein that generate action potential in excitable cells and play essential role in neuronal signaling. Since VGSCs play crucial role in nerve transmission they are primary targets of a broad range of naturally occurring insecticides. RNA interference (RNAi) is a reverse genetics tool to study functional genomics, but recently, it has received an intention to make it a promising novel agent that could be used to control agricultural insect pests. In this study, we targeted the voltage gated sodium channel (MpNav) gene in peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae by feeding artificial diets mixed with dsRNAs. Knock-down of MpNav gene caused up to 65% mortalities of 3rd instar nymphs of M. persicae. Moreover, significantly lower fecundity and longevity was observed in the adult aphids that had been feeding with dsMpNav solution at their nymphal stage. Analysis of gene expression by qRT-PCR indicated that aphid mortality, lower fecundity and longevity were attributable to the down-regulation of MpNav by RNAi. Taken together, our results showed that MpNav is an indispensable gene to support aphid life, and could be used as a candidate target gene to develop RNAi-based bio-pesticide.
1361
89386
A Risk Assessment for the Small Hive Beetle Based on Meteorological Standard Measurements
Abstract:
The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) is a parasite for honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, and was recently introduced to the European continent, accidentally. Based on the literature, a model was developed by using regional meteorological variables (daily values of minimum, maximum and mean air temperature as well as mean soil temperature at 50 mm depth) to calculate the time-point of hive invasion by A. tumida in springtime, the development duration of pupae as well as the number of generations of A. tumida per year. Luxembourg was used as a test region for our model for the years 2005 to 2013. The model output indicates a successful surviving of the small hive beetle in Luxembourg with two up to three generations per year and a first invasion of bee hives during time-period from mid of March up to mid of April, based on meteorological conditions. Our approach can be transferred easily to other countries to estimate the risk potential for a successful introduction and spreading of A. tumida in Western Europe.
1360
89392
Impact of Herbicides on Soil Biology in Rapeseed
Abstract:
Winter oilseed rape, Brassica napus L., is characterized by a high number of herbicide applications. Therefore, its cultivation can lead to massive contamination of ground water and soil by herbicide and their metabolites. A multi-side long-term field experiment (EFFO, Efficient crop rotation) was set-up in Luxembourg to quantify these effects. Based on soil sampling and laboratory analysis preliminary results showed reduced dehydrogenase activities of several soil organisms due to herbicide treatments. This effect is highly depending on the soil type. Relation between the dehydrogenase activity and the amount of microbial carbon showed higher variability on the test side with loamy Brown Earth, based on Bunter than on those with sandy-loamy Brown Earth, based on calciferous Sandstone.
1359
95184
Assessing the Accumulation of Flavonols in Pinot Blanc Berries in Alpine Vineyards by a Non-Destructive Fluorescence Approach
Abstract:
The Vitis vinifera cultivar Pinot blanc is one of the most important white grape variety in the European Alpine viticulture. It is a neutral variety which tends to reflect the features of the growing site. In Alpine regions, the cv. Pinot blanc has showed a great potential to produce high-quality wines, however the knowledge about this cultivar is still limited. So far, the effects of vineyard growth altitudes on the synthesis of berry flavor have been mainly explored on red berry varieties growing under particular climate conditions (e.g. monsoon-climate and oceanic-climate). The aim of the present study, part of ‘PinotBlanc’ project (European Regional Development Fund, ERDF 2014-2020), was to assess the grape berry phenolic maturity of the white grape variety Pinot blanc and to deeper investigate the climate effects of the Alpine wine growing areas on it. Different altitudes were investigated, particularly eight Pinot blanc vineyards located between 223 and 730 meters above sea level in four South Tyrolean wine growing areas were chosen. The seasonal climate data such as temperature and sun exposure have been collected. The evolution of phenolic accumulation in grape berry skin, from veraison to ripeness, was assessed using a commercial fluorescence-based optical device (Multiplex ® 3.6, Force-A) by multiple measurements, in two consecutive vintages. The flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (SFR) indices were considered to evaluate the berry phenolic maturity. To calibrate the FLAV index for Pinot blanc, samples of berries were collected on different days throughout a growing season. The correlation between FLAV index and berry skin flavonols concentration was determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD). Based on these data a FLAV index calibration curve for Pinot blanc flavonols estimation has been proposed. During the ripening time a decrease of SFR and a parallel increase of FLAV, for all the growing areas under investigation, has been observed. At harvest, significant differences in FLAV between the growing areas were found. The bunch sun-exposures between row side and vineyards located at different altitudes can explain the observed differences in flavonols accumulation patterns. A slight effect of the thermal regimes was observed. The present study improved the knowledge of flavonols accumulation in white grape berries under different growing conditions. Moreover, the achieved results showed the potential of fluorescence-based portable sensors to improve the production of high quality grapes and wine and to promote precision viticulture in the Alps. Nevertheless, further investigation will be necessary to correlate berry phenolic maturity to aromatic potential in white grape cultivars.
1358
95228
Preliminary Results of Altitude Effects on Pinot Blanc Grape Quality in Northern Italy
Abstract:
The observed warming trend during the growing season of Vitis vinifera is a worldwide well documented phenomenon. Some of the consequences of climate-change on grapevine berry composition and quality are known. These effects lead winegrowers to search for alternative techniques to mitigate possible negative aspects on grape quality, such as the acidity decay, due to higher air temperatures during ripening and earlier phenology stages. South Tyrol is one of the northernmost regions in Italy known for white wines with high acidity content which gives them a distinguishable freshness. One way to increase acidity in a generally warmer climate scenario would be to plant vineyards on higher altitudes, where the temperatures should be lower. The present study as part of the ‘PinotBlanc’ project (European Regional Development Fund, ERDF 2014-2020) aims to present the effects of high altitudes on vineyard microclimate and final grape quality. Six Pinot blanc vineyards located at low and high-altitudes (from 200 to 700 meters above sea level) in the Adige valley were selected. Temperatures of two consecutive growing seasons were collected by on site weather stations. In particular, soil, air, and inner grape bunch temperatures were analyzed. Grapevine phenology was observed and the principal growing stages (bud burst, full bloom, veraison and physiological maturity) have been dated. Grape maturity test from veraison to full maturity have been made, simultaneously chemical analysis on the obtained musts was performed considering sugar content, pH, malic acid content, tartaric acid content, and yeast assimilable nitrogen concentration. The achieved results showed significantly effects of the growing altitudes on the vineyard microclimate conditions. Focusing on the time-frame from veraison to physiological maturity, the medium temperature between low and high-altitude vineyards was significantly different, with about 4°C of difference. The different degree-days accumulation among growing sites affected the grapevine phenology, indeed the physiological maturity happened approximately two weeks in advance in low-altitude vineyards compared to the high-altitude ones. Strangely, the thermal-excursions between day and night recorded at different altitudes were comparable. However, the mean minimum temperature of the grape bunches was significantly lower in high-altitudes vineyards compared to low-altitudes vineyards. This effect explained sharp acidity decrease in Pinot blanc berries of low-altitudes growing sites, together with the higher number of hours above 30°C observed in the grape bunches of low-altitudes vineyards. Interestingly, the increment of temperature is negatively correlated with the berry malic acid content. The yeast assimilable nitrogen concentration seems not to be affected by the thermal-regimes observed at the different growing altitudes. In conclusion, this study has provided new insight to better understanding the effects of climate-change on northern Italy viticulture, showing the possibility to plant vineyards on higher altitudes in order to preserve the acidity and the quality potential of withe-grape berries.
1357
95290
Value Chain Identification of Beekeeping Business in Indonesia: Case Study of Four Beekeeping Business in West Java
Abstract:
Beekeeping became a rural economic buffer, especially for people who lived by forest side to diversify their food or sell the honey and bee colony. Aside from the high price of honey and it’s derivative products, there is another revenue stream along beekeeping value chain that could be optimized by the people. There are five of nine honey bee species in the world, exist in Indonesia, such as Apis Cerana, Apis Dorsata, Apis Andreniformis, Apis Koschevnikovi, and Apis Nigrocincta. Indonesian farmer generally developed Apis Cerana and two other honey bees species, like Apis Mellifera and Trigona. This study tried to identify, how beekeeping business practices, challenges and opportunities in four beekeeping business in West Java through the value chain along the business. Data carried out by literature review, interview and focus group discussion with key actors in beekeeping business. There are six revenue stream in beekeeping business in West Java, such as brood hunter, beehives maker, agroforestry, agro-tourism, honey and derivatives products and bee acupuncture. This assesses conclude any criteria that should grasp for developing and sustaining beekeeping business in West Java.
1356
76594
Effect of Zinc-Lysine on Growth, Photosynthesis, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System and Chromium Uptake in Rice under Cr Stress
Abstract:
Chromium (Cr) is one of the widespread and toxic trace elements present in the agricultural land. Chromium can enter into the food chain mainly through agricultural crops grown on Cr-contaminated soils such as rice (Oryza sativa L.). The current study was done to evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations foliar applied zinc (Zn) chelated with lysine (Zn-lys) (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg L⁻¹) on rice biomass, photosynthesis, oxidative stress, key antioxidant enzyme activities and Cr uptake under increasing levels of Cr in the soil (0, 100, 500 mg kg⁻¹). Cr-induced toxicity reduced the height of plants, biomass, chlorophyll contents, gas exchange parameters, and antioxidant enzyme activities while increased the Cr concentrations and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, electrolyte leakage, and H₂O₂) in shoots and roots than control plants. Foliar application of Zn-lys increased the plant growth, photosynthesis, Zn concentrations, and enzyme activities in rice seedlings. In addition, Zn-lys reduced the Cr concentrations and oxidative stress compared to the respective Cr treatments alone. The present results indicate that foliar Zn-lys stimulates the antioxidant defense system in rice, increase the rice growth while reduced the Cr concentrations in plants by promoting the Zn uptake and photosynthesis. Taken together, foliar spray of Zn-lys chelate can efficiently be employed for improving plant growth and Zn contents while reducing Cr concentration in rice grown in Cr-contaminated and Zn-deficient soils.
1355
89231
Eradication of Apple mosaic virus from Corylus avellana L. via Cryotherapy and Confirmation of Virus-Free Plants via Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Authors:
Abstract:
Apple mosaic virus (ApMV) is an ilarvirus causing harmful damages and product loses in many plant species. Because of xylem and phloem vessels absence, plant meristem tissues used for meristem cultures are virus-free, but sometimes only meristem cultures are not sufficient for virus elimination. Cryotherapy, a new method based on cryogenic techniques, is used for virus elimination. In this technique, 0.1-0.3mm meristems are excised from organized shoot apex of a selected in vitro donor plant and these meristems are frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) using suitable cryogenic technique. The aim of this work was to develop an efficient procedure for ApMV-free hazelnut via cryotherapy technique and confirmation of virus-free plants using Reverse Transcriptase-PCR technique. 100% virus free plantlets were obtained using droplet-vitrification method involved cold hardening in vitro cultures of hazelnut, 24 hours sucrose preculture of meristems on MS medium supplemented with 0.4M sucrose, and a 90 min PVS2 treatment in droplets.
1354
95317
Effects of Different Media and Mannitol Concentrations on Growth and Development of Vandopsis lissochiloides (Gaudich.) Pfitz. Under Slow Growth Conditions
Abstract:
In vitro conservation of orchid, germplasm provides an effective technique for ex situ conservation of orchid diversity. In this study, an efficient protocol for in vitro conservation of Vandopsis lissochiloides (Gaudich.) Pfitz. plantlets under slow growth conditions were investigated. Plantlets were cultured on different strength of VW (Vacin and Went, 1949), ½VW and ¼VW medium supplemented with different concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8%) of mannitol, 50 g/L potato extract, 150 mL/L coconut water and sucrose (0 and 3%). The cultures were incubated at 25 ± 2°C and maintained under light intensity 20 µmol/m²s for 24 weeks without subculture. At the end of preservation period, the plantlets were removed from conservation medium and transferred to fresh medium for growth recovery. It was found that ¼VW medium supplemented with 3% sucrose and added with 8% mannitol could reduce the growth and cause abnormalities of growth of plantlets, which is evidenced by the low rate of survival rate after recovery growth. Half and quarter strength VW medium without adding mannitol seemed to be optimal conditions for conserving plantlets of V. lissochiloides up to 24 weeks with the highest percentage of survival (100%) and good regenerated. The maximum leaf number (5.0 leaves/plantlet) could be induced on ½VW medium without sucrose and mannitol while the maximum root number (2.6 roots/ plantlet) could be induced on ¼VW without sucrose and mannitol. The highest percentage of leaf formation (97.3%) could be obtained on ¼VW added with 3% sucrose and without mannitol. The highest percentage of root formation (52.0%) could be obtained on ½VW medium added with 3% sucrose and without mannitol. Thus, ¼VW medium without adding sucrose and mannitol were the best minimum growth conditions for medium-term storage of V. lissochiloides plantlets.
1353
95318
Influence of Organic Supplements on Shoot Multiplication Efficiency of Phaius tankervilleae var. alba
Abstract:
The influence of organic supplements on growth and multiplication efficiency of Phaius tankervilleae var. alba seedlings was carried out. Twelve week-old seedlings were cultured on half-strength semi-solid MS medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 8 g/L agar and various concentrations of coconut water (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 ml/L) combined with potato extract (0, 25 and 50 g/L) and the pH was adjusted to 5.8 prior to autoclaving. The cultures were then kept under constant photoperiod (16 h light: 8 h dark) at 25 ± 2 °C for 12 weeks. The highest number of shoots (3.03 shoots/explant) was obtained when cultured on the medium added with 50 g/L potato extract and 50 ml/L coconut water whereas the highest number of leaves (6.48 leaves/explant) and roots (6.19 roots/explant) could receive on the medium augmented with 50 g/L potato extract and 150 ml/L coconut water. Additionally, plantlets of P.tankervilleae var. alba were transferred to grow into three different substrates i.e. soil, sand and raw rice husk for four weeks. The result found that acclimatized plants showed 100% of survivals when they used sand and raw rice husk as substrates. The numbers of leaves induced by sand and raw rice husk were significantly higher than that planted in soil (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, no significant difference in both leaf width and length among these substrates were observed (P < 0.05). This precursory developing protocol was likely to be applied for more large scale of plant production as well as conservation of germplasm of this orchid species.
1352
96341
Effects of Multilayer Coating of Chitosan and Polystyrene Sulfonate on Quality of 'Nam Dok Mai No.4' Mango
Abstract:
Ripe “Nam Dok Mai” mango (Mangifera indica L.) is an important exported fruit of Thailand, but rapidly decays and weakens to anthracnose and stem end rot diseases. Multilayer coating is considered as a developed technique to maintain the postharvest quality of mangoes. The utilization of edible coating by matching oppositely electrostatic charges between 0.1% chitosan and 0.1% polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) were studied. A number of the coating layers (layer by layer) were applied on mature green ‘Nam Dok Mai No.4’ mangoes prior to storage at 25oC, 65-70% RH. The quality attributes of mangoes coated with 3½ layers, 4½ layers and 5½ layers were significantly different. In comparison with the coated mangoes, uncoated mangoes had higher weight loss, total soluble solids, respiration rate, ethylene production and disease incidence except the titratable acidity. Coating fruit at 3½ layers was the best to delay ripening and performed high acceptable scores without off flavour. On the other hand, mangoes coated with 5½ layers had the lowest acceptable score, caused by exhibiting disorders from fermentation. As a result, multilayer coating between chitosan and PSS could effectively maintain the postharvest quality of mango, but coating concentrations and a number of coating layers should be thoroughly considered.
1351
96838
The Influence of Substrate and Temperature on the Growth of Phytophthora palmivora of Cocoa Black Pod Disease
Abstract:
Black pod is the most commonly destructive disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) which cause major losses to global production of cocoa beans. The genus of Phytophthora is the important pathogen of this disease worldwide. The species of P. megakarya causes black pod disease in West Africa, whereas P. capsici and P. citrophthora cause the incident in Central and South America. In Malaysia, this disease is caused by P. palmivora which infect all stages of pod development including flower cushion, cherelle, immature and mature pods. This pathogen destroys up to 10% of trees yearly through stem cankers and causes 20 to 30% pod damages through black pod rot. Since P. palmivora has a high impact on cocoa yield, it is crucial to identify some of the abiotic factors that can constrain their growth. In an effort to evaluate the effect of different substrates and temperatures to the growth of P. palmivora, a laboratory study was done under a different range of temperatures. Different substrate for the growth of P. palmivora were used which are corn meal agar (CMA) media and detached pod of cocoa. An agar plug of seven days old of P. palmivora growth was transferred on both substrates and incubated at 24, 27, 30, 33 and 36ᵒC, respectively. The diameter of lesion on pod and the cultural growth of pathogen was recorded for 7 consecutive days. The optimum incubation temperature of P. palmivora on both substrates is at 27ᵒC. However, the growth tends to be inhibited as the temperature increases. No lesion developed on pod surface incubated at 36ᵒC and only a small lesion observed at 33ᵒC. The sporulation with the formation of white mycelial growth on pod surface was only visible at optimum temperature, 27ᵒC. On CMA, the pathogen grew over the entire range of temperatures tested. The study is, therefore, concluded that P. palmivora grow the best at temperature of 27ᵒC on both substrates and their growth begin to inhibit when the temperature rises to more than 27ᵒC. The growth pattern of this pathogen is similar on both pod surface and cultural media.
1350
86765
Application of Rare Aquatic Plants (Salvinia natans) for Wastewater Treatment under Algerian Semi-Arid Climate
Abstract:
Macrophyte pond has developed strongly in the field of wastewater treatment for irrigation in rural areas and small communities. Their association allows, in some cases, to increase the hydraulic capacity while maintaining the highest level of quality. The present work is devoted to the treatment of domestic wastewater under climatic conditions of Algeria (semi-arid) through a system using two tanks planted with Salvinia natans. The performance study and treatment efficiency of the system overall shows that the latter provides a significant removal of nitrogen pollution: total Kjeldahl nitrogen NTK (85.2%), Ammonium NH4+-N (79%), Nitrite NO2--N (40%) also, a major meaningful reduction of biochemical oxygen demand BOD5 was observed at the output of the system (96.9 %). As BOD5, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was higher than 95 % at the exit of the two tanks. A moderately low yield of phosphate-phosphorus (PO43-P) was achieved with values not exceeding 37 %. In general, the quality of treated effluent meets the Algerian standard of discharge and which allows us to select a suitable species in constructed wetland treatment systems under semi-arid climate.
1349
92289
Effects of a Dwarfing Gene sd1-d (Dee-Geo-Woo-Gen Dwarf) on Yield and Related Traits in Rice: Preliminary Report
Abstract:
The sd1-d allele at the sd1 locus on chromosome 1, originating from Taiwanese variety Dee-geo-woo-gen, has been playing important role for developing short-culm and lodging-resistant indica varieties such as IR36 in rice. The dominant allele SD1 for long culm at the locus is differentiated into SD1-in and SD1-ja which are harbored in indica and japonica subspecies’s, respectively. The sd1-d of an indica variety IR36 was substituted with SD1-in or SD1-ja by recurrent backcrosses of 17 times with IR36, and two isogenic tall lines regarding the respective dominant alleles were developed by using an indica variety IR5867 and a japonica one ‘Koshihikari’ as donors, which were denoted by '5867-36' and 'Koshi-36', respectively. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of sd1-d on yield and related traits as compared with SD1-in and SD1-ja, by using the two isogenic tall lines. Seedlings of IR36 and the two isogenic lines were transplanted on an experimental field of Kochi University, by the planting distance of 30 cm × 15 cm with two seedlings per hill, on May 3, 2017. Chemical fertilizers were supplied by basal application and top-dressing at a rate of 8.00, 6.57 and 7.52 g/m², respectively, for N, P₂O₅ and K₂O in total. Yield, yield components, and other traits were measured. Culm length (cm) was in the order of 5867-36 (101.9) > Koshi-36 (80.1) > IR36 (60.0), where '>' indicates statistically significant difference at the 5% level. Accordingly, sd1-d reduced culm by 41.9 and 20.1 cm, compared with SD1-in and SD1-ja, respectively, and the effect of elongating culm was higher in the former allele than in the latter one. Total brown rice yield (g/m²), including unripened grains, was in the order of IR36 (611) ≧ 5867-36 (586) ≧ Koshi-36 (572), indicating non-significant differences among them. Yield-1.5mm sieve (g/m²) was in the order of IR36 (596) ≧ 5867-36 (575) ≧ Koshi-36 (558). Spikelet number per panicle was in the order of 5867-36 (89.2) ≧ IR36 (84.7) ≧ Koshi-36 (79.8), and 5867-36 > Koshi-36. Panicle number per m² was in the order of IR36 (428) ≧ Koshi-36 (403) ≧ 5867-36 (353), and IR36 > 5867-36, suggesting that sd1-d increased number of panicles compared with SD1-in. Ripened-grain percentage-1.5mm sieve was in the order of Koshi-36 (86.0) ≧ 5867-36 (85.0) ≧ IR36 (82.7), and Koshi-36 > IR36. Thousand brown-rice-grain weight-1.5mm sieve (g) was in the order of 5867-36 (21.5) > Koshi-36 (20.2) ≧ IR36 (19.9). Total dry weight at maturity (g/m²) was in the order of 5867-36 (1404 ) ≧ IR36 (1310) ≧ Kosihi-36 (1290). Harvest index of total brown rice (%) was in the order of IR36 (39.6) > Koshi-36 (37.7) > 5867-36 (35.5). Hence, sd1-d did not exert significant effect on yield in indica genetic background. However, lodging was observed from the late stage of maturity in 5867-36 and Koshi-36, particularly in the former, which was principally due to their long culms. Consequently, sd1-d enables higher yield with higher fertilizer application, by enhancing lodging resistance, particularly in indica subspecies.
1348
96330
Evaluation of Dry Matter Yield of Panicum maximum Intercropped with Pigeonpea and Sesbania Sesban
Abstract:
Seasonal shortages of fodder during the dry season is a major constraint to smallholder livestock farmers in South Africa. To mitigate the shortage of fodder, legume trees can be intercropped with pastures which can diversify the sources of feed and increase the amount of protein for grazing animals. The objective was to evaluate dry matter yield of Panicum maximum and land productivity under different fodder production systems during 2016/17-2017/18 seasons at Empangeni (28.6391° S and 31.9400° E). A randomized complete block design, replicated three times was used, the treatments were sole Panicum maximum, Panicum maximum + Sesbania sesban, Panicum maximum + pigeonpea, sole Sesbania sesban, Sole pigeonpea. Three months S.sesbania seedlings were transplanted whilst pigeonpea was direct seeded at spacing of 1m x 1m. P. maximum seeds were drilled at a respective rate of 7.5 kg/ha having an inter-row spacing of 0.25 m apart. In between rows of trees P. maximum seeds were drilled. The dry matter yield harvesting times were separated by six months’ timeframe. A 0.25 m² quadrant randomly placed on 3 points on the plot was used as sampling area during harvesting P. maximum. There was significant difference P < 0.05 across 3 harvests and total dry matter. P. maximum had higher dry matter yield as compared to both intercrops at first harvest and total. The second and third harvest had no significant difference with pigeonpea intercrop. The results was in this order for all 3 harvest: P. maximum (541.2c, 1209.3b and 1557b) kg ha¹ ≥ P. maximum + pigeonpea (157.2b, 926.7b and 1129b) kg ha¹ > P. maximum + S. sesban (36.3a, 282a and 555a) kg ha¹. Total accumulation of dry matter yield of P. maximum (3307c kg ha¹) > P. maximum + pigeonpea (2212 kg ha¹) ≥ P. maximum + S. sesban (874 kg ha¹). There was a significant difference (P< 0.05) on seed yield for trees. Pigeonpea (1240.3 kg ha¹) ≥ Pigeonpea + P. maximum (862.7 kg ha¹) > S.sesbania (391.9 kg ha¹) ≥ S.sesbania + P. maximum. The Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) was in the following order P. maximum + pigeonpea (1.37) > P. maximum + S. sesban (0.84) > Pigeonpea (0.59) ≥ S. Sesbania (0.57) > P. maximum (0.26). Results indicates that it is beneficial to have P. maximum intercropped with pigeonpea because of higher land productivity. Planting grass with pigeonpea was more beneficial than S. sesban with grass or sole cropping in terms of saving the shortage of arable land. P. maximum + pigeonpea saves a substantial (37%) land which can be subsequently be used for other crop production. Pigeonpea is recommended as an intercrop with P. maximum due to its higher LER and combined production of livestock feed, human food, and firewood. Panicum grass is low in crude protein though high in carbohydrates, there is a need for intercropping it with legume trees. A farmer who buys concentrates can reduce costs by combining P. maximum with pigeonpea this will provide a balanced diet at low cost.
1347
95570
Contribution of Home Gardens to Rural Household Income in Raymond MhlabaLocal Municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa
Authors:
Abstract:
Home garden has proved to be significant to rural inhabitants by providing a wide range of useful products such as fruits, vegetables and medicine. There is need for quantitative information on its benefits and contributions to rural household. The main objective of this study is to investigate contributions of home garden to income of rural households in Raymond Mhlaba Local Municipality, formerly Nkonkobe Local Municipality of Eastern Cape Province South Africa. The stratified random sampling method was applied in order to choose a sample of 160 households.The study was conducted among 80 households engaging in home gardens and 80 non- participating households in the study area. Data analysis employed descriptive statistics with the use of frequency table and one way sample T test to show actual contributions. The overall model shows that social grant has the highest contribution to total household income for both categories while income generated from home garden has the second largest share to total household income, this shows that the majority of rural households in the study area rely on social grant as their source of income. However, since most households are net food buyers, it is essential to have policies that are formulated with an understanding that household food security is not only a function of the food that farming households produce for their own consumption but more so a function of total household income. The results produced sufficient evidence that home gardens contribute significantly to income of rural household.
1346
86088
Agro-Morphological Traits Based Genetic Diversity Analysis of ‘Ethiopian Dinich’ Plectranthus edulis (Vatke) Agnew Populations Collected from Diverse Agro-Ecologies in Ethiopia
Abstract:
‘Ethiopian dinich’ also called ‘Ethiopian potato’ is one of the economically important ‘orphan’ edible tuber crops indigenous to Ethiopia. We evaluated the morphological and agronomic traits performances of 174 samples from Ethiopia at multiple locations using 12 qualitative and 16 quantitative traits, recorded at the correct growth stages. We observed several morphotypes and phenotypic variations for qualitative traits along with a wide range of mean performance values for all quantitative traits. Analysis of variance for each quantitative trait showed a highly significant (p
1345
88960
Impact of Output Market Participation on Cassava-Based Farming Households' Welfare in Nigeria
Abstract:
The potential benefits of agricultural production to improve the welfare condition of smallholder farmers in developing countries is no more a news because it has been widely documented. Yet majority of these farming households suffer from shortfall in production output to meet both the consumption needs and market demand which adversely affects output market participation and by extension welfare condition. Therefore, this study investigated the impacts of output market participation on households’ welfare of cassava-based farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 324 sample size used for this study. The findings from the data obtained and analyzed through composite score and crosstab analysis revealed that there is varying degree of output market participation among the farmers which also translate to the observed welfare profile differentials in the study area. The probit model analysis with respect to the selection equation identified gender of household head, household size, access to remittance, off-farm income and ownership of farmland as significant drivers of output market participation in the study area. Furthermore, the treatment effect model of the welfare equation and propensity score matching (PSM) technique were used as robust checks; and the findings attest to the fact that, complimentarily with other significant variables highlighted in this study, output market participation indeed has a significant impact on farming households’ welfare. As policy implication inferences, the study recommends female active inclusiveness and empowerment in farming activities, birth control strategies, secondary income smoothing activities and discouragement of land fragmentation habits, to boost productivity and output market participation, which by extension can significantly improve farming households’ welfare.
1344
89533
Collaboration between Grower and Research Organisations as a Mechanism to Improve Water Efficiency in Irrigated Agriculture
Abstract:
The uptake of research as part of the diffusion or adoption of innovation by practitioners, whether individuals or organisations, has been a popular topic in agricultural development studies for many decades. In the classical, linear model of innovation theory, the innovation originates from an expert source such as a state-supported research organisation or academic institution. The changing context of agriculture led to the development of the agricultural innovation systems model, which recognizes innovation as a complex interaction between individuals and organisations, which include private industry and collective action organisations. In terms of this model, an innovation can be developed and adopted without any input or intervention from a state or parastatal research organisation. This evolution in the diffusion of agricultural innovation has put forward new challenges for state or parastatal research organisations, which have to demonstrate the impact of their research to the legislature or a regulatory authority: Unless the organisation and the research it produces cross the knowledge paths of the intended audience, there will be no awareness, no uptake and certainly no impact. It is therefore critical for such a research organisation to base its communication strategy on a thorough understanding of the knowledge needs, information sources and knowledge networks of the intended target audience. In 2016, the South African Water Research Commission (WRC) commissioned a study to investigate the knowledge needs, information sources and knowledge networks of Water User Associations and commercial irrigators with the aim of improving uptake of its research on efficient water use in irrigation. The first phase of the study comprised face-to-face interviews with the CEOs and Board Chairs of four Water User Associations along the Orange River in South Africa, and 36 commercial irrigation farmers from the same four irrigation schemes. Intermediaries who act as knowledge conduits to the Water User Associations and the irrigators were identified and 20 of them were subsequently interviewed telephonically. The study found that irrigators interact regularly with grower organisations such as SATI (South African Table Grape Industry) and SAPPA (South African Pecan Nut Association) and that they perceive these organisations as credible, trustworthy and reliable, within their limitations. State and parastatal research institutions, on the other hand, are associated with a range of negative attributes. As a result, the awareness of, and interest in, the WRC and its research on water use efficiency in irrigated agriculture are low. The findings suggest that a communication strategy that involves collaboration with these grower organisations would empower the WRC to participate much more efficiently and with greater impact in agricultural innovation networks. The paper will elaborate on the findings and discuss partnering frameworks and opportunities to manage perceptions and uptake.
1343
90967
Problems and Prospects of Agricultural Biotechnology in Nigerian Developing Economy
Abstract:
Science offers opportunities for revolutionizing human activities, enriched by input from scientific research and technology. Biotechnology is a major force for development in developing countries such as Nigeria. It is found to contribute to solving human problems like water and food insecurity that impede the national development and threaten peace in where ever it is applied. This review identified the problems of agricultural biotechnology in Nigeria. On the part of rural farmers, there is lack of adequate knowledge or awareness of biotechnology despite the fact that they constitute the bulk of Nigerian farmers. On part of the government, the problems include: lack of adequate implementation of government policy on bio-safety and genetically modified products, inadequate funding of education as well as research and development of products related to biotechnology. Other problems include: inadequate infrastructures (including laboratory), poor funding and lack of national strategies needed for development and running of agricultural biotechnology. In spite of all the challenges associated with agricultural biotechnology, its prospects still remain great if Nigeria is to meet with the food needs of the ever increasing population. The introduction of genetically engineered products will lead to high productivity needed for commercialization and food security. Insect, virus and other related diseases resistant crops and livestock are another viable area of contribution of biotechnology to agricultural production. In conclusion, agricultural biotechnology will not only ensure food security but in addition will ensure that the local farmers utilize appropriate technology needed for large production, leading to the prosperity of the farmers and national economic growth, provided government plays her role of adequate funding and good policy implementation.