International Science Index

International Journal of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering

1034
93465
Aeroelastic Stability Analysis in Turbomachinery Using Reduced Order Aeroelastic Model Tool
Abstract:
In the present day fan blade of aero engine, turboprop propellers, gas turbine or steam turbine low-pressure blades are getting bigger, lighter and thus, become more flexible. Therefore, flutter, forced blade response and vibration related failure of the high aspect ratio blade are of main concern for the designers, thus need to be address properly in order to achieve successful component design. At the preliminary design stage large number of design iteration is need to achieve the utter free safe design. Most of the numerical method used for aeroelastic analysis is based on field-based methods such as finite difference method, finite element method, finite volume method or coupled. These numerical schemes are used to solve the coupled fluid Flow-Structural equation based on full Naiver-Stokes (NS) along with structural mechanics’ equations. These type of schemes provides very accurate results if modeled properly, however, they are computationally very expensive and need large computing recourse along with good personal expertise. Therefore, it is not the first choice for aeroelastic analysis during preliminary design phase. A reduced order aeroelastic model (ROAM) with acceptable accuracy and fast execution is more demanded at this stage. Similar ROAM are being used by other researchers for aeroelastic and force response analysis of turbomachinery. In the present paper new medium fidelity ROAM is successfully developed and implemented in numerical tool to simulated the aeroelastic stability phenomena in turbomachinery and well as flexible wings. In the present, a hybrid flow solver based on 3D viscous-inviscid coupled 3D panel method (PM) and 3d discrete vortex particle method (DVM) is developed, viscous parameters are estimated using boundary layer(BL) approach. This method can simulate flow separation and is a good compromise between accuracy and speed compared to CFD. In the second phase of the research work, the flow solver (PM) will be coupled with ROM non-linear beam element method (BEM) based FEM structural solver (with multibody capabilities) to perform the complete aeroelastic simulation of a steam turbine bladed disk, propellers, fan blades, aircraft wing etc. The partitioned based coupling approach is used for fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The numerical results are compared with experimental data for different test cases and for the blade cascade test case, experimental data is obtained from in-house lab experiments at IT CAS. Furthermore, the results from the new aeroelastic model will be compared with classical CFD-CSD based aeroelastic models. The proposed methodology for the aeroelastic stability analysis of gas turbine or steam turbine blades, or propellers or fan blades will provide researchers and engineers a fast, cost-effective and efficient tool for aeroelastic (classical flutter) analysis for different design at preliminary design stage where large numbers of design iteration are required in short time frame.
1033
97234
Numerical Study of Dynamic Buckling of Fiber Metal Laminates's Profile
Abstract:
The design of Fiber Metal Laminates - combining thin aluminum sheets and prepreg layers, allows creating a hybrid structure with high strength to weight ratio. This feature makes FMLs very attractive for aerospace industry, where thin-walled structures are commonly used. Nevertheless, those structures are prone to buckling phenomenon. Buckling could occur also under static load as well as dynamic pulse loads. In this paper, the problem of dynamic buckling of open cross-section FML profiles under axial dynamic compression in the form of pulse load of finite duration is investigated. In the numerical model, material properties of FML constituents were assumed as nonlinear elastic-plastic aluminum and linear-elastic glass-fiber-reinforced composite. The influence of pulse shape was investigated. Sinusoidal and rectangular pulse loads of finite duration were compared in two ways, i.e. with respect to magnitude and force pulse. The dynamic critical buckling load was determined based on Budiansky-Hutchinson, Ari Gur, and Simonetta dynamic buckling criteria.
1032
97070
A Case Study Report on Acoustic Impact Assessment and Mitigation of the Hyprob Research Plant
Abstract:
The activities, described in the present paper, have been conducted in the framework of the HYPROB-New Program, carried out by the Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA) promoted and funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research (MIUR) in order to improve the National background on rocket engine systems for space applications. The Program has the strategic objective to improve National system and technology capabilities in the field of liquid rocket engines (LRE) for future Space Propulsion Systems applications, with specific regard to LOX/LCH4 technology. The main purpose of the HYPROB program is to design and build a Propulsion Test Facility (HIMP) allowing test activities on Liquid Thrusters. The development of skills in liquid rocket propulsion can only pass through extensive test campaign. Following its mission, CIRA has planned the development of new testing facilities and infrastructures for space propulsion characterized by adequate sizes and instrumentation. The IMP test cell is devoted to testing articles representative of small combustion chambers, fed with oxygen and methane, both in liquid and gaseous phase. This article describes the activities that have been carried out for the evaluation of the acoustic impact, and its consequent mitigation. The impact of the simulated acoustic disturbance has been evaluated, first, using an approximated method based on experimental data by Baumann and Coney, included in “Noise and Vibration Control Engineering” edited by Vér and Beranek. This methodology, used to evaluate the free-field radiation of jet in ideal acoustical medium, analyzes in details the jet noise and assumes sources acting at the same time. It considers as principal radiation sources the jet mixing noise, caused by the turbulent mixing of jet gas and the ambient medium. Empirical models, allowing a direct calculation of the Sound Pressure Level, are commonly used for rocket noise simulation. The model named after K. Eldred is probably one of the most exploited in this area. In this paper, an improvement of the Eldred Standard model has been used for a detailed investigation of the acoustical impact of the Hyprob facility. This new formulation contains an explicit expression for the acoustic pressure of each equivalent noise source, in terms of amplitude and phase, allowing the investigation of the sources correlation effects and their propagation through wave equations. In order to enhance the evaluation of the facility acoustic impact, including an assessment of the mitigation strategies to be set in place, a more advanced simulation campaign has been conducted using both an in-house code for noise propagation and scattering, and a commercial code for industrial noise environmental impact, CadnaA. The noise prediction obtained with the revised Eldred-based model has then been used for formulating an empirical/BEM (Boundary Element Method) hybrid approach allowing the evaluation of the barrier mitigation effect, at the design. This approach has been compared with the analogous empirical/ray-acoustics approach, implemented within CadnaA using a customized definition of sources and directivity factor. The resulting impact evaluation study is reported here, along with the design-level barrier optimization for noise mitigation.
1031
94772
Influence of Microparticles in the Contact Region of Quartz Sand Grains: A Micro-Mechanical Experimental Study
Abstract:
The mechanical behavior of geological materials is very complex, and this complexity is related to the discrete nature of soils and rocks. Characteristics of a material at the grain scale such as particle size and shape, surface roughness and morphology, and particle contact interface are critical to evaluate and better understand the behavior of discrete materials. This study investigates experimentally the micro-mechanical behavior of quartz sand grains with emphasis on the influence of the presence of microparticles in their contact region. The outputs of the study provide some fundamental insights on the contact mechanics behavior of artificially coated grains and can provide useful input parameters in the discrete element modeling (DEM) of soils. In nature, the contact interfaces between real soil grains are commonly observed with microparticles. This is usually the case of sand-silt and sand-clay mixtures, where the finer particles may create a coating on the surface of the coarser grains, altering in this way the micro-, and thus the macro-scale response of geological materials. In this study, the micro-mechanical behavior of Leighton Buzzard Sand (LBS) quartz grains, with interference of different microparticles at their contact interfaces is studied in the laboratory using an advanced custom-built inter-particle loading apparatus. Special techniques were adopted to develop the coating on the surfaces of the quartz sand grains so that to establish repeatability of the coating technique. The characterization of the microstructure of coated particles on their surfaces was based on element composition analyses, microscopic images, surface roughness measurements, and single particle crushing strength tests. The mechanical responses such as normal and tangential load – displacement behavior, tangential stiffness behavior, and normal contact behavior under cyclic loading were studied. The behavior of coated LBS particles is compared among different classes of them and with pure LBS (i.e. surface cleaned to remove any microparticles). The damage on the surface of the particles was analyzed using microscopic images. Extended displacements in both normal and tangential directions were observed for coated LBS particles due to the plastic nature of the coating material and this varied with the variation of the amount of coating. The tangential displacement required to reach steady state was delayed due to the presence of microparticles in the contact region of grains under shearing. Increased tangential loads and coefficient of friction were observed for the coated grains in comparison to the uncoated quartz grains.
1030
93231
Numerical Simulation of Non-Steady Heat Transfer at a Supersonic Nozzle
Abstract:
The heat transfer of the hot combustion gases towards the supersonic nozzle walls is a very critical part of the rocket engine design process. Since the gases usually reach temperatures much higher than the melting points of most combustion chamber and nozzle wall materials, it is a requirement either to cool the thrust chamber walls or to stop the rocket engine operation before critical temperature is achieved at some regions. Basically, there are two fundamental types of heat transfer designs for the supersonic nozzle. The first one is the steady state focus, where cooling systems are implemented making the heat transfer rate and the wall temperatures to reach thermal equilibrium. The second is non-steady heat transfer, which is also called heat sink cooling. In this case, the thrust chamber temperature continues increasing during the rocket engine operation and the maximum operation time is limited by the heat absorbing capacity of the materials and the nozzle structural integrity under extreme temperatures. The present work consists of two simulations. First, an experiment of supersonic heat transfer carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena is reproduced numerically with ANSYS Fluent in order to determine a suitable numerical model (meshes for fluid and solid domains, turbulence model, solver) for resolving the heat transfer between the supersonic flow and the nozzle wall. This simulation was in steady state since the nozzle was refrigerated by water during the experiment. Different meshes, solvers and RANS turbulence models were implemented in order to determine those which gave the best agreement between numerical and experimental results, as well as mesh independence and acceptable levels of convergence. With the fluid and solid code configurations validated from the previous runs, the model is used to simulate the heat transfer from hot combustion gases towards to the wall of the supersonic nozzle of a rocket engine in development. A non-steady analysis is required, because at this early stage of the project, the nozzle does not rely on a cooling system. Therefore, it is critical to predict precisely how the nozzle’s wall temperature evolves during its operating period.
1029
95635
Experimental Simulation of Gust Effects on an Airfoil through a Sudden Change in Pitch Angle
Abstract:
Since the early flights, several investigations have been carried out to determine the gust effect in the aerodynamics of aircraft, wind turbines, and UAVs, and to formalize a theory for the design of them. A different approach in its study is the object of this work: a sudden change in the pitch angle of a model of a wing in a wind tunnel simulates the aerodynamic effects of a vertical gust. The experiments were performed with different turbulence intensities and at different low Reynolds numbers. A wing model of Wortmann FX 63-137 airfoil was constructed with a chord length (c) of 0.25 m and a span (b) of 0.75 m. It was tested at different turbulence intensities in order to evaluate its influence. The tests were performed for Reynolds numbers based on the airfoil chord from 50000 to 200000. The resultant flow pattern structure and leading-edge vortex are observed with smoke and measured with a hot-wire anemometer in the wake. Also, accelerometers were mounted on the upper surface of the model to characterize its motion. The sudden change of pitch angle is driven at different speeds by means of an electro-pneumatic actuator. Different pitching velocities have been tested for the recognition of gust effects. Previous tests have been accomplished, which reveal the influence of pitching speed at one turbulence level. Further testing is envisaged to formalize a theory able to predict such results and to study the dependence of the edge vortex generation mechanism on the turbulence intensity and spatial integral scales of the incident flow.
1028
88089
A Fuzzy TOPSIS Based Model for Safety Risk Assessment of Operational Flight Data
Abstract:
Flight Data Monitoring (FDM) program assist an operator in aviation industries to identify, quantify, assess and address operational safety risks, in order to improve safety of flight operations. FDM as a powerful tool for an aircraft operator integrated into the operator’s Safety Management System (SMS), allowing to detect, confirm and assess safety issues and to check the effectiveness of corrective actions, associated with human errors. This article proposes a model for safety risk assessment level of flight data in a different aspect of event focus based on fuzzy set values. It permits to evaluate the operational safety level from the point of view of flight activities. The main advantages of this method are proposed qualitative safety analysis of flight data. This research applies the opinions of the aviation experts through a number of questionnaires Related to flight data in 4 categories of occurrence that can take place during an accident or an incident such as: Runway Excursions (RE), Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT), Mid-Air Collision (MAC), Loss of Control in Flight (LOC-I). By weighting each one (by F-TOPSIS) and applying it to the number of risks of the event, the safety risk of each related events can be obtained.
1027
89027
Adhesive Bonded Joints Characterization and Crack Propagation in Composite Materials under Cyclic Impact Fatigue and Constant Amplitude Fatigue Loadings
Abstract:
The Colombian aeronautical industry has stimulated research in the mechanical behavior of materials under different loading conditions aircrafts are generally exposed during its operation. The Calima T-90 is the first military aircraft built in the country, used for primary flight training of Colombian Air Force Pilots, therefore, it may be exposed to adverse operating situations such as hard landings which cause impact loads on the aircraft that might produce the impact fatigue phenomenon. The Calima T-90 structure is mainly manufactured by composites materials generating assemblies and subassemblies of different components of it. The main method of bonding these components is by using adhesive joints. Each type of adhesive bond must be studied on its own since its performance depends on the conditions of the manufacturing process and operating characteristics. This study aims to characterize the typical adhesive joints of the aircraft under usual loads. To this purpose, the evaluation of the effect of adhesive thickness on the mechanical performance of the joint under quasi-static loading conditions, constant amplitude fatigue and cyclic impact fatigue using single lap-joint specimens will be performed. Additionally, using a double cantilever beam specimen, the influence of the thickness of the adhesive on the crack growth rate for mode I delamination failure, as a function of the critical energy release rate will be determined. Finally, an analysis of the fracture surface of the test specimens considering the mechanical interaction between the substrate (composite) and the adhesive, provide insights into the magnitude of the damage, the type of failure mechanism that occurs and its correlation with the way crack propagates under the proposed loading conditions.
1026
75201
Control for Fluid Flow Behaviours of Viscous Fluids and Heat Transfer in Mini-Channel: A Case Study Using Numerical Simulation Method
Abstract:
The control for fluid flow behaviours of viscous fluids and heat transfer occurrences within heated mini-channel is considered. Heat transfer and flow characteristics of different viscous liquids, such as engine oil, automatic transmission fluid, one-half ethylene glycol, and deionized water were numerically analyzed. Some mathematical applications such as Fourier series and Laplace Z-Transforms were employed to ascertain the behaviour-wave like structure of these each viscous fluids. The steady, laminar flow and heat transfer equations are reckoned by the aid of numerical simulation technique. Further, this numerical simulation technique is endorsed by using the accessible practical values in comparison with the anticipated local thermal resistances. However, the roughness of this mini-channel that is one of the physical limitations was also predicted in this study. This affects the frictional factor. When an additive such as tetracycline was introduced in the fluid, the heat input was lowered, and this caused pro rata effect on the minor and major frictional losses, mostly at a very minute Reynolds number circa 60-80. At this ascertained lower value of Reynolds numbers, there exists decrease in the viscosity and minute frictional losses as a result of the temperature of these viscous liquids been increased. It is inferred that the three equations and models are identified which supported the numerical simulation via interpolation and integration of the variables extended to the walls of the mini-channel, yields the utmost reliance for engineering and technology calculations for turbulence impacting jets in the near imminent age. Out of reasoning with a true equation that could support this control for the fluid flow, Navier-stokes equations were found to tangential to this finding. Though, other physical factors with respect to these Navier-stokes equations are required to be checkmated to avoid uncertain turbulence of the fluid flow. This paradox is resolved within the framework of continuum mechanics using the classical slip condition and an iteration scheme via numerical simulation method that takes into account certain terms in the full Navier-Stokes equations. However, this resulted in dropping out in the approximation of certain assumptions. Concrete questions raised in the main body of the work are sightseen further in the appendices.
1025
95070
Aerodynamic Heating Analysis of Hypersonic Flow over Blunt-Nosed Bodies Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Abstract:
The qualitative aspects of hypersonic flow over a range of blunt bodies have been extensively analyzed in the past. It is well known that the curvature of a body’s geometry in the sonic region predominantly dictates the bow shock shape and its standoff distance from the body, while the surface pressure distribution depends on both the sonic region and on the local body shape. The present study is an extension to analyze the hypersonic flow characteristics over several blunt-nosed bodies using modern Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools to determine the shock shape and its effect on the heat flux around the body. 4 blunt-nosed models with cylindrical afterbodies were analyzed for a flow at a Mach number of 10 corresponding to the standard atmospheric conditions at an altitude of 50 km. The nose radii of curvature of the models range from a hemispherical nose to a flat nose. Appropriate numerical models and the supplementary convergence techniques that were implemented for the CFD analysis are thoroughly described. The flow contours are presented highlighting the key characteristics of shock wave shape, shock standoff distance and the sonic point shift on the shock. The variation of heat flux, due to different shock detachments for various models is comprehensively discussed. It is observed that the more the bluntness of the nose radii, the farther the shock stands from the body; and consequently, the less the surface heating at the nose. The results obtained from the CFD analyses are compared with approximated theoretical engineering correlations. Overall, a satisfactory agreement is observed between the two.
1024
96719
Assessment of Golestan Dam Break Using Finite Volume Method
Abstract:
One of the most vital hydraulic structures is the dam. Regarding the unrecoverable damages which may occur after a dam break phenomenon, analyzing dams’ break is absolutely essential. GOLESTAN dam is located in the western South of Mashhad city in Iran. GOLESTAN dam break might lead to severe problems due to adjacent tourist and entertainment areas. In this paper, a numerical code based on the finite volume method was applied for assessing the risk of GOLESTAN dam break. As to this issue, first, a canal with a triangular barrier was modeled so as to verify the capability of the concerned code. Comparing analytical, experimental and numerical results showed that water level in the model results is in a good agreement with the similar water level in the analytical solutions and experimental data. The results of dam break modeling are revealed that two of the bridges, that are PARTOIE and NAMAYESHGAH, located downstream in the flow direction, are at risk following the potential GOLESTAN dam break. Therefore, the required times to conduct the precautionary measures at bridges were calculated at about 12 and 21 minutes, respectively. Thus, it is crucial to announce people about the possible risks of the dam break in order to decrease likely losses.
1023
83402
Post Coronary Artery Stenting Reflighting: Need for Change in Policy with Changing Antiplatelet Therapy
Abstract:
Background: Coronary artery Disease (CAD) is a common cause of morbidity, mortality and reason for unfitness amongst aircrew. Coronary angioplasty and stenting are the standard of care for CAD. Antiplatelet drugs like Aspirin and Clopidogrel(Dual Antiplatelet therapy) are routinely prescribed post-stenting which are permitted for flying. However, in the recent past, Ticagrelor is being used in place of Clopidogrel as per ACC AHA and ESC guidelines. However Ticagrelor is not permitted for flying. Case Presentation: A 55-year-old pilot suffered Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction. Angiography showed blockages in Left Anterior Descending Artery(LAD) and Right coronary artery (RCA). He underwent primary angioplasty and stenting LAD and subsequent stenting to RCA. Recovery was uneventful. One year later he was asymptomatic with normal Left ventricular function and no reversible perfusion defect on stress MPI. He had patent stents and coronaries on check angiogram. However, he was not allowed to fly since he was on Ticagrelor. He had to be switched over to Clopidogrel from Ticagrelor one year after stenting to permit him for flying. Similarly, switching had to be done in a 45-year-old pilot. Ticagrelor has been proven to be more effective than clopidogrel and as safe as Clopidogrel in preventing stent thrombosis. If Clopidogrel is being permitted, there is no need to restrict Ticagrelor. Hence "Policy" needs to be changed. Conclusions: Dual Antiplatelet therapy is the standard of care post coronary stenting which has been proved safe and effective. Policy needs to be changed to permit flying with Ticagrelor which is more effective than Clopidogrel and equally safe.
1022
94604
Organic Circularly Polarized Luminescence Materials Based on Planar Chirality
Abstract:
[2.2]Paracyclophane compounds, in which two benzene rings are closely stacked, have been extensively studied. We have been interested in their unique planar chirality, a feature that is derived from the suppressed rotary motion of the two fixed benzene rings. This planar chirality can be observed in [2.2]paracyclophanes with one or more substituents depending on the substituted position. Recently, we developed optical resolution methods of 4,12-disubstituted and 4,7,12,15-tetrasubstituted [2.2]paracyclophane derivatives. In addition, we prepared chiral conjugated compounds, oligomers, polymers, and dendrimers with optically active second-ordered structures, such as V-, N-, M-, X-, propeller-shaped, and double helical structure. It was also reported that the obtained conjugated compounds exhibited excellent chiroptical properties including circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) with large CPL dissymmetry factors (glum). To the best of the author’s knowledge, they are first examples that planar chiral molecules emit CPL. In this paper, optical resolutions of planar chiral di- and tetrasubstituted [2.2]paracyclophanes will be briefly reported. Synthesis of the optically active macromolecules with chiral second-ordered structures based on the obtained enantiopure [2.2]paracyclophanes and their chiroptical properties such as CPL profiles will be discussed.
1021
92608
Robustness of the Deep Chroma Extractor and Locally-Normalized Quarter Tone Filters in Automatic Chord Estimation under Reverberant Conditions
Abstract:
In MIREX 2016 (http://www.music-ir.org/mirex), the deep neural network (DNN)-Deep Chroma Extractor, proposed by Korzeniowski and Wiedmer, reached the highest score in an audio chord recognition task. In the present paper, this tool is assessed under acoustic reverberant environments and distinct source-microphone distances. The evaluation dataset comprises The Beatles and Queen datasets. These datasets are sequentially re-recorded with a single microphone in a real reverberant chamber at four reverberation times (0 -anechoic-, 1, 2, and 3 s, approximately), as well as four source-microphone distances (32, 64, 128, and 256 cm). It is expected that the performance of the trained DNN will dramatically decrease under these acoustic conditions with signals degraded by room reverberation and distance to the source. Recently, the effect of the bio-inspired Locally-Normalized Cepstral Coefficients (LNCC), has been assessed in a text independent speaker verification task using speech signals degraded by additive noise at different signal-to-noise ratios with variations of recording distance, and it has also been assessed under reverberant conditions with variations of recording distance. LNCC showed a performance so high as the state-of-the-art Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient filters. Based on these results, this paper proposes a variation of locally-normalized triangular filters called Locally-Normalized Quarter Tone (LNQT) filters. By using the LNQT spectrogram, robustness improvements of the trained Deep Chroma Extractor are expected, compared with classical triangular filters, and thus compensating the music signal degradation improving the accuracy of the chord recognition system.
1020
94278
Effect of Noise Reduction Algorithms on Temporal Splitting of Speech Signal to Improve Speech Perception for Binaural Hearing Aids
Abstract:
Increased temporal masking affects the speech perception in persons with sensorineural hearing impairment especially under adverse listening conditions. This paper presents a cascaded scheme, which employs a noise reduction algorithm as well as temporal splitting of the speech signal. Earlier investigations have shown that by splitting the speech temporally and presenting alternate segments to the two ears help in reducing the effect of temporal masking. In this technique, the speech signal is processed by two fading functions, complementary to each other, and presented to left and right ears for binaural dichotic presentation. In the present study, half cosine signal is used as a fading function with crossover gain of 6 dB for the perceptual balance of loudness. Temporal splitting is combined with noise reduction algorithm to improve speech perception in the background noise. Two noise reduction schemes, namely spectral subtraction and Wiener filter are used. Listening tests were conducted on six normal-hearing subjects, with sensorineural loss simulated by adding broadband noise to the speech signal at different signal-to-noise ratios (∞, 3, 0, and -3 dB). Objective evaluation using PESQ was also carried out. The MOS score for VCV syllable /asha/ for SNR values of ∞, 3, 0, and -3 dB were 5, 4.46, 4.4 and 4.05 respectively, while the corresponding MOS scores for unprocessed speech were 5, 1.2, 0.9 and 0.65, indicating significant improvement in the perceived speech quality for the proposed scheme compared to the unprocessed speech.
1019
96631
Velocity Distribution in Density Currents Flowing over Rough Beds
Abstract:
Density currents are generated when the fluid of one density is released into another fluid with a different density. These currents occur in a variety of natural and man-made environments, and this emphasises the importance of studying them. In most practical cases, the density currents flow over the surfaces which are not plane; however, there have been limited investigations in this regard. This study uses laboratory experiments to analyse the influence of bottom roughness on the velocity distribution within these dense underflows. The currents are analysed over a plane surface and three different configurations of beam-roughened beds. The velocity profiles are collected using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry technique, and the distribution of velocity within these currents is formulated for the tested beds. The results indicate that the empirical power and Gaussian relations can describe the velocity distribution in the inner and outer regions of the profiles, respectively. Moreover, it is found that the bottom roughness is the primary controlling parameter in the inner region.
1018
93783
Micromechanical Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites with a Functionally Graded Interphase
Abstract:
There have been numerous attempts at modelling carbon nanotube – polymer composites micromechanically in recent years, albeit to limited success. One of the major setbacks of the models used in the scientific community is the lack of regard to the different phases present in a nanocomposite. We employ a multi-phase micromechanical model that allows functionally grading certain phases to determine the mechanical properties of nanocomposites. The model has four distinct phases; the nanotube, the interface between the nanotube and polymer, the interphase, and the bulk matrix. Among the four phases, the interphase is functionally graded such that its moduli gradually decrease from some predetermined values to those of the bulk polymer. We find that the interface plays little role in stiffening/softening of the polymer per se , but instead, it is responsible for load transfer between the polymer and the carbon nanotube. Our results indicate that the carbon nanotube, as well as the interphase, have significant roles in stiffening the composite. The results are then compared to experimental findings and the interphase is tuned accordingly.
1017
86219
Pilot Induced Oscillations Adaptive Suppression in Fly-By-Wire Systems
Abstract:
The advent of Fly-By-Wire (FBW) systems allowed a wide range of aircraft flight control system architectures. Nevertheless, those systems inherited some undesired aircraft responses from the manual flight control systems such as the called Pilot Induced Oscillations (PIO). This phenomenon is commonly defined as inadvertent oscillations initiated and sustained by the pilot resulting in a pilot-aircraft coupling. The issue of finding an adequate algorithm which can perform a real time detection of the phenomenon and especially its suppression (or mitigation) is still open. Furthermore, few researches were conducted using the adaptive control theory to suppress the phenomenon in the Digital Fly-By-Wire systems. Considering this scenario, the present work proposes the development and implementation of an adaptive control system which performs the suppression of the PIO oscillations. The unsteady motion of interest is the longitudinal dynamics and the PIO cause factors are considered to be: the rate and position actuators limiting, the high pilot gain and the time delays of the system. The algorithm proposed consists in a Modified Model Reference Adaptive Control (M-MRAC) system integrated with the Gain Scheduling technic. The Gain Scheduling algorithm implemented enables the switch between two model reference state space models: one in normal condition operation (with high or medium proneness to PIO) and another in the PIO condition (with low proneness). These models are defined in a closed loop condition considering for this purpose the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) control methodology. A real time oscillation detector so identified the onset of PIO oscillations and send a signal to the Gain Scheduling control system, changing the output of the reference model. This switching to a low proneness model in the control system must guarantee none or low amplitude oscillations. The proposed system is implemented and simulated using the MATLAB software, considering as the controlled system either a state space modelled aircraft (to a prior defined flight condition) or a commercial flight simulator. The simulations are performed in a first stage using pilot models to simulate a closed loop control system. The system is then validated in a second stage with piloted trials which subjects control the flight simulator with a joystick. In the initial simulations performed the aimed proneness of the models were confirmed. The pilot models set chosen to be incorporated in the closed loop system implemented could also simulate the PIO condition through the adequate selection of gains. Furthermore, the M-MRAC system implemented could make the state model controlled as well as the flight simulator software to track the model reference system response. Finally, the suppression system proposed could detect and suppress (or mitigate) the PIO oscillations in real time in the computer simulations realized. The initial piloted trials realized with the flight simulator also showed the effectiveness of the system in altering the original aircraft dynamics implemented in this software to follow the reference model. The possible future works can be performed using a movable platform integrated to the flight simulator software and also simulations can be realized using time-variant pilot models.
1016
87356
Welding Technology Developments for Stringer-Skin Joints with Al-Li Alloys
Abstract:
Manufacturing aeronautic structures joining extruded profiles or stringers to sheets or skins of aluminium is a typical manufacturing procedure in aeronautic structures. Although riveting is the conventional manufacturing technology to produce such joints, the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) and Laser Beam Welding (LBW) technologies have also demonstrated their potential for this kind of applications. Therefore, FSW and LBW technologies have the potential to continue their development as manufacturing processes for aeronautic structures showing benefits such as time-saving, light-weighting and overall cost reduction. In addition to that, new aluminium-lithium based alloy developments represent great opportunities for advanced aeronautic structure manufacturing with potential benefits such as lightweight construction or improved corrosion resistance. This work presents the main approaches by FSW and LBW to develop those technologies to produce stiffened panel structures such as fuselage by stringer-skin joints and using innovative aluminium-lithium alloys. Initial welding tests were performed in AA2198-T3S aluminium alloys for LBW technology and with AA2198-T851 for FSW. Later tests for both FSW and LBW have been carried out using AA2099-T83 alloy extrusions as stringers and AA2060-T8E30 as skin materials. The weld quality and properties have been examined by metallographic analysis and mechanical testing, including shear tensile tests and pull-out tests. The analysis of the results have shown the relationships between processing conditions, micro-macrostructural properties and the mechanical strength of the welded joints. The effects produced in the different alloys investigated have been observed and particular weld formation mechanics have been studied for each material and welding technology. Therefore, relationships between welding conditions and the obtained weld properties for each material combination and welding technology will be discussed in this presentation.
1015
88363
Implementation of a Low-Cost Instrumentation for an Open Cycle Wind Tunnel to Evaluate Pressure Coefficient
Abstract:
Wind tunnel experiments for aerodynamic profiles displays numerous advantages, such as: clean steady laminar flow, controlled environmental conditions, streamlines visualization, and real data acquisition. However, the experiment instrumentation usually is expensive, and hence, each test implies a incremented in design cost. The aim of this work is to select and implement a low-cost static pressure data acquisition system for a NACA 2412 airfoil in an open cycle wind tunnel. This work compares wind tunnel experiment with CFD simulation and parametric analysis. The experiment was evaluated at Reynolds of 1.65 e^5 , with increasing angles from -5 to 15 degrees. The comparison between the approaches show good enough accuracy, between experiment and CFD, additionally parametric analysis results differ widely from the other methods, which complies with the lack of accuracy of the lateral approach due its simplicity.
1014
94874
Impinging Acoustics Induced Combustion: An Alternative Technique to Prevent Thermoacoustic Instabilities
Abstract:
Efficient propulsive systems development is an area of major interest and concern in aerospace industry. Combustion forms the most reliable and basic form of propulsion for ground and space applications. The generation of large amount of energy from a small volume relates mostly to the flaming combustion. This study deals with instabilities associated with flaming combustion. Combustion is always accompanied by acoustics be it external or internal. Chemical propulsion oriented rockets and space systems are well known to encounter acoustic instabilities. Acoustic brings in changes in inter-energy conversion and alter the reaction rates. The modified heat fluxes, owing to wall temperature, reaction rates, and non-linear heat transfer are observed. The thermoacoustic instabilities significantly result in reduced combustion efficiency leading to uncontrolled liquid rocket engine performance, serious hazards to systems, assisted testing facilities, enormous loss of resources and every year a substantial amount of money is spent to prevent them. Present work attempts to fundamentally understand the mechanisms governing the thermoacoustic combustion in liquid rocket engine using a simplified experimental setup comprising a butane cylinder and an impinging acoustic source. Rocket engine produces sound pressure level in excess of 153 Db. The RL-10 engine generates noise of 180 Db at its base. Systematic studies are carried out for varying fuel flow rates, acoustic levels and observations are made on the flames. The work is expected to yield a good physical insight into the development of acoustic devices that when coupled with the present propulsive devices could effectively enhance combustion efficiency leading to better and safer missions. The results would be utilized to develop impinging acoustic devices that impinge sound on the combustion chambers leading to stable combustion thus, improving specific fuel consumption, specific impulse, reducing emissions, enhanced performance and fire safety. The results can be effectively applied to terrestrial and space application.
1013
94979
Optimization of Heat Source Assisted Combustion on Solid Rocket Motors
Abstract:
Solid Propellant ignition consists of rapid and complex events comprising of heat generation and transfer of heat with spreading of flames over the entire burning surface area. Proper combustion and thus propulsion depends heavily on the modes of heat transfer characteristics and cavity volume. Fire safety is an integral component of a successful rocket flight failing to which may lead to overall failure of the rocket. This leads to enormous forfeiture in resources viz., money, time, and labor involved. When the propellant is ignited, thrust is generated and the casing gets heated up. This heat adds on to the propellant heat and the casing, if not at proper orientation starts burning as well, leading to the whole rocket being completely destroyed. This has necessitated active research efforts emphasizing a comprehensive study on the inter-energy relations involved for effective utilization of the solid rocket motors for better space missions. Present work is focused on one of the major influential aspects of this detrimental burning which is the presence of an external heat source, in addition to a potential heat source which is already ignited. The study is motivated by the need to ensure better combustion and fire safety presented experimentally as a simplified small-scale mode of a rocket carrying a solid propellant inside a cavity. The experimental setup comprises of a paraffin wax candle as the pilot fuel and incense stick as the external heat source. The candle is fixed and the incense stick position and location is varied to investigate the find the influence of the pilot heat source. Different configurations of the external heat source presence with separation distance are tested upon. Regression rates of the pilot thin solid fuel are noted to fundamentally understand the non-linear heat and mass transfer which is the governing phenomenon. An attempt is made to understand the phenomenon fundamentally and the mechanism governing it. Results till now indicate non-linear heat transfer assisted with the occurrence of flaming transition at selected critical distances. With an increase in separation distance, the effect is noted to drop in a non-monotonic trend. The parametric study results are likely to provide useful physical insight about the governing physics and utilization in proper testing, validation, material selection, and designing of solid rocket motors with enhanced safety.
1012
95362
An Experimental Study on the Coupled Heat Source and Heat Sink Effects on Solid Rockets
Abstract:
Enhancing the rocket efficiency by controlling the external factors in solid rockets motors has been an active area of research for most of the terrestrial and extra-terrestrial system operations. Appreciable work has been done, but the complexity of the problem has prevented thorough understanding due to heterogenous heat and mass transfer. On record, severe issues have surfaced amounting to irreplaceable loss of mankind, instruments, facilities, and huge amount of money being invested every year. The coupled effect of an external heat source and external heat sink is an aspect yet to be articulated in combustion. Better understanding of this coupled phenomenon will induce higher safety standards, efficient missions, reduced hazard risks, with better designing, validation, and testing. The experiment will help in understanding the coupled effect of an external heat sink and heat source on the burning process, contributing in better combustion and fire safety, which are very important for efficient and safer rocket flights and space missions. Safety is the most prevalent issue in rockets, which assisted by poor combustion efficiency, emphasizes research efforts to evolve superior rockets. This signifies real, engineering, scientific, practical, systems and applications. One potential application is Solid Rocket Motors (S.R.M). The study may help in: (i) Understanding the effect on efficiency of core engines due to the primary boosters if considered as source, (ii) Choosing suitable heat sink materials for space missions so as to vary the efficiency of the solid rocket depending on the mission, (iii) Giving an idea about how the preheating of the successive stage due to previous stage acting as a source may affect the mission. The present work governs the temperature (resultant) and thus the heat transfer which is expected to be non-linear because of heterogeneous heat and mass transfer. The study will deepen the understanding of controlled inter-energy conversions and the coupled effect of external source/sink(s) surrounding the burning fuel eventually leading to better combustion thus, better propulsion. The work is motivated by the need to have enhanced fire safety and better rocket efficiency. The specific objective of the work is to understand the coupled effect of external heat source and sink on propellant burning and to investigate the role of key controlling parameters. Results as of now indicate that there exists a singularity in the coupled effect. The dominance of the external heat sink and heat source decides the relative rocket flight in Solid Rocket Motors (S.R.M).
1011
95905
A Spatial Perspective on the Metallized Combustion Aspect of Rockets
Abstract:
Solid Propellant Rocket is a rocket that utilises a combination of a solid Oxidizer and a solid Fuel. Success in Solid Rocket Motor design and development depends significantly on knowledge of burning rate behaviour of the selected solid propellant under all motor operating conditions and design limit conditions. Most Solid Motor Rockets consist of the Main Engine, along with multiple Boosters that provide an additional thrust to the space-bound vehicle. Though widely used, they have been eclipsed by Liquid Propellant Rockets, because of their better performance characteristics. The addition of a catalyst such as Iron Oxide, on the other hand, can drastically enhance the performance of a Solid Rocket. This scientific investigation tries to emulate the working of a Solid Rocket using Sparklers and Energized Candles, with a central Energized Candle acting as the Main Engine and surrounding Sparklers acting as the Booster. The Energized Candle is made of Paraffin Wax, with Magnesium filings embedded in it’s wick. The Sparkler is made up of 45% Barium Nitrate, 35% Iron, 9% Aluminium, 10% Dextrin and the remaining composition consists of Boric Acid. The Magnesium in the Energized Candle, and the combination of Iron and Aluminium in the Sparkler, act as catalysts and enhance the burn rates of both materials. This combustion of Metallized Propellants has an influence over the regression rate of the subject candle. The experimental parameters explored here are Separation Distance, Systematically varying Configuration and Layout Symmetry. The major performance parameter under observation is the Regression Rate of the Energized Candle. The rate of regression is significantly affected by the orientation and configuration of the sparklers, which usually act as heat sources for the energized candle. The Overall Efficiency of any engine is factorised by the thermal and propulsive efficiencies. Numerous efforts have been made to improve one or the other. This investigation focuses on the Orientation of Rocket Motor Design to maximize their Overall Efficiency. The primary objective is to analyse the Flame Spread Rate variations of the energized candle, which resembles the solid rocket propellant used in the first stage of rocket operation thereby affecting the Specific Impulse values in a Rocket, which in turn have a deciding impact on their Time of Flight. Another objective of this research venture is to determine the effectiveness of the key controlling parameters explored. This investigation also emulates the exhaust gas interactions of the Solid Rocket through concurrent ignition of the Energized Candle and Sparklers, and their behaviour is analysed. Modern space programmes intend to explore the universe outside our solar system. To accomplish these goals, it is necessary to design a launch vehicle which is capable of providing incessant propulsion along with better efficiency for vast durations. The main motivation of this study is to enhance Rocket performance and their Overall Efficiency through better designing and optimization techniques, which will play a crucial role in this human conquest for knowledge.
1010
82099
Experiment on Free and Forced Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid (CuO-HTO) in Horizontal and Inclined Microfin Tube
Abstract:
In this paper, the combined free and forced convection heat transfer of the CuO-HTO nanofluid flow in horizontal and inclined microfin tubes is studied experimentally. The flow regime is laminar and pipe surface temperature is constant. The effect of nanoparticle and microfin tube on the heat transfer rate is investigated as the Richardson number is between 0.1 and 0.7. The results show an increasing nanoparticle concentration between 0% and 1.5% leads to enhance the combined free and forced convection heat transfer rate. According to the results, five correlations are proposed to provide estimating the free and forced heat transfer rate as the increasing Richardson number from 0.1 to 0.7. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 16%. Moreover, four correlation is suggested to assess the Nusselt number based on the Rayleigh number in inclined tubes from 1800000 to 7000000. The maximum deviation of the correlation is almost 16%. The Darcy friction factor of the nanofluid flow has been investigated. Furthermore, (CuO-HTO) nanofluid flows in inclined microfin tubes.
1009
96033
Static Stress and Thermal Analysis of Connecting Rod Using FE-Analysis
Abstract:
In series of automobile engine components, a connecting rod is used to convert linear motion of the piston to reciprocating motion of the crankshaft. In this paper, the static and thermal stress analysis of connecting rod made up of 42CrMo4 is conducted, using finite element method. After measuring the dimension of connecting rod, the model is developed in Solidworks software and imported to Solidworks Simulation software. Static stress analysis is done by fixing the crank end and the load is applied at the piston end of connecting rod. Maximum stress point and section prone to failure is found out by this analysis. Also, the thermal analysis of the connecting rod is performed. The purpose of this study is to show the performance of connecting rod under different loading condition with a considerable reduction in weight.
1008
92083
Aerodynamic Design and Optimization of Vertical Take-Off and Landing Type Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Abstract:
The airplane history started with the Wright brothers' aircraft and improved day by day. With the help of this advancements, big aircrafts replace with small and unmanned air vehicles, so in this study we design this type of air vehicles. First of all, aircrafts mainly divided into two main parts in our day as a rotary and fixed wing aircrafts. The fixed wing aircraft generally use for transport, cargo, military and etc. The rotary wing aircrafts use for same area but there are some superiorities from each other. The rotary wing aircraft can take off vertically from the ground, and it can use restricted area. On the other hand, rotary wing aircrafts generally can fly lower range than fixed wing aircraft. There are one kind of aircraft consist of this two types specifications. It is named as VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) type aircraft. VTOLs are able to takeoff and land vertically and fly horizontally. The VTOL aircrafts generally can fly higher range from the rotary wings but can fly lower range from the fixed wing aircraft but it gives beneficial range between them. There are many other advantages of VTOL aircraft from the rotary and fixed wing aircraft. Because of that, VTOLs began to use for generally military, cargo, search, rescue and mapping areas. Within this framework, this study answers the question that how can we design VTOL as a small unmanned aircraft systems for search and rescue application for benefiting the advantages of fixed wing and rotary wing aircrafts by eliminating the disadvantages of them. To answer that question and design VTOL aircraft, multidisciplinary design optimizations (MDO), some theoretical terminologies, formulations, simulations and modelling systems based on CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is used in same time as design methodology to determine design parameters and steps. As a conclusion, based on tests and simulations depend on design steps, suggestions on how the VTOL aircraft designed and advantages, disadvantages, and observations for design parameters are listed, then VTOL is designed and presented with the design parameters, advantages, and usage areas.
Keywords:
1007
88310
Experimental and Numerical Study on Energy Absorption Characteristic of a Coupler Rubber Buffer Used in Rail Vehicles
Abstract:
Coupler rubber buffer has been widely applied on the high-speed trains and the main function of the rubber buffer is dissipating the impact energy between vehicles. The rubber buffer consists of two groups of rubbers, which are both pre-compressed and then installed into the frame body. This work focuses on the energy absorption capacity of each group of buffers particularly. The quasi-static compression tests were carried out to obtain the pre-compression force and the load-defection response of the buffers. Then a finite element (FE) model was constructed using Ls_dyna program. The rubber material was modeled with a tabulated method easily, in which no more material constants need to be fitted. The simulation results agreed with the experimental results well. Numerical study of the buffers was performed using the validated FE model and the influence of the initial pressure on the buffers was obtained. In addition, the interaction between the two groups of buffers was also investigated and the optimum distribution of the two was found.
1006
93973
Design and Manufacture of a Hybrid Gearbox Reducer System
Abstract:
Due to mechanical energy losses and a competitive of minimizing these losses and increases the machine efficiency, the need for contactless gearing system has raised. In this work, one stage of mechanical planetary gear transmission system integrated with one stage of magnetic planetary gear system is designed as a two-stage hybrid gearbox system. The permanent magnets internal energy in the form of the magnetic field is used to create meshing between contactless magnetic rotors in order to provide self-system protection against overloading and decrease the mechanical loss of the transmission system by eliminating the friction losses. Classical methods, such as analytical, tabular method and the theory of elasticity are used to calculate the planetary gear design parameters. The finite element method (ANSYS Maxwell) is used to predict the behaviors of a magnetic gearing system. The concentric magnetic gearing system has been modeled and analyzed by using 2D finite element method (ANSYS Maxwell). In addition to that, design and manufacturing processes of prototype components (a planetary gear, concentric magnetic gear, shafts and the bearings selection) of a gearbox system are investigated. The output force, the output moment, the output power and efficiency of the hybrid gearbox system are experimentally evaluated. The viability of applying a magnetic force to transmit mechanical power through a non-contact gearing system is presented. The experimental test results show that the system is capable to operate continuously within the range of speed from 400 rpm to 3000 rpm with the reduction ratio of 2:1 and maximum efficiency of 91%.
1005
96645
Phase Composition Analysis of Ternary Alloy Materials for Gas Turbine Applications
Abstract:
Gas turbine blades see the most aggressive thermal stress conditions within the engine, due to high Turbine Entry Temperatures in the range of 1500 to 1600°C. The blades rotate at very high rotation rates and remove a significant amount of thermal power from the gas stream. At high temperatures, the major component failure mechanism is a creep. During its service over time under high thermal loads, the blade will deform, lengthen and rupture. High strength and stiffness in the longitudinal direction up to elevated service temperatures are certainly the most needed properties of turbine blades and gas turbine components. The proposed advanced Ti alloy material needs a process that provides a strategic orientation of metallic ordering, uniformity in composition and high metallic strength. The chemical composition of the proposed Ti alloy material (25% Ta/(Al+Ta) ratio), unlike Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb, has less excess Al that could limit the service life of turbine blades. Properties and performance of Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb and Ti-6Al-4V materials will be compared with that of the proposed Ti alloy material to generalize the performance metrics of various gas turbine components. This paper will involve the summary of the effects of additive manufacturing and heat treatment process conditions on the changes in the phase composition, grain structure, lattice structure of the material, tensile strength, creep strain rate, thermal expansion coefficient and fracture toughness at different temperatures. Based on these results, additive manufacturing and heat treatment process conditions will be optimized to fabricate turbine blade with Ti-43Al matrix alloyed with an optimized amount of refractory Ta metal. Improvement in service temperature of the turbine blades and corrosion resistance dependence on the coercivity of the alloy material will be reported. A correlation of phase composition and creep strain rate will also be discussed.